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927.5 B 

Bryan, Michael 

Bryan's dictionary 

of painters and 


REV. ED, VOL. 4 

mill III iiiiiii 

3 3333 11604 5622 



The Newark 
Public Library 

Aator. Lenox and Tilden FoundationB 

The Branch Libraries 
Art Collection 
455 Fifth Avenue 
New York, N.Y, 10016 


Books and non-print media may be 


Reference use only st 

















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BRYAN'S Dictionary 



Painters and Engravers 









All rights reserved 

Art Ccllecti-'.' 


Chief perhaps in importance in this volume are the new biographies of the great 
British painters, Reynolds, Romney, Raeburn, Rossetti, and Russell. The first 
President of the Academy has been undertaken by Mr. Algernon Graves, F.S.A., 
the leading authority of the day. The biography of Romney has been contributed 
by Mr. Roberts, who is now engaged upon a monograph on that artist. Raeburn 
has been fittingly given to the Scots critic, Mr. Caw, who has devoted special 
attention to the portraits of that master. Rossetti has naturally fallen to Mr. 
Marillier, his latest biographer, and Russell to the Editor, as the author of a monograph 
on the great painter in pastel. 

A very striking article on Ruskin has been contributed by Mr. Frederic Harrison, 
who better than almost any other writer of the present day realizes the influence upon 
art exercised by " The Master," while another biography deserving special mention is 
the one on Titian by Mr. Herbert Cook, who has also written the biography of 
Previtali. Rembrandt and Rubens have fallen to Mr. Malcolm Bell, and the Editor 
calls attention to the exhaustive and carefully-classified lists of works, especially by 
Rembrandt, which that writer has provided. 

Amongst the Italian Masters the curious and bewildering school of the Piazzas 
with Piazzetta and the Pitati, once known as the Bonifazio I., II., and III., have 
been under the charge of Miss Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes ; the work of Raphael 
has been treated in the light of recent research by Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Ady), 
and Mr. Selwyn Brinton has made a careful study of Pisano. 

Some of the lesser-known men have been undertaken by Mr. R. H. Hobart Cust, 
and particular attention may be directed to his articles on Neroccio, Pacchiarotti, and 

Entirely new biographies based upon recent monographs also appear in this 
volume upon Tintoretto and Francia, and a very complete one of Guido, whose 
pictures are worthy of more attention than they receive at the present time, while 
with regard to Palma the Editor has been fortunate enough to enlist the services of 
Dr. Gronau, and so to secure the very latest discovered information respecting that 
noble painter. 

The veteran Mr. Weale has, as in other volumes, taken the Flemish painters 
under his care, and the biographies of P. Nachtegaele, Neufchatel, Nieulant, Cost 
(three), Orley (three), A. van Ouwater, A. van Overbeck, J. Prevost, Pourbus (three), 
P. Quast, A. Raguineau, J. Ramey, and Rijckaerts (three) are from his pen, while 


he has also assisted in correcting the various Ravesteya biographies. Dr. Martin of 
the Hague has been mainly responsible for these last-named articles, and also for 
those on Adriaen, Isack van Ostade, Paulus Potter, and Ruisdael. 

The miniature painters have not been overlooked, and the three Robertsons, who 
have never before received their full measure of attention, are the subjects of special 
biographies by Miss Emily Robertson, the daughter of Andrew Robertson. New 
lives have been contributed of Isaac and of Peter Oliver, of Andrew and Nathaniel 
Plimer, of Nixon, Prieur, and many of the lesser-known painters in miniature 
and enamel. 

As in previous volumes, Dr. Laing of Dundee has undertaken various members of 
the Scottish and allied Schools, writing the biographies of R. H. Nibbs, W. H. Overend, 
R. Nightingale, Walter H. Paton, P. W. Nicholson, A. W. Rattray, F. R. Pickersgill, 
W. P. Osborne, J. T. Ross, P. Peel, C. Pearson, and others, while the two artists named 
Arthur Perigal have been the subjects of special articles by Mrs. O'Reilly, the daughter 
of the younger painter. 

Some attention has been directed to gifted amateurs such as Dr. Propert, art 
writers and critics as J. Hungerford Pollen and R. Redgrave, glass painters as Peckitt, 
Oliver, and Price, caricaturists as Rowlandson, medallists as Pistrucci and Pingo, 
flower painters as Marianne North and Maud Naftel, and artists who are specially 
known in connection with architecture and decoration, such as the members of the 
Pugin (three), Papworth (six), and Parry (six) families. Several of these new 
biographies have been written by members of the families concerned, or by experts 
who have devoted particular attention to the artists in question. 

i The Liverpool painters, F. C. Newcombe, J. W. Oakes, B. Ousey, H. C. Pidgeon, 
J. Pelham, J. Pennington, and G. Nicholson have been given into the care of Mr. 
Dibdin, who has been devoted for many years to the study of their paintings. 

Mr. Martin Hardie of the South Kensington Art Library, beside helping very 
much with the minor painters in miniature, has contributed the lives of H. Ninham, 
W. Parrott, John Pettie, D. C. Read, T. M. Richardson, C. J. Richardson, and 
important articles on Puvis de Chavannes and T. Rowlandson. 

Amongst other artists who have been the subject of particular biographies should 
be mentioned Geo. Pinwell by the Editor, F. H. Potter by Mr. J. Baillie, E. T. Parris 
by Mr. W. Roberts, S. W. Reynolds the engraver by Mr. Alfred Whitman of the Print 
Room, British Museum, Pater by Mr. Staley, Room and Roden by Mr. Chamberlain of 
the Birmingham Art Gallery, G. Piranesi by Mr. Oldmeadow.'and also J. T. Nettleship 
and Sir Noel Paton. 

American artists have not been overlooked, and biographies of T. Nast, J. Neagle, 
C. Pearson, W. Page, C. W. Peale, R. Peale, W. L. Picknell, and P. F. Rothermel may 
be taken as illustrative of the attention given to this section of the book. 

Mr. Pinkerton is responsible for very many of the notices of foreign painters, and 
beside the many names that have been mentioned, there appear in the long roll of the 
rank and file the names of Paul J. Naftel, L. von Nagel, J. C. Nattes, C. G. Naumann, 
J. Navlet, V. Navlet, F. H. Nazon, B. Neher, L. Neubert, E. N. Neureuther, L. 


Neustatter, E. J. Newell, R. H. Newell, Lady Newton, T. Nicholson, J. Nixon, 
R. Nixon, George Noble, Samuel Noble, F. Nodder, R. Norbury, B. Nordenberg, 
C. Norris, F. Nower, L. Nulck, G. Nuti, A. Obermullner, John O'Connor, K. W. 
Oesterley, D. Ogborne, F. W. Oliphant, E. F. Otho, Carl Otto, C. A. Pabst, 
A. L. C. Pagnest, F. Palizzi, G. W. Palm, V. Palmaroli, J. E. Pannier, V. de 
Papeleu, E. M. Papermann, Camille Paris, H. P. Parker, A. Pasini, B. Pasini, 
L. Passini, Isidore Patrols, 0. Patzig, A. Pauli, F. Paulsen, W. F. Pauwels, R. Peake, 
Sir R. Peake, J. L. Pearson, Carlo Pellegrini, J. C. L. L. Pellenc, L. G. Pelouse, 
L. F. Penet, O. Penguiily L'Haridon, C. 0. de Penne, C. F. J. Pensee, D. Penther, A. 
Pequegnot, P. E. Peraire, S. R. Percy, A. G. Perez, A. von Perger, A. H. Perin, W. G. 
Peroflf, C. Perrandeau, M. Perret, E. Perrin, E. Perseus, J. Peszka, P. F. Peters, J. B. 
Peyrol, K. G. Pfannschmidt, N. G. Philips, J. G. Philp, H. Picard, E. Pichio, P. A. Pichon, 
N. E. Pickenoy, George Pickering, H. P. Picou, K. von Pidoll, E. U. B. Piglhein, 
H. Pillati, C. H. PiUe, J. Pilliard, F. Piloty, R. Pilsbury, A. Pincon, E. Pinel, 
E. H. T. Pingret, C. Pissarro, F. Pitner, P. Pittori, J. Plank, M. Plaschke, C. Plasencia, 

A. E. Plassan, H. Plathner, F. Plattner, 0. Pletsch, H. Pliichart, F. Podesti, 
H. Pohle, L. Pomey, C. M. Popelin-Ducarre, C. A. Porcher, J. F. Portaels, W. 
Portmann, [G. Postma, A. T. Potemont, L. J. Pott, H. Potuyl, H. Pranischnikoff, 
E. de Pratere, F. Preller, K. L. Preusser, J. W. Preyer, J. C. Plittner, L. Quarante, 
K. G. Quarnstrom, E. Quenedey, J. F. Quesnel, J. Quinaux, G. Raab, M. R. Radiguet, 
S. Radin, E. Raffort, D. Rahoult, P. A. Rajon, J. M. Ranftl, V. J. Rauvier, A. Rapin, 
P. E. le Rat, S. Rayner, J. Rebell, A. M. Rebonet-Alboy, K. Rechlin, R. and S. Redgrave, 

B. Reher, A. Reid, F. ReifF, B. Reinhold, A. Renan, E. Renouf, J. Resch, W. A. Reuter, 
J. H. Reve, A. T. Ribot, E. Richard, J. Richaud, Geo. Richmond, J. Richomme, 
A. Richter, M. W. Ridley, A. Rimmer, E. Riou, A. C. Risler, A. H. Rivey, 
H. P. Riviere, A. Robert, L. Robie, H. Robinson, 0. G. de Rochebrune, K. Rochussen, 
H. Rodakowski, W. Roelofs, C. M. Roerbye, J. Roeting, K. Rohde, N. Rohde, H. H. 
Rolland de la Porte, Karl RoUe, A. Romako, A. G. Romberg, C. Ronot, F. Rops, 
— Rosemale, L. M. Rossetti, F. Rothbart, G. Rouget, M. von Rouvroy, C. Roux, 
L. P. Roux, D. H. Rozier, A. A. Rube, P. E. Rudell, J. Ruinart de Biimont, 
W. H. Rule, P. P. Rumpf, H. F. G. von Rustige. 

In all there are more than three hundred and fifty new biographies in this 
volume, a far larger number than in any of the preceding volumes; while, in 
addition to these, many other biographies have been revised and amplified, and 
upwards of one thousand corrections and emendations have been introduced. 


As confusion frequently arises in the alphabetical arrangement of biographical dic- 
tionaries owing to the arbitrary mode in which it has been customary to deal with such 
names as are preceded by an article or a preposition, or by both, it has been thought 
desirable in this work to adopt the grammatical principle sanctioned by the Belgian 
Academy in regard to the names of Flemish and French (or Walloon) origin, which 
are included in the ' Biographie Nationale.' 

The arrangement therefore is according to the following plan : 

I. Every artist having a surname is placed under that surname, cross-references being 
given from assumed names and sobriquets whenever needed. 

Thus, CoiTeggio is entered under AUegri, Antonio. 

rinturicchio „ Biagio, Bernardino. 

Sehastiano del Pionibo „ Luciani, Sehastiano. 

Tintoretto „ Rohusti, Jacopo. 

(a) When the prefix to a name is an article it remains annexed, because it is an integral 
part of the name ; but when it is a preposition, it is disunited, because it indicates the place 
of origin or birth of the artist, or a territorial or seigneurial name. Thus, the French Le 
and La, and the equivalent Dutch and Flemish De are retained ; while the French de, the 
Italian da and di, the German von, and the Dutch and Flemish van are rejected. 

Thus, Charks Le Brun 

is entered 


Le Brim. 

Jan David De Heem 


De Heem. 

Jean Franrois de Troy 



Ileinrich Maria von Hess 



Isach van Ostade 



(b) When the prefix is an article joined to or preceded by a preposition, as in the French 
du, de la, and des, the Italian del, della, degli, dai, dagli, and dalle, the Spanish del and de 
la, and the Dutch van der, van de, van den, and ver (a contraction for van der), it cannot be 
disunited from the proper name, because the particles together represent the genitive case 
of the article. 

Thus, Alphonse du Fresnoy is entered under Du Fresnoy. 

Laurent de La Hire „ De La Hire. 

NiccoU deW Ablate „ DeW Abbate. 

Girolamo dai Libri „ Dai Libri. 

Willem van de Yelde „ Van de Velde. 


(c) English artists bearing foreign names are placed under the prefix, whether it be an 
article or a preposition. 

Thus, Peter De Wint is entered under De Wint. 

(d) Proper names with the prefix St. are placed as though the word Saint were written 
in full : and similarly, M' and Mc are arranged as 3Iao. 

(e) Foreign compound names are arranged under the first name. 

Thus, Baptiste Auhry-Lecomte is entered under Auhrij-Lecomte. 

Juan Cano de Arevalo „ Cano de Arevalo. 

II. An artist having no surname is placed under the name of the place from which he 
is known, or failing that, under his own Christian name 

Thus, Andrea da Bologna is entered under Bologna. 

Andrea del Sarto „ Andrea. 

Fra Bartolommeo „ Bartolommeo. 

III. Anonymous artists known as the Master of the Crab, the Master of the Die, the 
Master of the Rat-Trap, will be found under the common title of Master. 


W. A. ... ... ... ... Sir Walter Armstrong. 

J. B. ... ... ... ... J. Baillie. 

A. L. B. ... , ... ... ... A. LysBaldry. 

C. B. ... ... ... ... Clara Bell. 

M. B. ... ... ... ... Malcolm Bell. 

L. B. ... ... ... ... Lawrence Binyon. 

S. B. ... ... ... ... Sehvyn Briiitoii. 

J. C. ... ... ... ... Julia Cartwriglit (Mrs. Ady). 

J. L. C. ... ... ... ... J. L. Caw. 

A. B. C. ... ... ... ... Arthur B. Chamberlain. 

H. C. ... ... ... ... Herbert Cook. 

M. C. ... ... ... ... Maud Crutt well. 

L. C. ... ... ... ... Lionel Cust. 

R. H. H. C. ... ... ... ... R. H. Hobart Cust. 

G. S. D. ... ... ... ... Rev. G. S. Davies. 

G. R. D. ... ... ... ... G.R.Dennis. 

E. R. D. ... ... ... ... E. R. Dibdin. 

CD. ... ... ... ... Campbell Dodgsou. 

L. D. ... ... ... ... Langton Douglas. 

O. J. D. ... ... ... ... 0. J. DuUea. 

C. J. Ff. ... ... ... ... Constance J. Ffoulkes. 

R. E. F. ... ... ... ... Roger E. Fry. 

B. E. G. ... ... ... ... Robert Edmund Graves. 

A. G. ... ... ... ... Algernon Graves. 

G. G. ... ... ... ... Georg Gronau. 

M. H. ... ... ... ... Martin Hardie. 

F. H. ... ... ... ... Frederic Harrison. 

M. M. H. ... ... ... ... Mary M. Heaton. 

J. B. S. H. ... ... ... ... J. B. Stoughton Holborn. 

C. H. ... ... ... ... Charles Hoi royd. 

P. K. ... ... ... ... Paul Kristeller. 

J. H. W. L. ... ... ... ... J. H. W. Laing. 

G. S. L. ... ... ... ... G. S. Layard. 

M. L. ... ... ... ... Mary Logan (Mrs. Berenson). 

H. C. M. ... ... ... ... H. C. Marillier. 

W. M. ... ... ... ... W. Martin. 

D. R. M. ... ... ... ... Dora R. Meyrick. 

L. 0. ... ... ... ■.. Lucy Olcott. 

E. J. 0. ... ... ... ... E. J. Oldmeadow. 


A. O'R. 

Agnes O'Reilly. 

F. M. P. 


F. M. Perkins. 



Percy Pinkerton. 

A. H, P. 

A. H. Pollen. 

S. P. P. 

S. Pugin Powell. 

C. R. 

, , 

Corrado Ricci. 

R. R. 


Ralph Richardson. 

J. P. R. 



J. P. Richter. 

W. R. 


, , 

W. Roberts. 

E. R. 

Emily Robertscm. 

W. B. S. 

William Bell Scott. 

F. S. 


Florence Simmonds. 

H. C. S. 

H. Clifford Smith. 

E. S. 

E. Staley. 


Elliot Stock. 

E. C. S. 

E. C. Strutt. 

W. H. J. W. 

W. H. James Weale. 

A. W. 

Albinia Wherry. 

A. W. 

Alfred Whitman. 

F. W. W. 

Frederic W. Whyte. 

G. C. V,\ 

George C. Williamson 



Portrait of an Old Woman (Photogravure Plate) . National Gallery 


Landscape with Cascade National Gallery 


La Ddchesse de Chartres {Photogravure Plate) . . . Stockholm 

Les Trois Graces The Louvre 


The Madonna and Child Siena 

The Madonna and Child with Saints Siena 


Blowing Bubbles National Gallery 


Mr. T. B. Bealb. 1824 .... Collection of Lady Banbury 


Christ and St. John Hampton Court 


Henry, Prince of Wales Windsor Castle 

A Man, name unknown, aged 30. 1614 Collection of the Queen of Holland 


Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex, and his Wife At one Ume at Castle Howard 

Henry, Prince of Wales \ Belvoir Castle 

ISAAC OLIVER { on one 

Sir Philip Sidney ) ^'"^^ Welbeck Abbey 

JAMES VAN COST (miscalled on the illustration Jakob) 

Portrait of a Boy. 1650 National Gallery 


The Woman in Whits Tlie Louvre 


The Dead Christ Brussels 


Dance in a Tavern {From the Etching) 

The Smoker. 1655 Antiverp 


A Forest Scene National Gallery 


Panthere couchbe dans sa cage Stockholm 


The Raising of Lazarus Berlin 



To face p. 






























GIACOMO PACCHIAROTTI (miscalled Jaoopo Pacchiarotto on the illustration) 

The Madonna and Child National Gallery To face p. 54 


The Three Sisters; Dresden „ 68 


The Deposition in the Tomb, -with San Valeriano and San Mebcuriale 

Nationai Gallery „ 60 


Fete ChamfStee South Kensii\gton „ 78 


Dawn. Luther at Erfurt . . . Collection of R. H. Brechin, Esq. „ 78 

The Fairy Raid Collection of John Polsen, Esq. „ 78 


La Jeune Fille au Chat The Louvre „ 98 


Anne of Austria The Louvre „ 104 

Louis XIV., Anne of Austria, and a Brother of the King The Louvre „ 104 


The Rivals Glasgow „ 104 


Lord Chancellor Thurlow National Portrait Gallery „ 110 


William Wordsworth National Portrait Gallery „ 114 


David Garrick National Portrait Gallery „ 120 


Gilbert A Beckett's Troth (or The Saracen Maiden) Collection of Sir 

John Jaffray „ 122 

The Dove-cote (From the Engraving) „ 122 


The Dark Prison {From the Etching) „ 124 

A Grand Staircase with Columns and Fountains (From the Etching) . „ 124 


The Vision of St. Anthony and St. George . . Natiorial Gallery „ 126 

Adoration of the Magi Berlin „ 128 


Rebecca, Lady Northwick"\ .„.2 

Hon. Mrs. Grieve ' '/-, „ \- ' . t 'd- .. j*- ' -c ' " 

Hon. Lady Cockerell f ' Collect^on of J Purpont Morgan, Esq. 

Hon. Anne Rushout J ,,134 


Girls disturbed while bathing Amsterdam „ 136 


Le Concert de Famille Collection of M. Doucet „ 146 


A Startling Introduction , Hampton Court „ 148 


The Young Bull The Hague „ 148 

The Two Plough Horses. 1652 (From the Etching) , , . . . „ 148 


Portrait of J. Van der Gheenste. 1583 . , » . . Brussels „ 150 


F. POURBUS, the younger (miscalled on the plate P. Pourbds the younger) 

Isabella, Aechduchess of Austria Hampton Court 


The Infant Jupiter suckling the Goat 


St. John the Baptist and three other Saints . . . Bergamo 


George Washington i 
Horace Walpole. 1735 } 

Montagu Hoxise 



. Collection of the Earl of Dartry 
Collection of the King of Denmark 

The Louvre 



Probably Nicolas Fuuquet. 
Frederik III. 1663 


Psyche carried off by Zephyrus 


The Dedication of St. Genevieve 


The Empress Josephine Wallace Collection 


Mrs. Campbell of Balliemore {Photogravure Plate) . . . Edinburgh 
Sir Walter Scott Collection of the Earl of Home 


The San Maetino Maggiore Altar-piece in its original Francia Frame 

The Manzuoli Altar-piece Bologna 


Les Grimpeurs (From the Engraving) 

Portrait of Pietbo Abetino (From the Engraving) 


George III National Portrait Gallery 


The Crucifixion 

The Ansidei Madonna .... 
The Madonna della Seggiola \ on one 
The Madonna di Casa D'Alba ) page 


PHfflBus AND Aurora .... 

Collection of Dr. Ludivig Mond 

National Gallery 

Pitti Palace, Florence 

Hermitage Gallery 



John Charles, Viscount Althorp {Photogravure Plate) 

Collection of Earl Spencer 
Lady Cockburn and her children (miscalled on illustration " In the National 

Gallery") Collection of Alfred Beit, Esq. 

The Age of Innocence National Gallery 

Portraits of two Gentlemen National Gallery 


The Countess of Oxford (From the Mezzotint) 


An Old Woman with a key . Munich 


The Artist [by himself) . 


Christ and the Woman of Samaria 

National Portrait Gallery 
Tate Gallery 

To face p. 150 



















Portrait of the Artist. 1640 National Gallery To face p. 236 

The Three Trees (From the Etching) ,,242 


James II National Portrait Gallery „ 244 


Interior of the Church of St. Paul at Antwerp . . Tate Gallery „ 250 


The Artist Collection of Miss E. Robertson „ 252 


St. Michael overcoming Lucifer Dresden „ 256 

The Last Supper Venice „ 258 


The Madonna and Child with Saints and Anqels . . . Berlin „ 266 

The Nativity ........ National Gallery „ 266 


Mrs. Fitzherbert — the Haughty Dame (Photogravure Plate) Collection of J. 

E. Gray Hill, Esq. „ 268 

The Artist National Portrait Gallery „ 268 

Mrs. Mark Currie National Gallery „ 270 

The Parson's Daughter National Gallery „ 270 


Portrait of a Youth Dorchester House „ 272 


Jacob's Dream Devonshire House ,, 276 


The Artist as a Y'odns Man South Kensington „ 280 

D. g. rossetti 

Beata Beatrix {Pliotograimre Plate) Tate Gallery „ 282 

Lady Lilith Collection of WUliam Bossetti, Esq. „ 284 


From the Dance of Death. 1815 .... South Kensington „ 290 


The Descent from the Cross {Photogravure Plate) . . . Antwerp „ 292 

Le Chapeau de Poil National Gallery „ 294 


Landscape with an old Manor House Berlin „ 298 

Landscape with Waterfall National Gallery „ 298 


Miss Faden {Photogravure Plate) .... Collection of Mr. Webb „ 304 

The Youno Artists .... Collection of Mr. Frank H. Webb „ 306 




NABHOLZ, JoHANN Cheistoph, a painter and 
engraver, born at Regensburg in 1752, died in 
1796. He painted principally portraits, among 
them those of the Czarina Catherine II. ; and of 
many of her nobility. Some of his portraits and 
other subjects he engraved himself. 

NACHENIUS, Jan van, a native of the Hague, 
who painted about 1812. He was a pupil of 
Mathieu Terwesten. He lived first at Amsterdam, 
afterwards in the Dutch Indies, where he died. 

NACHTEGAELE, Peter, 1450-70, held office 
in the Guild of St. Luke at Bruges in 1457-58, 
and 1461-6.3. 

NACHTMANN,FkanzXavier, painter and htho- 
grapher, was born at Bodenmais, in Lower Bavaria, 
in 1799. He studied in the Academy at Munich, 
and was employed in 1823 as flower and fruit 
painter at the Royal China Manufactory of that 
city. In 1827 he quitted this employment to 
devote himself to portraiture in water-colour and 
miniature, and the study of architectural per- 
spective. His portraits of tlie royal family are finely 
executed, while among his perspective views may 
be mentioned, the ' Interior of the Court Church at 
Munich.' He signed his works X.J/'. Nachtmann 
died in 1846. 

NADAT. See Dati, Natale. 

NADORP, Franz, a painter, etcher, and litho- 
grapher, also a sculptor and modeller, was born at 
Anholt, Rhenish-Prussia, in 1794. He began to 
learn painting under Bergler at Prague in 1814. 
Afterwards he spent some time at Dresden, Vienna, 
and Rome, where he died in 1876. Kadorp painted 
landscapes of large dimensions, as well as portraits 
and other subjects. Among them : 

The Villa Eaphael. 

The Villa d'Este. 

The Forum of rompeii. 

The Murder of King Edward's Children. 


Francesca da Rimini. 

He also etched thirteen plates, among which is 
'The Barberini Triton.' 


NAECKB, Gustav Heinrich, was born at 
Frauenstein in Saxony in 1786, and was instructed 
by Grasse, whom, however, he followed only in 
his colouring. After having lived at Rome for 
some years, he, in 1825, became a professor at the 
School of Art at Dresden, where he died in 1835. 
Among his paintings are : 

St. Genovefa. 1816. {The Grand Duke of Coburg.) 
St. Elizabeth. 1826. (Naumburg Cathedral.) 
Christ and His Disciples. 1830. 

NAEUWINCX, (or Naiwinck,) Hendrik. The 
birthplace of this Dutch painter and etcher is 
uncertain ; but it was either Utrecht, or more 
probably Sclioonhoven, and the date of his birth 
about 1619-20, as he was contemporary with Jan 
Asselyn, who was born in 1610, died in 1660, and 
(lainted figures and animals in landscapes by 
Naeuwincx ; so that the pictures by him may have 
been confounded with those of Asselyn. Immer- 
zeel quotes very high prices as having been paid 
for pictures by Naeuwincx, which consist of land- 
scapes, towns, villages, &c. One in the style of 
Waterloo, in which sportsmen are introduced, is 
dated 1651. He is, however, more generally 
known by his drawings and etchings, in which 
the point is used with great delicacy. Tliey are 
rare, and were published in two sets of eight each ; 
of which Nagler gives a full description. The 
date of the death of Naeuwincx has not been 

NAFTEL,MAnD,a clever flower painter, daughter 
of Paul J. Naftel by his second wife. She was 
born in 1856, studied in the Slade School, and 
in Paris under Carolus Duran. She became as- 
sociated with the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours in 1887, but never attained to full member- 
ship. She died in London in 1890 after a very 
short illness. A book on 'Flowers and how to 
Paint them' was written by her and became a 
standard work on the subject. 

NAFTEL, Paul Jacob, a clever water-colour 
artist, a native of the Cliannel Islands, born at 


Guernsey in 1817. Neither his father nor mother 
exhibited any talent in art, but from his earliest 
youth Naftel was fond of drawing and dehghted 
in the use of brushes and colours. He began life 
in a commercial pursuit, but soon abandoned it in 
favour of art, earning his living by giving lessons 
in drawing and painting at various schools. After 
a few years of rigid economy and very laborious 
work he obtained the position of drawing-master 
at the chief college of his native island. In 1870 
he left Guernsey and came to London, and there 
obtained considerable work in the teaching profes- 
sion, becoming master in drawing and painting at 
many fashionable schools. This work he continued 
down to the time of his death, but gradually taught 
less and less as the demand for his own exquisite 
water-colours increased. He had joined the Old 
Water-Colour Society in 1856 while he was in 
Guernsey, first as an associate and then three years 
after as a member, and he exhibited from that 
time down to his death in the Galleries of that 
Society. Part of his life he lived at Chelsea, but 
he died near Feltliam on September 13, 1891. He 
did a little book illustration, preparing the designs 
for two small volumes on the Cliannel Islands. 
His landscapes were of exquisite quality and very 
dainty refinement, most of them representing 
scenes in Italy, the Tyrol, Scotland, and England, 
whilst many of his works depicting the sea were 
from scenes in his own much-loved island home. 

NAGEL, Jan, an unimportant Dutch painter of 
the 17th century. He was born at Haarlem. He 
imitated Cornelius Molenaer, and died at the Hague 
in 1602 (?). 

NAGEL, LuDWiQ von, German painter; born 
March 29, 1836, at Weilheim (Upper Bavaria) ; 
was a pupil of W. Diez. He was fond of equestrian 
subjects, and indeed is best known for his spirited 
drawings of horses and of episodes in military 
manoeuvres. He went through the Franco-German 
War of 1870. He became popular by his con- 
tributions to ' Fliegende Bliitter,' and ' Miinchener 
JBliitter.' He died in September 1899. 

NAGEL, Peter, a Flemish engraver, who 
flourished at Antwerp about 1569-84. He is said 
to have been a pupil of Philip Galle, and he 
engraved many subjects after Flemish masters. 
Among other prints he has left, ' The Seven Works 
of Mercy ' ; after M. Heemskerk. 

NAGLI, Francesco, called II Centino, an Italian 
painter of the 17th century. He was bom at Cento, 
and was a pupil of Guercino. Most of his active 
life was passed at Rimini, where, in the Church of 
Santa Maria degli Angeli, his best work is to be 

NAGTEGEL, Arnold, engraver. He worked in 
1690, probably at Amsterdam. His name is affixed 
to prints in mezzotint, after portraits of Ishaoh 
Aboab Rabin and of the English surgeon, Thomas 

NAHL, JoHANN Adgust, one of a family of 
artists, mostly sculptors, established at Ausbach. 
He was born in 1752 at Channe, near Bern, on a 
property belonging to his father, who gave him 
his first instruction in art. As his taste inclined 
rather towards painting than to sculpture, he 
became a scholar of Tischbein at Cassel, then of 
Tannesch at Strasburg, of the landscape painter 
Bemmel, and of Handmann at Bern. At the age 
of twenty Nahl went to Paris, and studied Le 
Sueur so ardently as to assimilate his style. In 
1774 Nahl proceeded to Rome, where he passed 

seven years in drawing from antiques, and copying 
the works of Raphael and Guido. He there painted 
his fine picture ' An Offering to Venus,' one of his 
richest and most highly-finished works. The 
illness of his father induced him, in 1781, to re- 
turn to Cassel, where, shortly afterwards, his father 
died. Nahl did not remain long in that place, but 
went to England. There he remained fifteen 
months, and after visiting Holland, returned to his 
native place. In 1786 and 1787 he was again in 
Rome and Naples ; and in 1792 returned to Cassel. 
There he became a professor in the Academy, and 
in 1815 ' Professor of Painting.' He died at 
Cassel in 1825. Twice Nahl gained prizes given 
by Goethe for pictorial composition. In 1799- 
1800 by his ' Parting of Hector and Andromache,' 
and, in 1801, by his 'Hercules at the Court of 
Lycomedes.' Nahl's works include history, por- 
traits, and landscapes. He also etched several 
mythological subjects. 

NAIGEON, Jean, a French historical and por- 
trait painter, and relative of the French philosopher, 
Jacques Andr6 Naigeon, who himself began life 
as an artist. Jean Naigeon was a scholar of 
Devosge, at the Dijon Academy, and of David. 
His principal pictures are, ' The infant Pyrrhus 
presented at the Court of Glaukias ; ' ' jEneas going 
to Battle;' 'Numa Pompilius consulting the Nymph 
Egeria ; ' two bas-reliefs in the gallery of the 
Luxembourg, being allegories {en grisaille) of the 
glory of Rubens and Le Sueur ; the design for the 
Vignette engraved by Roger for the official docu- 
ments of the Government of the French Republic. 
He also painted theatrical decorations, and por- 
traits of distinguished persons of the time, among 
them Monge and Laplace. He was instrumental 
in saving many works of art from destruction in 
1793, and was conservator of the Museum of the 
Luxembourg, and a member of the Legion of 
Honour. He was born at Beaune (Cote d'Or) in 
1757, and died in 1832. 

NAIGEON, Jean Gdillaume Elzidor, a French 
historical and portrait painter, born in Paris in 
1797. He studied under his father, Jean Naigeon, 
and also under David and Gros. He entered the 
'^cole des Beaux Arts' in 1815, and having gained 
the second grand-prize in 1827, went to Italy. In 
1832 he succeeded his father as curator of the 
Luxembourg Gallery. He died in Paris in 1867. 
Amongst his works are : 

The Magdalen in the Desert. 1836. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1845. 

Gleaners near Naples. 

The Vintage at Amalfi. 

Several Portraits. ( Versailles Gallery. ) 

NAIN. See Le Nain. 

NAISH, William, an English miniature painter 
of the 18th century. He was a native of Axbridge, 
Somersetshire, and practised in London. He ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1783 to 1800, 
in whicli year he died. His brother, John Naish, 
was also an artist. 

NAIVEU. See Neveu. 

NAKE, GnsTAV Heineich, a German painter of 
history and portraits, who flourished between 1784 
and 1834. Works : 

Faust and Marguerite. 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary distributing Alms. 

NALDINI, Battista di Matted, called Bat- 
TiSTA Degli Innocenti, was born at Florence in 
1537, and spent the greater part of his youth with 
the superintendent of the Foundling Hospital, 


He was first a scholar of Jacopo Carrucci, 
but afterwards studied under Angelo Bronzino. 
According to Baglione he visited Rome in the 
pontificate of Gregory XIII., where he painted 
Beveral altar-pieces for the churches, and on his 
return to Florence he was engaged by Giorgio 
Vasari as his coadjutor in the works in which he 
was employed in the Palazzo Vecchio, where he 
was occupied fourteen years. His pictures of the 
Purification and Entombment in Santa Maria 
Novella, at Florence, are extolled by Borghini. 
Other works of his are the ' Pieta ' over the tomb 
of Michelangelo, and Adorations ' of the Shep- 
herds,' and ' of the Magi' in the Dresden Gallery. 
He was living in 1590. Zani supposes that he 
died about 1600. 

NAMEUR, Louis de, a French historical painter, 
was born in 1629, and received into the Academy 
in 1665. None of his works can now be identitied. 

NANGIS, Genevieve. See under Reqnadlt, 
Nic. Fr. 

NANI, Jacopo, (or Giacomc,) an unimportant 
Italian painter, of the 18th century. He was em- 
ployed at the Neapolitan Court, where he painted 
landscapes, flowers, and fruit. Lanzi says he was 
a scholar of Belvidere. 

NANINI (Matteo). An obscure pupil of Carlo 

NANNI, Giovanni, (or Nani,) called Giovanni 
DA Udine, Giov. de Nanis, and De Recamatori, of 
the Embriverero, was born at Udine on the 15th 
October, 1487, and having discovered an early 
disposition for art, by making drawings from the 
animals and birds killed in the chase by his father, 
Francesco Recamatore, he was sent to ^ Venice, 
where he was placed under the tuition of Giorgione. 
The fame of Raphael had reached Venice, and 
inspired Nanni with an ardent desire to visit 
Home. His protector, the patriarch Grimani, de- 
sirous of promoting his wishes, furnished him with 
letters of recommendation to Baldassare Castig- 
lione, by whom he was introduced to Raphael, 
who admitted him into his school. He was there 
employed in painting the ornamental accessories. 
While he was in Raphael's studio the discovery 
was made of the remains of antiquity in the baths 
of Titus. Nanni was selected by Raphael to make 
designs from the beautiful grotesques on stucco, 
found in the diflerent apartments. He not only 
succeeded in his commission to the entire satisfac- 
tion of his master, but discovered a process of 
compounding a stucco, which had the same appear- 
ance, and probably the same durability, as that 
used by the Romans. He was now employed by 
Raphael to execute the greatest part of the gro- 
tesques in the Loggie and Stanze of the Vatican, a 
commission he discharged so well as to link his 
name indissolubly with that of his master. The 
grotesques in the lower Loggia were entirely from 
the brush of Giovanni, but in 1867 they were much 
painted over by Maiitovani. After the death of 
Raphael he was employed by Clement VII., in con- 
junction with Pierino del Vaga, to ornament that 
part of the Vatican called La Torre di Borgia, 
where they represented the Seven Planets ;^ the 
emblematical figures were designed by del Vaga, 
but the grotesques and symbolical decorations 
were executed by Nanni. The festoons of the 
' History of Psyche,' in the Farnesina Palace, were 
also by him, and he decorated the vestibule of 
the Villa Madama, now in ruins, and prepared 
the designs for the windows of the Laurentian 
B 2 

Library. In 1527 he was compelled, by ttie sack- 
ing of Rome, to fly from that city, and he took 
refuge at Ddine, %vhere he was for some time em- 
ployed. He was afterwards engaged at Florence, 
by the family of the Medici, in several considerable 
works. He returned to Rome in the pontificate of 
Pius IV., and there he died in 1564. He was buried in 
the Pantheon, near the tomb of his master Raphael. 

NANNI, GiROLAMO, was a native of Rome, and 
flourished about the year 1642, during the pontifi- 
cate of Sixtus v., by whom he was employed in 
several considerable works. He was generally 
known by the name of " poco e buono," from the 
following circumstance. Being of a very studious 
disposition, and rather slow in his operations, he 
was reproached for his tardiness by Giovanni da 
Modena, a contemporary artist, when he replied, 
" Faccio poco e buono ; '' and he bore that name 
ever afterwards. His works are to be seen in 
several of the public buildings of Rome. In the 
church of the Madonna dell' Anima there is an 
' Annunciation ; ' and in San Bartolomeo dell' Isola, 
two subjects from the life of St. Bonaventura. 

NANNUCCIO, or Nannoccio, was a Florentine 
painter, and a pupil of Andrea del Sarto ; he 
flourished about 1540. He went to France with 
the Cardinal Toumon, and spent a large part of 
his life there. 

NANTEUIL, Celestin LEBCEnF, a French his- 
torical and genre painter and lithographer, born at 
Rome in 1813. He was brought to France when 
only two years old, and studied under J. M. Lang- 
lois and Ingres. In 1829 he entered the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, but was expelled for heading a stu- 
dent's disturbance. Much of his time was occupied 
in illustrating books by Victor Hugo, Dumas, and 
others, for which he made an immense number of 
drawings. He obtained medals in 1837 and 1848. 
In his later years he held the post of Director of 
the Dijon Academy. He died in 1873. Amongst 
his pictures are : 

A Ray of Sunshine. 1848. ( Valenciennes 3fuscum.) 

The Temptation. 1851. (_Savre Museum.) 

Souvenirs of the Past. 

Scene from Don Quixote. (Lille Museum.) 

Hunting-dogs reposing. {Luxembourg^ Paris.) 

The Fawn. {The same.) 

His chief lithographs are : 

The ' Bebedores ' ; after Velazquez. 

The Studio of Velazquez ; after the same. 

The Toper ; after Tenters. 



NANTEUIL, Robert. This celebrated French 
engraver and draughtsman in crayons, was bom at 
Rheims about 1623, according to the ' Merc u re 
Galant' of December 1678, or in 1630 as stated by 
other authorities. There is an engraving by him 
dated 1645, and it was not the first he did. He 
was the son of a merchant, who gave him a classi- 
cal education, but a decided inclination for the art 
of design induced him to adopt it as a profession. 
He was instructed in engraving by his brother-in- 
law, Nicolas Regnesson, whose sister he married in 
164'7, and then went to Paris, where he received 
further instruction from Abraham Boke and Phil- 
lippe de Champagne. He acquired considerable 
reputation as a maker of portraits in crayons, and 
his talent in that branch recommended him to the 
protection of Louis XIV., whose portrait he painted, 
and after this was appointed designer and engraver 
to the Royal cabinet, with a pension. In 1648 he 



applied himselt more to engraviog in the style of 
C. Mellan and others, but in 1660 he adopted one 
infinitely superior, which in clearness and beauty 
of effect has never been surpassed. The portraits 
by him will ever hold a rank among the most ad- 
mired productions of the art. Nanteuil died in 
Paris in December 1678, and it appears extra- 
ordinary that in so short a life, if he was born in 
1630, he could accomplish so many plates in so 
finished a style. Mariette possessed two hundred 
and eighty prints by this artist. The following 
are among his most esteemed portraits : 

Anne of Austria, Queen of France ; after Mignard. 
Several Portraits of Louis XIV". ; from his own designs, 

and after Mignard, and others. 
l/ouis, Dauphin ; son of Louis SIV. 1677. 
Louis Bourbon, Prince de Cond6 ; after his own desian 

1662. * 

Henri Jules de Bourbon, Duke d'Enghein : after Mia- 
nard. 1661. •= J n 

Christina, Queen of Sweden ; after S. £ourdon. 1654. 
Louisa Maria, Queen of Poland ; after Juste. 1653. 
Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy. 1C68. 
Charles, Duke of Lorraine. 1660. 

Johann Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick Luneburg. 1674 
Charles II., Duke of Mantua. 1652. 
Antonio Barberini, Cardinal, and Archbishop of Ptheims. 

Emanuel Theodore, Duke of Bouillon, Cardinal. 1670. 
Leon le BoutheUier, Minister of State ; after Cham- 

paigne. 1652. 
Jules Mazarin, Cardinal. 1655. 
Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu ; after 

Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount Turenne. 1665. 

Pompone de Bellievre. 

Two Plates ; one after P. de Champaigne ; dated 1653. 
The other, an oval, after 0. le Brun. The latter is 
one of Nanteuil's best engravings. 

Robert Nanteuil was also a poet, and the verges 
he addressed to Louis XIV., begging for more 
time to finish his portrait, are graceful. 

NANTO. See Denanto. 

NAPOLETANO, II. See Angeli, Fil. 

NAPOLI, Rosa da. See Roos, Jac. 

NAPOLITANO, Simone. See Bologna. 

NAPPI, Francesco, was born at Milan about 
1573, and after studying for some time both there 
and at Venice, visited Rome during the pontificate 
of Urban VIII. He was employed for some of the 
public edifices at Rome ; but his works do not rank 
above mediocrity. His best productions are, his 
pictures of the ' Resurrection ' and the ' Assump- 
tion of the Virgin,' in the cloister of Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva ; and the ' Annunciation ' in the 
Monasterio dell' Umihtk. He died in 1638. 

NARCISO, Josfe Antonio, a Spanish painter of 
the 18th century, no details of whose life are known. 

NARCISSUS. See Peesijn. 

NARDI, Angelo, was bom at Florence about 
1601, and after studying the works of Paolo 
Veronese, visited Spain in the reign of Philip IV., 
■whose court-painter he became in 1625, and whom 
he assisted with advice in the purchase of Italian 
paintings. He was a favourite of the Archbishop 
of Toledo, and executed for him seven altar-pieces 
for the Bernardin Nuns at Alcala de Heneares, 
eleven for those at Jaen, and eight in the Atocha 
Church at Madrid. Nardi died at Madrid in 1660. 

NARDINI, ToMASo, an Italian painter, was born 
at Ascoli about 1658. He painted figures in the 
perspectives of Collaceroni. He died in 1718. 

NARDOIS, J. Galioth, a French painter of the 
17th century. He is quoted in Nagler's ' Mono- 

gramisten,' where he is said to have painted in the 
style of Claude, and to have engraved some jJates. 

NARDUCCI, (or Narduck,) Giovanni, after- 
wards ' Fray .Juan de la Miseria,'an Italian painter, 
was born in Molica about 1526. He acquired some 
knowledge of painting in the Schools of Naples, 
whence, being of a pious disposition, he made 
pilgrimages to all parts of Italy, and at last left 
ids native country for the shrine of Santiago at 
Compostella. Proceeding afterwards to Madrid, 
he entered the school of Sanchez Coello, where his 
piety recommended him to the devout sister of 
Philip II. In 1560 he entered one of the reformed 
Carmelite convents at Pastrana. There he painted 
an ' Ecce Homo,' and two portraits of Santa Teresa 
de Jesus. It is doubtful whether any of his works 
still exist. He painted also portraits of St. Luis 
Beltran and of Fray Nicolas Factor, the artist, of 
Valencia. He closed a long life of devotion at 
Madrid in 1616. 

NASELLl, Francesco, was born at Ferrara, and 
flourished about the year 1610. When young, he 
studied the works of the Carracci and Guercino. 
which he copied with surprising success, but after- 
wards devoted himself to the manner of his coun- 
tryman Giuseppe Mazzola. He was employed for 
several of the churches in Ferrara. In the cathe- 
dral there is an altar-piece by him, representing 
the ' Nativity ; ' in the church of Santa Maria de 
Servi, a large picture of the 'Last Supper;' ana 
in the church of Santa Francesca, the 'Assumption 
of the Virgin.' Naselli died at Ferrara about 1630. 
NASH, Edward, an English miniature painter, 
born in 1778. He exhibited at the Academy from 
1811 to 1820. In his later years he practised in 
India, sending his works home to be exhibited. 
He died in England in 1821. 

NASH, Frederick, an English water-colour 
painter and draughtsman, born in 1782 at Lambeth. 
His instruction in art was due to Malton. His 
works first appeared at the Academy in 1800, and 
he occasionally exhibited there till 1847. In 1808 
he was elected a member of the Water-Colour 
Society, where he exhibited with some intermis- 
sions till 1856. To show his facility and industry, 
it may be stated that his contributions to the latter 
Society amounted to nearly five hundred works. 
He was also draftsman to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and made several tours in France, Switzer- 
land, Germany, &o. In 1834 he retired to Brighton, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, and died 
there in 1856. There are water-colour drawings 
by him of ' Tintern Abbey,' and the 'Versailles 
Fountains,' at the Kensington Museum. Amongst 
the works which he illustrated are : 

' Views of St. George's Chapel, 'Windsor.' 1805. 

' Twelve Views of the Antiquities of London.' 1810. 

Ackerman's ' History of "Westminster Abbey.' 

' History of the University of Oxford.' 1814. 

' Picturesque views of the City of Paris and its Environs. 

NASH, Joseph, an English water-colour painter 
and draughtsman, born in 1808. He became a 
member of the old Water-Colour Society, where 
he first exhibited in 1835. His forte was the de- 
piction of mediaeval buildings and scenes. He 
published ' Architecture of the Middle Ages ' 
(1838) ; ' Mansions of England in the Olden Time ' 
(1839-49) ; and ' Views of Windsor Castle ' (1848) 
He also contributed illustrations to Lawson's 
' Scotia delineata' (1847) ; E. MacDermott's ' Merrie 
Days of England' (1859); and 'Old English 





Ballads' (1864); and he drew on stone Sir D. 
Wilkie's ' Oriental Sketches. ' At the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1855 he exhibited six water-colour draw- 
ings, and was awarded an " honourable mention." 
He died at Bayswater in 1878. 

NASINI, Antonio, a brother of Guiseppe Nic- 
colo, by whom he was trained in art. He after- 
wards became a monk, and worked for tlie churches 
of Siena. He died in 1716. 

NASINI, CavaHere Giuseppe Niccol6, was born 
at Siena, probably in 1664. His father, Fran- 
cesco Nasini, an artist little known, instructed him 
in the first rudiments of art ; but he afterwards 
went to Rome, and became one of the ablest dis- 
ciples of Giro Ferri. By the recommendation of 
this master he was employed by the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany, to paint, from the designs of Pietro 
da Cortona, the ' Four Ages of Man,' in emblem- 
atical subjects, in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence. On 
his return to Rome he was commissioned to paint 
the ceiling of the Capella Bracciana, in the church 
de SS. Apostoli ; and his picture of the ' Prophet 
Amos,' in the Basilico of St. John of Lateran. He 
died at Siena in 1736. Among his pictures are: 

FoUgno. Madonna del | g Le^^^^a^. 

Ftanto, j 
Eome. (^P'WS- An- ) ^j^^ g^p^j^_ 

Siena. Conventuale. Death, Judgment, Heaven, and 


He etched a print of the Virgin and the Infants 
Jesus and St. John in a landscape, with Cherubs 
flying in the air, in the taste of Giro Ferri, and also 
engraved in the manner of P. S. Bartoli. 

NASINI, Francesco, an obscure painter of Siena, 
who in the 17th century painted in fresco in the 
refectory of the Monasterio del Carmine of that 

NASMYTH, Alexander, a Scotch landscape 
painter, was born at Edinburgh in 1758. He went 
early to London, and was a pupil of Allan Ramsay. 
Afterwards he went to Rome, where he remained 
several years, and studied historical painting, 
landscape, and portraiture. On his return to Edin- 
burgh, he commenced practice as a portrait painter, 
and had Robert Burns as one of his sitters. His 
portrait of the poet is now in the National Gallery 
of Scotland ; a replica is in the National Portrait 
Gallery, London. He was a member of the 
original Society of Scottish Artists, and an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Institution. His inclination, 
however, being towards landscape painting, he 
ultimately confined himself to that branch ; but 
much of his time was occupied in teaching, in 
which he was very successful. He exhibited 
landscapes occasionally at the Royal Academy in 
London, from 1813 to 1826. In 1822 he published 
sixteen views of places described in the 'Waverley 
Novels.' He died at Edinburgh, April 10, 1840. 

NASMYTH, Peter, commonly called by liimself 
and others, Patrick, was the son of Alexander 
Nasmyth, and was born at Edinburgh in 1787. He 
showed an early and decided predilection for land- 
scape painttiiig ; and his zeal in pursuit of his 
favourite art left him little opportunity of acquiring 
any other instruction. Early in life he injured his 
right hand, and learned to paint with his left, and 
owing to an illness he became deaf. At the age of 
twenty he went to London, and his productions 
became very popular, obtaining for him the desig- 
nation of ' the English Hobbema,' which was about 
as well justified as such soubriquets usually are. 

He improved on the style of his father, and his 
pictures have less of the spotted chalky character 
which, from its having been followed by several 
other members of this clever family, is considered 
as a chief feature of "the Nasmyth school." In 
1809 he first exhibited at the Royal Academy, and 
in 1824 he became one of the original members of 
the Society of British Artists. He often painted 
Scottish scenes, but the character of his landscapes 
is entirely English. His style was not sufficiently 
massive to represent properly the wild mountain- 
ous character and striking atmospheric peculiar- 
ities of Scotland. Light clouds, sunshine, smooth 
water, or small pattering brooks, meadows, gently 
rising grounds, and green trees, are the objects 
which his pencil was best qualified to represent. 
Nasmyth died at Lambeth, on the 17th of August, 
1831, during a thunder-storm, which, at his own 
desire, he was raised in his bed to behold. His 
pictures are signed Pat^. Nasmyth. Among 
Nasmyth's better works we may name: 

London. Nat. Gall. Cottage in Hyde Park. 

„ „ The Angler's Nook, 

„ „ Landscape with a furzy 


„ „ A Cascade. 

„ „ A Country Road. 

„ „ Landscape with Eiver. 

„ „ Lake Scene. 

„ South Kensington. Sir Phih'p Sydney's Oak, Pens- 

,« ,, Cottage by a Brook. 

,, „ Rick-yard. 

View of St. Albans. 
Distant View of Edinburgh. 
View of Windsor Castle. 
A Hampshire Landscape. 

NASOCCHIO, Giuseppe, a native of Bassano, 
who painted in the style of the quattrocentisti, 
but, according to Lanzi, left a picture dated 1529. 
Two more artists of this name, Francesco and 
Baetolommeo NAsoccnio, were active in Bassano 
in the 16th century. 

NASON, Pieter, painter, was bom early in the 
17th century at Amsterdam, or The Hague. He 
was a member of the Guild of Painters of the 
latter place, and in 1656 was one of the forty- 
seven members who established the 'Pictura' 
Society. From a MS. by Pieter Terwesten, it 
appears not improbable that Nason was a ]iupil of 
Jan van Ravensteyn ; and it is believed that his 
name has been effaced from pictures since at- 
tributed to Mierevelt, Moreelse, and above all to 
Ravensteyn. It is certain that he painted the 
portrait of Prince Mauritz, Governor of the 
Brazils, engraved by Houbraken, and those of 
Charles the Second of England, engraved by C. 
Van Dalen and Sandrart, and of the Grand 
Elector. At Berlin there is a full-length portrait, 
dated 1667, of the latter, by Nason ; also a fine 
picture of still life, representing gold, silver, 
and glass vessels, ifec. ; likewise a portrait by him 
signed and dated 1670. There are others at 
Copenhagen and at Rotterdam. The date of his 
death is not known, but his life was long. Redgrave 
gives the initial of his Christian name wrongly as R. 

NAST, Thomas, American caricaturist and 
black-and-white artist, was born at Landau in 
Bavaria on Sept. 27, 1840. He went to America 
with his parents at the age of six, and after very 
little instruction began his artistic career by 
supplying illustrations and caricatures to ' Frank 
Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper,' 'Harper's Weekly,' 


and other periodicals. In 1860 he was sent to 
England by the ' New York Illustrated News 'to 
illustrate the prize-fight between Heenan and 
Sayers. He then joined General Medici as artist- 
correspondent in the campaign conducted by 
Garibaldi in 1860, furnishing sketches for various 
English, French, and American papers. On hia 
return to America he gained a high reputation as 
an artist durinar the Civil War, and became a 
cartoonist to ' Harper's Weekly.' As a political 
cartoonist he had wide influence, his work having an 
ingenious distortion and a subtlety that made him 
adreaded opponent. His most trenchant campaign 
was his attack on Tammany Hall in New York. 
He illustrated a number of books, made designs 
for panoramas, and travelled on several lecturing 
tours. He also executed a number of oil-paintings, 
one of which, representing the departure of tlie 
7th Regiment of New York for the war in 1861, 
is in the armoury of the regiment, of which at the 
time of his deatli Nast was a veteran member. 
In 1871 he supplied thirty-three illustrations to 
'The Fight at Dame Europa's School,' published 
in London in 1871 ; and in 1873 illustrated a New 
York edition of the ' Pickwick Papers.' For some 
years before his death he was American Consul 
at Guayaquil in Ecuador. He died in January 
1903. M, H. 

NATALE. See Schiavoni. 

NATALI, Carlo, called II Guardolino, was 
born at Cremona about the year 1590. He was 
first a disciple of Andrea Mainardi, but afterwards 
studied at Bologna, under Guide Reni. There are 
several of his works at Genoa and Cremona, where 
he also distinguished himself as an architect. One 
of his best works, as a painter, is a picture of 
'St. Francesca Romagna,' in the church of San 
Gismondo at Cremona. He lived to above the 
age of ninety-three, for he was still alive in 1683. 

NATALI, Giovanni Battista, the son of Carlo 
Natali, was born at Cremona about the year 1630, 
and distinguished himself as a painter and en- 
graver. After receiving some instruction from 
his father, he went to Rome, where he entered the 
school of Pietro da Cortona. On his return to 
Cremona, he painted several pictures for the 
churches, and established an academy in which he 
cultivated the principles of Cortona, though with- 
out many followers. In the church of the P. P. 
Predicatori, is a large picture by him, embellished 
with architecture, representing ' St. Patriarca burn- 
ing the Books of the Heretics.' He died about 
the year 1700. 

NATALI, GinsEPPE, was the head of a family 
established at Casal Maggiore, in the Cremonese, 
many members of which were employed in archi- 
tectural and decorative painting. Giuseppe was 
born in 1652, and died in 1722. His brothers 
Francesco, Pietro, and Lorenzo worked with him. 
His son Giambattista died young, and Francesco's 
son of the same name, after being appointed court 
painter to the King of Naples, died before the 
middle of the 18th century. Giovanni Battista 
Zaist, who wrote the memoirs of the painters of 
Cremona, was a pupil of Giuseppe Natali. 

NATALINO da MURANO. See Murano. 

NATALIS, MiCHiEL, was bom at Liege in 1606 
or 1609, and first instructed in engraving by his 
father, who was medallist to the Bishop, and by 
Carl de Mallery. He afterwards went to Paris and 
Rome, where he was introduced by Sandrart to 
Prince Giustiniani, for whom, in conjunction with 

Theodor Metham, Regnier Persyn, and others, he 
engraved the antique statues in his gallery. In 
1653 he was court-engraver to the Elector Maxi- 
milian Heinrich at Cologne, and engraved in 1658 
the portrait of the Emperor Leopold. He was 
still alive in 1670. He engraved a few portraits, 
which are among the best of his prints. 'VVe have, 
among others, the follo^ving by him : 


Josephus Justinianus Benedicti Filius; Mich. Natalis 

Jacob Catz, Pensionary of Holland, and Poet ; after du 

Eugene d'Alamond, Bishop of Ghent. 

Ma.\imilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria ; after J. San- 

Fri'-drich, Count of Merode. 

Ernestine, Princess de Ligne ; after Van Byck. 

The Marquis del Guasto, with his Mistress represented 
as Venus ; after Titian. 


The Holy Family ; after Saphael. 

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Joseph seated 
behind ; afterAndrea del Sarto. 

The Holy Family; after JV. Poussin. The first im- 
pressions are before the child was draped. 

The Holy Family, with angels presenting flowers ; 
after 6'. Bourdon. 

The Virgin holding the Infant Christ, who is sleeping, 
with St. John by her side ; after the same. The first 
impressions are before the bosom of the Virgin was 

The Assembly of the Carthusians ; in four sheets ; 
after Bertholet Fiemad. 

Mary washing the Feet of Christ ; after Rubens. 

The Last Supper ; after Diepenleeck. 

NATHE, Christoph, a landscape painter and 
etcher, born at Niederberlau in Upper Lusatia in 
1753. He studied under Oeser at Leipsic, and 
travelled in Silesia and Switzerland. Of his 
etchings may be mentioned a collection of forty- 
eight landscapes, heads, and portraits. He painted 
in oils and water-colours, and made drawings in 
sepia. Nathe died at Schadewalde, near Marklissa, 
in 1808. 

NATKER, (or Notker,) a monk of St. Gall, who 
painted miniatures in the 10th century. 

NATOIHE, Charles Joseph, painter and en- 
graver, was born at Nimes in 1700, He was 
instructed by Louis Galloche and Lemoine. Having 
obtained, in 1721, the first prize for painting, by 
his picture of ' The mother of Samson offering 
a sacrifice to God,' which is the oldest of the 
competition pictures preserved in the Acad^mie 
des Beaux Arts, he then went to Rome, where the 
Academy of Saint Luke, having proposed the 
subject of ' Moses delivering the Law to the 
Israelites,' he gained the first prize. In 1751 he 
became Director of the French Academy at Rome, 
and, after he had painted the dome of the church 
of Saint Louis des Fran^ais, was, in 1766, made a 
Knight of the Order of St. Michael. He retired in 
1774, and died at Castel Gandolfo in 1777. His 
best works as a painter are ' St. Sebastian, with an 
Angel taking an Arrow from his body ; ' and the 
fresco paintings (now much damaged) in the 
chapel of Les Enfants trouvds, engraved by 
Desplaces, Fessard, and others. His works are 
signed C. N., or with his full name. The Louvre 
possesses the three following works from his brush : 

Veuus demanding arms for .lEneas from Vulcan. 

The Three Graces. 


'/'>:-i>'? (^rr,fj^.:c:,/ rt"' 








He etched the following plates, but most of the im- 
pressions remaining of the ' Crucifixion ' and the 
' Four Seasons ' have been finished with the burin : 

The Crucifixion, with Mary Magdalene at the foot of 

the Cross. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Martyrdom of St Fereol. 
Two, of the Sports of Children. 
Spring and "Winter ; etched by ^atoire, and finished 

with the burin by P. Aveline. 

His sister, Mademoiselle Natoire, who went to 
Italy with him, worked in pastel. 

NATTES, JoHS Claode, an English water- 
colour painter, of the early tinted school, was born 
about 1765. He studied under Hugh Deane, and 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1782 to 1814. 
This very clever topographical draughtsman was an 
Irishman of vehement temper and wild entliusiasm. 
He was one of the earliest topographical painters 
whose works had any artistic merit beyond their 
accuracy, and he was able to invest the scenes which 
he represented with some distinct poetic charm. 
His works appear in many volumes depicting Scot- 
land, Ireland, the West of England, and the northern 
parts of France, all of which were published by 
himself; but occasionally his work was commis- 
sioned by other writers to illustrate their pro- 
ductions, and in the ' Beauties of England and 
Wales' and the various volumes of the 'Keepsake ' 
there are many of his drawings to be found. He 
was one of the founders of the Old Water-Colour 
Society and exhibited constantly in its Galleries 
and also at the Royal Academy, but in 1807 he 
was expelled from the Society of Painters in 
Water-Colours, having been convicted of attaching 
his name to certain drawings which were not his 
own work, and which it is said he had sent to the 
Gallery because his own works were not ready in 
time. He protested against the expulsion and 
insisted that the greater part of these drawings 
were his own work, and in this he was probably 
correct, but the members refused to accept his 
excuses. He continued, however, to exhibit at the 
Royal Academy up to 1814. He died at South 
Molton Street, London, in 1822. With his very 
latest breath he condemned the action of the Old 
Water-Colour Society, claiming that drawings done 
by his pupils, but finished by himself, were 
entitled to be called his work and to be shown in 
his name. For the support of this argument he 
was able to produce many famous examples from 
the works of the old masters. Among the illus- 
trated works which l>e published are : 

Scotia Depicta. 1804. 

Hiberuia Depicta. 1802. 

Select views of Bath, Bristol, Malvern, &c. 1805. 

Bath illustrated. 1806. 

NATTIER, Jean Baptiste, elder son of Jean 
Marc Nattier, the elder. He was a painter of 
history of small merit. Received into the Academy 
in 1712, he became involved in a disgraceful scan- 
dal, was committed to the Bastille, and there put an 
end to his own life in 1726. 

NATTIER, Jean Marc, commonly called Marc 
Nattier, was born in Paris in 1642. He painted 
some excellent portraits, and was the father and 
first master of Jean Marc Nattier, the younger. 

NATTIER, Jean Maro, son of the last-named 
and of Marie Courtois, a distinguished miniaturist, 
was born in Paris in 1685. He was instructed by 
his father, and afterwards studied at the Academy, 
and in the Gallery of the Luxembourg. He dis- 

tinguished himself as a portrait painter, in which 
capacity he was much employed. The drawings for 
the engravings from the pictures painted by Rubens 
for Marie de' Medici were by Nattier. About 1716 
he accompanied M. Le Fort, the minister of Peter 
the Great, to Amsterdam, where the Czar then was. 
There he painted the Czar, several members of 
the Russian court, and a picture of the ' Battle of 
Pultawa.' He afterwards began, at the Hague, a 
portrait of the ' Empress Catherine,' which was 
never finished. In 1718, Nattier was received into 
the Paris Academy on the strength of a ' Perseus 
bringing the Medusa's head to the marriage feast 
of Phineus.' In 1720, having lost his accumu- 
lations through the schemes of Law, he resolved 
to confine himself to portraiture, which he prac- 
tised with success for the rest of his life. He died 
in Paris in 1766. His life, by Madame Torgal, his 
daughter, has been published. Among his pictures 
we may also name : 

Dresden. Gallery. Portmit of Marshal Saxe. 

Nantes. Gallery. Portrait of the famous dan- 

Sfiise, M. A. Cuppi, called La 

>. „ A Lady of Louis XV.'s Court 

Paris. Louvre. The Magdalen, 

NAUDET, Thomas Charles, a French landscape 
draughtsman, and pupil of Hubert Robert. He 
flourished between 1774 and 1810. 

NAUDI, Angelo, an obscure Italian of the 16th 
century, who imitated the style of Paolo Veronese, 
and was employed at the court of Philip IV. 

NAUMANN, Carl Georo, German painter; 
bom Sept. 13, 1827, at Kbnigsberg (Prussia) ; 
studied at the Academy there under Rosenberger 
and afterwards at Munich. He chose to establish 
himself at Konigsberg ; he painted cheerful genre 
pictures, many of which have been reproduced, 
such as ' Fasting Time,' ' The Postman,' ' Halt 1 ' 
'Alpine Roses,' &c. He died in December 1902. 

NAUMANN, Friedrich, was born at Blasewitz, 
near Dresden, in 1750, and studied five years 
under Casanova at the Academy there. He then 
went to Venice, and stayed seven years at Rome, 
where he was a disciple of Mengs. He studied 
principally the works of Raphael, Guido Reni, 
and Titian. The Margrave of Anspach appointed 
him his court-painter ; and he was also a member 
of the Academy at Berlin. There is by him, 
besides 'The Hermit,' and ' The portrait of Mengs ' 
(engraved by Cunego), an altar-piece in the Krerz- 
kirche at Dresden. F. Naumanii was alive in 1815. 

NAUBORGO, Michael, a Bolognese painter, 
who, it is believed, was a pupil of Guido Reni. 

NAUINX, or Navinx, a landscape painter, who 
lived at Hamburg in the 17th century, and who is 
often confounded with Naeuwincx or Nauwinck. 
He painted Alpine scenery in his larger works. 
In the smaller, more tranquil scenes somewhat in 
the style of Waterloo, but his colouring runs into a 
bluish green, or into grey. J. M. Weyer painted 
figures for him in good keeping with his landscapes. 
He died in Hamburg, but the date is uncertain. 

NAVA, Luis pe, a Spanish knight of Santiago, 
who practised art ay an amateur about 1753, and 
was a member of the Seville Academy. 

NAVARO, Jdan, a Spanish engraver, is stated 
by Strutt to have resided at Seville about the 
year 1598. He engraved several frontispieces for 

NAVARRETE. See Fernandez Navabretb. 



NAVARRO, Francisco, a Spanish engraver, who 
executed the title-page and a large plate of arras, 
for a descriptive account of an auto-da-fe held at 
Madrid in 1632, and the title-page of a book 
called 'The Church Militant,' published by Fray 
Fernando Carmayo y Salgado in 1642. In the 
same year he engraved an architectural title-page 
with the effigies of Horace, Persius, and Juvenal 
arranged like saints in a retablo, for Don Diego 
Lopez's ' Dissertation ' on the two latter satirists. 

NAVARRO, Jdan Jose, a Spanish admiral who 
practised painting and designing, was born in 1687. 
He executed some very clever pen-and-ink draw- 
ings in the style of Callot. 

NAVARRO, JnAN Simon, an historical and 
flower painter, lived at Madrid about the middle 
of the 17th century. A somewhat mediocre 
historical picture b}' him bears the date 1654, 
and represents the Virgin, of the size of life, 
employed in the workshop of Joseph, who is 
sawing a board, while the Infant Jesus is forming 
a cross in the midst of a group of angels. As 
a painter of flowers he holds a more respectable 
rank. In the convent of the Shod Carmelites 
at Madrid, are a 'Nativity' and an 'Epiphany' 
by him, which were formerly in the convent 
of the same order at Valdernoro. 

NAVEZ, Franijois Joseph, a Belgian historical, 
genre, and portrait painter, born at Charleroi in 
1787. He first studied under Joseph Francois, 
and obtained several prizes at the Brussels and 
Ghent Academies. He was thus enabled to com- 
plete his studies in Paris under David, with whom, 
when exiled from France, he returned to Belgium. 
From 1817 to 1822 Navez was at Rome, and subse- 
quently settled at Brussels. There his fame was 
already well establislied, and he was much em- 
ployed. During many years he held a foremost 
position among Belgian artists, and was Director 
of the Brussels Academy. Many pupils passed 
through his studio, and honours were freely be- 
stowed on him. He died at Brussels in 1869. 
Among his works are : 

Amsterdam. Jesuits^ Ck. Incredulity of St. Thomas. 

„ „ The Holy Family. 

„ „ The Marriage of the Virgin. 

Biussels. Museum. Hagar and Ishmael in the 


„ „ Athaliah and Joash. 

„ „ The Judgment of Solomon. 

„ ,. The Rich Man before Christ. 

„ St. Gudule. The Assumption of the Virgin. 

„ „ The Raising of Lazarus. 

Haarlem. Gallery, Raising the Shunamit«'s Son. 

„ „ The Meeting of Isaac and Re- 


'!S.\imc]i NewPinakothek, ' Spinsters ' of Fondi. 

NAVLET, Joseph, French historical painter, was 
born at Chalons-sur-Marne, and studied under Abel 
de Pujol. Since 1848 he has exhibited at the 
Salon, his chief works being ' The Martyrdom of 
Joan of Arc' and 'The Defeat of Attila.' Tlie 
war of 1870 supplied him with many subjects for 
his brush. He was also well known as a water- 
eolour painter. He died in 1889 at the age of 

NAVLET, Victor, French painter and archas- 
ologist, died in 1886. 

NAVOIS, J. S., who lived in the second half of 
the 17th century, was a painter of landscapes and 
marines in the manner of Bakhuisen. His paint- 
ings have often been confounded with the works 
of that master. 


NAYS, — , was a Flemish landscape painter who 
lived towards the end of the 17th century. In 
some of his pictures, which are very numerous in 
Belgium but of small merit, the figures are painted 
by Nicolay. 

NAZON, FRANgois Henri, French painter; 
born Dec. 25, 1821, at Rdalmont (Tarn); was a 
pupil of Gleyre, and afterwards copied the 
manner of Corot. In 1870 he settled at Montauban. 
Among his best works are ' Lever de Soleil k 
Penne,' now in the Luxembourg, and ' Moulins du 
Tarn,' in the Montauban Museum. He died in 
May 1902. 

NAZZARI, Bartolommeo, (or Nazari,) was born 
at or near Bergamo in 1699, and was first a scholar 
of Vittore Ghislandi and Angelo Trevisano at 
Venice. Afterwards he studied at Rome under 
Francesco Trevisani, and then settled at Venice. 
He was a painter of history and portraits, but 
particularly excelled in the latter, in which he 
was much employed at the different courts in 
Germany. One of the most esteemed of his his- 
torical pictures is a ' Holy Family, with St. Anne,' 
at Pontremoli. He died at Venice or Milan in 
1758. He etched the portrait of F. M. Molza, at 
Modena. Bartolozzi and A. Faldoni have engraved 
after him. 

NEAGLE, John, an English line engraver, born 
in London about 1760. Amongst his plates are : 

The Royal Procession to St. Paul's. 1789. 

Several plates for the Shakespeare Gallery; after 
Wheatlei/ and Smirhe. 

The illustrations to Murphy's ' Arabic Antiquities of 
Spain.' 1816. 

NEAGLE, John, a self-taught American artist 
who became a very clever portrait painter. He 
was apprenticed to a coach-builder of Philadelphia 
when quite a lad, having been born in that city in 
1799. When nineteen years of age he was able to 
relinquish the work to which he had been set, 
and devote his time to training in the higher 
branches of the profession, and eventually settled 
down in New Orleans, where he speedily became 
well known and very popular. He married a 
daughter of the artist Sullj', and from his father- 
in-law received much assistance and tuition. When 
he left New Orleans he returned to his native town, 
and there he spent the rest of his life, and in that 
city are to be found his most notable works, portraits 
of Washington, Carey, and Clay. Other portraits 
by Neagle can be found at Boston, New Orleans, 
Pittsburg, and New York. He died in 1805. 

NEAL, Elizabeth, a still-life painter of the 18th 
century. It is said that she lived in HoUand, and 
painted flowers which rivalled those by Seghers. 
None of her works, however, can be identified. 

NEALE, John Preston, a very eminent English 
architectural designer and engraver, was born in 
1771. His father is believed to have been a painter 
of insects. He himself began his career as a clerk 
in the Post Office, but he soon left clerical work 
for topographical draughtsmanship. He painted a 
few works in oil, but his favourite method was to 
draw with the pen and finish with washes of water- 
colour. In 1818 he published the first portion of 
the ' History and Antiquities of the Abbey church 
at Westminster,' and in 1823 the second part, form- 
ing together two volumes royal quarto, containing 
sixty-one beautiful engravings. The literary part, 
consisting of notices and Biographical Memoirs of 
the Abbots and Deans of that foundation, was 
written by E. W. Brayley. Together with tlie 


Becond portion of this work, he published six 
volumes, royal quarto, of ' The Seats of Noblemen 
and Gentlemen of England, Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland ; ' and in 1829 a second series in five vols., 
containing, in the whole, seven hundred and thirty- 
seven plates. The labour of producing two such 
important works in the period would have been 
sufficient employment for the most industrious de- 
signer ; but Neale was indefatigable. During the 
years 1824 and 1825 he publislied, in conjunction 
with LeKeux, ' Views of the most interesting Col- 
legiate and Parochial Churches of Great Britain, 
including Screens, Fonts, Monuments, &c., with 
historical and architectural descriptions,' containing 
ninety-eight plates, in which the talents of both 
artists appear to the greatest advantage. He was a 
frequent exhibitor between 1797 and 1844. In the 
earlier part of his artistic career he painted many 
architectural subjects in oil, with views of their 
several localities, in which he exhibited the feeling 
and power of a true landscape painter. A larger 
number of his works were, however, in water- 
colours, and in 1817 and 1818 he exhibited at the 1 
Water-colour Society. But the success that at- I 
tended his publications induced him to abandon the | 
palette altogether, and devote his energies and ' 
skill to a class of work in which he particularly ] 
deUghted, and in which, for a long time, he stood 
unrivalled. Many detached pieces were designed 
and executed by him for the embellishment of 
other publications. He died near Ipswich in 1847. 
NEALE, Thomas, was an English engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1650. He is supposed 
to have been a disciple of Hollar. He engraved 
after him twenty-four subjects from Holbein's 
' Dance of Death,' the first of which is marked, 
Paris. 1057. He signed his prints with his name 
in full, or with the letters T. iV. He etched 
several plate.s of birds after Barlow ; these were 
executed at Paris in 1659. It is very probable, too, 
that he engraved some of the plates for the eighth 
edition of Ogilby's ' .ffisop.' 

NEALKES, one of the later painters of ancient 
Greece, lived probably at Sicyon about 252 B.C. 
He is regarded as the principal representative of 
the later Sicyonian school. He is said to have 
possessed a lively genius, and an accurate judg- 
ment. Being engaged to paint a picture of a 
combat between the Persians and Egyptians on 
the Nile, and being apprehensive that the river 
might be mistaken for the sea, he introduced a 
mule drinking on the border of the Nile, and a 
crocodile ready to attack it, thus rendering the 
scene of the action quite unmistakable I 

NEAPOLI, Feancisco, a Spanish historical 
painter, was born at Madrid in the 15th century, 
and is supposed, from the style of his works, to 
have been a scholar of Leonardo de Vinci. In 
conjunction with Pablo de Aregio, it is said that 
he painted the doors that enclose the great altar of 
the cathedral of Valencia. They represent scenes 
from the life of the Virgin Mary. This work was 
finished in 1506, and for it the artists received 
3000 ducats. Neapoli was the founder of the 
Valoncian school. 

NEBBIA, Cesare, was born at Orvieto about 
the year 1536, and was the ablest scholar of Giro- 
lamo Muziano, whose style he adopted, and whom 
he assisted in the works he executed for Gregory 
XIII., in the Vatican and the Capella Gregoriana. 
He was himself employed by Gregory's successor, 
Sixtus v., in superintending the works undertaken 

by order of that pontiff in the palaceB of St. John 
Lateran and Monte Cavallo, in the library of the 
Vatican, and at the Scala Santa, in which he was 
as.sisted by Giovanni Guerra da Modena. He 
painted several pictures for the churches in Rome, 
of which the most important are the ' Resurrection,' 
in San Giaoomo degli Spagnuoli ; some subjects 
from the life of the Virgin, painted in fresco, in 
the Capella Borgbese, in Santa Maria Maggiore ; 
and the ' Crowning of the Virgin,' in Santa Maria 
de' Monti. He died at Rome about the year 1614. 
NEBEA, Galeotto, the author of two altar-pieces 
in the church of S. Brigida, at Genoa. He was a 
native of Castellaccio, near Alessandria, and the 
two pictures in question are dated respectively 
1481 and 1484. 

NEBOT, B., painted the portrait of Captain 
Thomas Coram, the founder of the Foundling Hos- 
pital, which was in the possession of D. Nesbit, 
and engraved by Brooke in 1761. 

NECK, Jan van, was born at Naarden in 1636. 
He was the son of a physician, who destined him 
for his own profession, but yielded to the marked 
disposition his son evinced for art, and placed 
him under the tuition of Jacob de Backer, whose 
style he followed with great success. Houbraken 
speaks of his talents as an historical painter in the 
most flattering terms, and particularly commends 
a picture by him representing the ' Presentation in 
the Temple,' in the French church at Amsterdam. 
He was still more successful in painting fabulous 
subjects, and was also an eminent portrait painter. 
He resided chiefly at Amsterdam, where he died in 
1714. The following works by. him have been 
engraved : 
Alpheus and Arethusa ; hy A.Blooteling. 
The Bath of Diana ; hy the same. 
The portrait of the theologian, Groeuweyen ; hy C. 

Hay ens. 
NECKER. See De Neckek. 
NEDEK, PlETER, born at Amsterdam in 1616, 
was a scholar of P. Lastman, and a painter of his- 
tory, portraits, and landscapes. He died in 1678. 
NlllE, Denis, a French engraver, was born in 
Paris about the year 1732, and died in 1818. He 
was a pupil of J. P. le Bas, has engraved several 
plates in the style of that artist, and first brought 
himself into notice by a new edition of the ' Recueil 
des Peintures antiques' of Caylus and Mariette. 
Among others, he executed several vignettes for 
Ovid's Metamorphoses, published in Paris, and en- 
graved several landscapes after A. Van de Velde 
and other Dutch masters. In conjunction with 
Masquelier he engraved ' Les Tableaux pittoresques 
de la Suisse ' and ' Le Voyage pittoresque de la 
France.' He left some fifty-two plates, mcludmg 
the following: 

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; 'after Gravelot. 
Three Views in Martinique; after the Chevalier 

(V Epernay. 
Benjamin Franklin ; after Charmontel. 
A View of the City of Lyons ; after Lallemand. 
The Environs of Fra.'icati ; after the same. 
A View of Tivoli ; after the same. 
NEEFFS, (misspelt Neefs, Neef, and Nefs,) 
Jacobds. This Flemish engraver, a member of a 
large family of artists, was born early in the 17th 
century. He was probably the grandson of the 
elder Pieter Neeffs, the painter, and distinguished 
himself by the plates he engraved after Rubens, 
Van Dyck, and the other celebrated painters of 
the Flemish school. His works, which are dated 



from 1632 to 1645, are principally executed with 
the burin. The year of his death is not linown. 
The following are some of hie best plates : 


Caspar Nennius, Bishop of Antwerp; after Gerard 

Gio. ToUenario, Jesuit ; after P. Fruytiers. 
Frans Snyders, Painter ; after Van Di/ck. 
Anthonis de Tassis, Canon of Antwerp ; after the 

The Marchioness of Barlemont, Countess d'Egmont; 

after the same. 
Josse de Hertoghe ; after the same. 
Martin Eyckaert, Painter ; after the same. 


The FaU of the Angels ; after Subens. 

Tlie Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek ; after the 

The Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John ; after 

the same. 
St. Augustine ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. Thomas ; after the same. 
The Judgment of Paris, and the Triumph of Galatea, 

called the Ewer of Charles I. ; after the same; scarce. 
Christ and the Six Penitents ; after Gerard Seyers. 
Job and his Wife ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. Lievin ; after the same. 
Christ appearing to Magdalene ; after the same. 
Christ brought before Pilate ; after J. Jordaens. 
The Satyr, with the Peasant blowing Hot and Cold ; 

after the savu. 
St. Eoch interceding for the Persons attacked by the 

Plague ; after Erasmus Que/linus. 

NEEFFS, PlETER, tlie elder, was born at Ant- 
werp in 1577 or 1578. He was the scholar of 
Hendrik van Steenwyck the elder. He painted 
the interiors of the churches in Antwerp and its 
neighbourhood, often introducing candle-light 
effects. His mechanical skill was great, but his 
hand was heavier than that of Steenwyck, and his 
colour less pleasing. The figures in his pictures 
were painted by F. Francken, Van Thulden, 
Teniers, and Velvet Breughel. Neeffsdied between 
1667 and 1661. Many of his best pictures are in 
England, but the museums of Paris, Amsterdam, 
Rotterdam, Brunswick, Cassel, Munich, Geneva, 
Vienna, and St. Petersburg are also rich in his 

NEEFFS, PlETER, the younger, the son and 
scholar of Pieter Neeffs the elder, was bom at 
Antwerp in 1601, and died after 1675. He painted 
similar subjects to those of his father, but they are 
greatly inferior, both in the neatness of the finish- 
ing and the correctness of the perspective. Several 
of his paintings are in the possession of the Mar- 
quis of Hertford, and others at the Hague, in the 
Vienna Academy, and the Liechtenstein Gallery. 

NEEL, ScHEELEN. See Molenaer, Corn. 

NEELE, Samuel John, an English engraver, 
who was born in 1758, and died in 1824. His em- 
ployment was principally illustrating antiquarian 
works and engraving maps ; but he contrived to 
do well for himself in a pecuniary sense. 

NEER. See Van der Neer. 

NEES. See Nes. 

NEESSA, Alonzo de, a Spanish painter born in 
the neighbourhood of Madrid in 1628. There are 
pictures by him in the Monastery of the Observ- 
ants in that city. He died in 1668. 

NEFF, TiMOTHEUs Carl von, a Russian painter, 
born in 1805 at Korkulla, in Esthonia. He studied 
at Dresden under Hartniaiin, and at Rome. In 
1826 he returned to Russia and settled at St. Peters- 
burg. He became court painter in 1832, and in 


1839 a member of the Academy, in which he was 
appointed professor in 1865. From 1842 he was 
much employed on the decorations of St. Isaac's 
Cathedral, and his picture of the patron saint there 
is one of his best works. Many members of the 
Imperial family sat to him for their portraits. He 
died at St. Petersburg in 1877. Some of his works 
recall those of Leopnld Robert. At the Hermitage 
there are the following by him : 

La Eaigneuse. 1858. 

Two Girls in a Grotto. 1859. 

NEGKER (Necker). See De Neceer. 

NEGRE, Matthieu van, was an historical and 
architectural painter, who lived about 1620 or 
1630. In the cathedral of Tournay there is a ' Holy 
Family ' by him, with a glory of angels, dated 
1623. Descamps mentions him, but there are no 
particulars of his life. 

NEGRE, Nicholas van, an excellent Flemish 
portrait painter ; perhaps the son of Matthieu. He 
flourished about 1645. Snyderhoef engraved his 
portrait of Salmasius in 1641 ; C. vanDalen that of 
Spanheim in 1644 ; and there are other plates after 
his work. 

NEGRI, Gianfrancesco, also called Francesco 
de' Ritratti, from the excellence of his portraits, 
was born at Bologna in 1593. He was instructed 
by Odoardo Fialetti at Venice, and was the founder 
of an academy of arts, called Degl' Indomiti, in his 
own house. He was also a poet, translated parts 
of Tasso's works into the Bolognese dialect, and 
wrote other books. His eldest son Pietro Negri 
painted in the style of his instructor Zanchi. There 
is by him in the Gallery at Dresden, 'The Death 
of the Empress Agrippina in the presence of 
Nero.' He died at Bologna in 1659. His son 
Bianco, who was a Canon of St. Petronio, and an 
author, also painted. 

NEGRI, Pier Martire, was a native of Cremona, 
and flourished about the year 1600. According to 
Zaist, he was a disciple of Giovanni Battista Trotti, 
and distinguished himself as a painter of history 
and portraits. He afterwards studied at Rome, 
and was received into the Academy of St. Luke. 
Pictures by him exist at Cremona and Pa via. 

NEGRON, Ldcian Carlos de, a Spanish genre 
painter, who flourished about 1660. He was one 
of the founders of the Seville Academy. 

NEGRONE, (or NIGRONE,) Pietro, a native of 
Calabria, was born about the year 1500. Accord- 
ing to Domiiiici, he was a disciple of Giovanni 
Antonio d'Amato, and also studied under Marco 
Calabrpse. At Naples, in the church of Santa 
Maria Donna Romata, are two pictures by him, 
representing the 'Adoration of the Magi,' and the 
'Scourging of Christ,' painted in the year 1541 ; 
also in the church of Santa Agnello a picture re- 
presenting the Virgin Mary and Infant Christ in 
the clouds, with a glory of angels, and below St. 
Catharine, St. Jerome, and St. Onofrio. Negrone 
died in 1565. He was sometimes called 'II giovane 
Zingaro,' the young gipsy. 

NEGRONI. See Neronl 

NEGROPONTE, Era Antonio, an eariy Venetian, 
and contemporary with Jacobello del Fiore. In 
the church of San Francesco della Vigna, Venice, 
there is a colossal 'Virgin in adoration' by him 
which is inscribed " Frater Antonius da Negropon 
pinxit," so that Boschini and Sansovino are mis- 
taken in calling him Fra Francesco. To Fra 
Antonio Crowe and Cavalcaselle also ascribe tenta- 


tively a 'Madonna' at Legnano, in the oratory of 
the Disoiplina. 

NEHER, Bernard, historical painter, was born 
at Biberacb, Wiirtemburg, in 1806. After some 
early instruction in his native place, he studied at 
Stuttgart under Dannecker, and at Munich under 
Cornelius, and showed so much talent in his early 
essays that he was relieved from military service, 
and granted a government pension for further study 
in Italy. He stayed four years at Rome, and while 
there painted (1831) his ' Raising of the Widow's 
Son,' now in the Stuttgart Gallery. On his return 
to Munich he was commissioned to paint a fresco 
on a large scale over the restored ' Isarthor,' repre- 
senting the entry of Ludwig of Bavaria after the 
battle of Ampfing. He was afterwards engaged 
on decorative paintings at the Court of Weimar, 
and designed a number of cartoons for glass-paint- 
ing. In 1841 he became Director of the Leipsic 
Academy, and in 1854 Director of the Art School of 
Stuttgart. He died in 1886. His ' Descent from 
the Cross ' is in the Stuttgart Gallery. 

NEHER, Joseph, a decorative painter, born at 
Buchan in Wurtemburg in 1788. He painted at 
Stuttgart, and must not be confounded with an 
artist of the same name, the father of Michael 

NEHER, Michael, was born at Munich in 1798, 
and the son of Joseph Neher, a citizen and painter 
of that city, but of a family from Biberacb. 
Michael received a classical education, and was 
instructed in the rudiments of painting by Mitterer, 
and in 1813 entered the Academy at Munich. 
From 1816 to 1818 he studied under Matthias 
Klotz, and was then employed by Angelo Quaglio 
in his theatrical work. After having worked for 
some time as scene-painter at the Court Theatre, 
he went to Trent, Milan, and Trieste, and painted 
portraits. In 1819 he was encouraged by Hierony- 
mus Hess, at Rome, to devote himself to genre 
painting. On his return to Munich in 1823 he 
became Conservator of the Art Union. In 1839 
he painted several saloons in the Hohenschwangen 
Schloss, after sketches of Sohwind, Gasner, and 
Schwanthaler. He, however, in 1837 devoted him- 
self entirely to architectural painting, and travelled 
for improvement on the Rhine, and in Belgium. 
He was received an honorary member of the 
Academy at Munich in 1876, and died there in the 
same year. His best performances are the following 
views : 

The Cathedral of Magdeburg. 

The Minster at Fribourg. 

The Town-haU and St. Peter's Church at Lowen. 

The Cathedrals at Frankfort, Prague, and Mechlin. 

NEHRLICH. See Nerlt. 

NEIDLINGER, (or Neydlinger,) Michael, a 
painter of Niirnberg, and a pupil of G. Strauch, 
and at Amsterdam of J. de Backer. He went into 
Italy and lived long at Venice, where he painted 
for the Monasterio di Santa Anna ' The Apparition 
of Jan Lorenzo Giustiniani ; ' and there are other 
pictures by him in that city. Neidlinger died at 
Venice in 1700. 

NEIJN. See De Neyn. 

NEIJTS, GiLLis. See Neyts. 

NELLI, NiccoLd, was a native of Venice, and 
flourished about the middle or latter half of the 
16th century. From the style of his engraving 
he is supposed to have been a disciple of Marco 
da Ravenna. He engraved an architectural fron- 
tispiece, with figures, for a book of plans and 

' views of cities and fortresses, published in 1568 
(it is inscribed i\^i(;o/o Nelli Veneziano/.),a.ho other 
subjects and portraits. 

NELLI, Ottaviano di Martino, (or De Mabtis,) 
was the son of Martino Nelli of Gubbio, and 
flourished at the commencement of the 15th cen- 
tury. In the church of Santa Maria Nuova at 
Gubbio is preserved under glass a fresco repre- 
senting the Madonna and Saints, which is signed 
and dated M.C.C.C.CIII., Morelli says IV., and has 
been chromolithographed and published by the 
Arundel Society. He also worked for Gian Gale- 
azzo, Duke of Milan, at Perugia in 1403-4, and 
moved to Uibino in 1420 ; his death took place 
between 1445 and 1450. The chapel of the Palace 
of Corrado de' Trinci, now called the Palazzo del 
Governo, was decorated by him in 1424, and the 
work-can still be seen at Foligno. 

NELLI, PiETRO, was born at Massa in 1672, and 
was instructed by Morandi, whose style he imitated 
in his paintings for several churches at Rome. 
Ho was alive in 1730, and distinguished himself 
greatly as a painter of portraits, among which 
are : 

Cardinal Lodorico Pico (engraved hy Frey). 
Andrea Giuseppe Rossi (engraved hy Billy). 
Bishop Giovanni Francesco Tenderini (engraved hy Gio- 
vanni Rossi). 

NELLI, Suor Plautilla, a lady of a noble family, 
was born at Florence in 1523, and probably in- 
structed by Fra Paolino of Pistoja. She became 
in 1537 an inmate, and afterward.s prioress, of the 
Dominican convent of St. Catherine at Florence, 
and painted for their church a 'Descent from the 
Cross,' which is said to have been from a design 
by Andrea del Sarto, and is probably the same as 
that now to be seen at the Florence Academy ; 
also a picture of the ' Adoration of the Magi.' In 
Vasari's time a large collection of drawings by 
Fra Bartolommeo was in her possession, and at 
Dresden is a drawing by her of ' St. Anthony 
tempted by a beautiful woman,' which appears 
to bo an imitation of the Frate's work. She died 
in 1588. There are by her : 

Berlin. Mag. of 3 f us. A painting of 1524. 
Florence, Academy. A Descent from the Cross. 
„ iS. M. Novella. A. Last Supper. 

NELLO DE DINO, an unimportant Tuscan painter 
of the 14th century. He was a friend of BufEal- 

NELLO DI Giovanni FALCONE, Bernardo, a 
painter of the 14th century, who is known by 
report only, as no authentic work by him is in 
existence. He studied under Orcagna, and painted 
much in Pisa, in the cathedral and in the Campo 
Santo, where there is a fresco said, by some, to be 
by him. Lanzi says he is supposed to be the same 
artist as Nello di Vanni. 

NENCI, Francesco, was bom about 1782, and 
studied at the Academy at Florence. He at first 
painted portraits, but abandoned that branch of 
art for historical painting. His chief performance 
is at Florence in the Villa Poggio, and represents 
the ' Assumption of the Virgin.' In 1821 he made 
a series of designs for Dante's ' Divina Commedia.' 
He was for a time director of the Academy at 

NEPVEU, Laurens Theodor, was born at 
Utrecht in 1782. He was a politician, and only 
practised painting as an amateur. His master in 
art was B. van Straaten. Nepveu died in 1839. 



NERANUS, A., painter, flourished about the 
middle of tlie 17tli century, and imitated the 
manner of Rembrandt. In Cardinal Fesoh's col- 
lection there was a pictuie by him representing 
'Pilate washing his hands.' 

NERENZ, WiLHELM, genre painter, was born 
at Berlin in 1804, first studied under Wilhelm von 
Schadow, until the removal of the latter to Diissel- 
dorf. In the next year he was employed as picture- 
restorer in the Royal Museum, but in 18.33 followed 
his master, von Schadow, to Dusseldorf, where he 
remained three years. He then returned to Berlin, 
where he resided for the remainder of his life, with 
the exception of a short time in Dresden and Italy. 
He died at Berlin in 1871. Of his works may be 
mentioned : 

Berlin. Nat. Gallery. At the Armonrer's. 1840. 

The Goldsmith'.s Daughter [from Uhland). 
Kathchen von Heilbronn [from Kleist). 
The end of the Ji'anderjdhre. 

NERI, Giovanni, called Neri degli Uccelli, a 
Bolognese artist, celebrated for his paintings in 
miniature of animals, birds, and fishes. Ulysses 
Aldrovandi had seven books full of his works. 
He died in the year 1575. 

NERI, Paolo del Maestro. See Paolo. 

NERI Di BICCI. See Bicoi. 

NERITO, Jacopo di, lived early in the 14th 
century. He was probably born at Padua, and 
a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano. According to 
Rossetti, he painted a 'St. Michael and Lucifer' 
of gigantic proportions, once in the church of 
San Michele, Padua. In the Communal Gallery 
of that city there are some panels by him. No 
dates can be given of his birth or death. 

NERONI, Bartolommeo, or Negroni, called 
Maestro Riccio, was a native of Siena, and flour- 
ished from 1550 to 1573. He was a pupil, and 
afterwards son-in-law and assistant, of Bazzi 
(Sodoma). He painted history, but was more 
celebrated for his perspective and architectural 
views. At the Osservanti at Siena is a Crucifixion, 
with a great number of figures ; and in the church 
of the Derelitte, a ' Descent from the Cross,' which 
is painted entirely in the style of his master. Two 
large paintings by him in the Academy of that 
city are Florentine in style. He was also dis- 
tinguished as a sculptor, architect, and painter of 
scenery. One of his scenes has been engraved by 

DETTO LANDI was equally celebrated both 
as sculptor and painter. He belonged to the 
noble family of Landi, who are described as 
of PoKgio Malevolti, to distinguish them 
from the family of Landi Sberghieri. He 
was born in 1447, and died in 1500. He was 
twice married : first, to Elizabetta, daughter of 
Antonio Cigalini, who died in 1483 ; and secondly, 
in 1493, to Lucrezia, daughter of Antonio Paltoni, 
who bore him several gons, one at least of whom 
was a painter like his father. He was a contem- 
porary of Francesco di Giorgio, and probably a 
pupil of Lorenzo di Pietro (Veccbietta). Like both 
those artists, he left behind him works in both 
mediums of surpassing loveliness, and is one of 
the greatest and most typical of the Sienese artists 
of the 15th century. Mr. Berenson, in ' The Cen- 
tral Italian Painters of the Renaissance,' says of 
him: " He was Sinione (Martini) come to life again. 
Simone's singing line, Simone's endlessly refined 
feeling for beauty, Simone's charm and grace — you 

lose but little of them in Neroccio's panels, and 
you get what to most of us counts more, ideals 
and emotions more akin to onr own, with quicker 
suggestions of freshness and joy." There are 
many records extant of commissions given to him 
for statues and monuments still existing in Siena, 
the most celebrated of which are a St. Catherine of 
Alexandria in the chapel of St. Giovanni in the 
Duonio ; the tomb of Tommaso del Testa Piccolo- 
mini in the same place, and a wooden elBgy of St. 
Catherine of Siena in the Oratory of that Saint in 
Fontebranda. In 1483 he designed the fine figure 
of the ' Hellespontine Sibyl' for the cathedral 
pavement. His pictures are rarely to be found 
outside Siena, but the Academy there contains 
some beautiful examples. The collection in the 
Palazzo Saracini in Siena boasts of two good 
' Madonnas with Saints ' by him, and a particulariy 
charming 'Virgin and Child with SS. Michael and 
John the Baptist' is in the upper sacristy of the 
Confraternity della SS. Triniti iu the same city. 
We gather from documents dealing with commis- 
sions for work given him that he died at some 
date between 1488-1502, but the exact year of his 
death is not known. Among his pupils were 
Giovanni Battista di Bartolommeo Alberti, Gio- 
vanni di Tedaklo, Leonardo di Ser Anibrogio de' 
Maestrelli (called MescoHno), Taldi di Vittore, and 
Achille di Pietro di Paolo del Crogio. 

Bergamo. <^"/'f "l" \ Madonna. 

Morelli, 47. J 
Berlin, 63a. Madonna and Saints. 

Florence. Uffizi, 1304. Prcdella. Episodes from the 
Life of St. Benedict. 

Frankfort- StiiM. \ jj^donna and two Saints. 

on-Main. InsittutCy 4. J 

„ 5a. Madonna with SS. Catherme 
and Sebastian. 
London. Mr. C. Butler. Madonna. 
Meiningen. Holy Family. 

Newhaven U.S.A. | Annunciation. 

Jams Collectton, m. J 
Paris. M. G. jDrevfns,65. Claudia. 

„ 31. Martin Le Roi/. Tobias and the Angel. 
Siena. Sala I'l. 8. Madonna with sis Saints. 1492. 

11. Madonna with SS. Bernardino 

and Jerome. 
13. Madonna with SS. Catherine 
and Bernardino. 
„ 14. Madonna with SS. Catherine 
and Jerome. 
„ „ 19. Triptych. 1479. 

22. Madonna with two Saints. 
'I Sala "vil. 2. Cassoue. Triumph of Diivid. 

" ^, 8. Fragment of an Aununciatiou. 

Archivio. Book cover : Madonna protect- 
" ing Siena. 1480. 

,, Falazzo Saracini. Madonna with St. Catherine 
and the Magdalen. 
„ Madonna with Baptist and the 

„ ConfratemMdelldy ji^aouna with St. Michael and 
^S.TnmtA. V thg Baptist. 

(Sacnsti/ upstinrs.) J 
„ J)uomo I'in-cment. ) HeUespontme Sibyl. 1483. 

^ ^ ' R.H.H.C. 

NERVESA, Gaspako, painter, a native of Friuli, 
and, according to Ridolfi, a pupil of Titian. No 
picture by him can now be pointed out, but he is 
known to have painted at Spilimbergo, and perhaps 
at Trevigi, about the middle of the 16th century. 

NES, Jan Van, (or Nees,) was born at Delft 
probably about the year 1600, and was one of the 
best scholars of Michiel J. van Mierevelt. He 
travelled in France and Italy, and studied some 
time at Rome and at Venice. On his return to 
Holland he painted some historical pictures, which 


H. Burtoii photo ^ 



//. /iurtuii photo] Lltu)\k of the Imuhenti, Siena 



were deservedly admired ; and he would probably 
have distinguished himself in that branch of the 
art, bad not the general demand for his portraits 
induced him, for the sake of emolument, to devote 
himself entirely to them. The date of his death 
is uncertain, but he is said to have worked as late 
as 1670. 

NESBITT, Charlton, an English wood-engraver, 
born in 1775, at Swalwell, Durham. He was 
apprenticed when fourteen to Beilby and Bewick, 
and gained two premiums at the Society of Arts. 
Specimens of the work done by him while witli 
Bewick are to be found in the tail-pieces of ' British 
Birds,' and in the edition of Goldsmith and Par- 
nell of 1795. At the end of his apprenticeship he 
engraved a block 15 inches by 12 from a drawing 
by his fellow-pupil Robert Johnson. About 179'J 
he moved to London, where he obtained an ex- 
tensive practice. Among the works he illustrated 
were editions of ' Hudibnis' and of ' Shakespeare,' 
Sir Egerton Bridges' works, Ackerman's ' Re- 
ligious Emblems,' Northcote's ' Fables,' &c. From 
1815 to 1830 helived at Swalwell, and then returned 
to London. He died at Brompton in 1838. 

NESFIELD, William Andeew. This artist, 
the father of the well-known architect of the same 
name, was the son of the rector of Brancepetb, 
and was educated at Winchester, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He entered the army at Wool- 
wich in 1809, served in tlie Peninsula under Wel- 
lington, and was afterwards aide-de-camp to Sir 
Gordon Drummond in Canada. On retiring from 
the army he devoted his talents to painting in 
water-colours, and was elected an associate ex- 
hibitor of the Society of Painters in Water-colours 
in 1828. The following year he became a member 
of the Society and one of its most constant con- 
tributors. A drawing of ' Bamborough Castle ' at 
South Kensington is a good example of his style. 
Later in life he gave his chief attention to land- 
scape gardening, and many of the improvements 
in the Horticultural Gardens at South Kensington, 
Kew Gardens, and in St. James's Park are due to his 
skill. He died in 1881, at the age of 87, in London. 

NETO, EsTEVAO GoNSALVES, a Portuguese archi- 
tect and painter in miniature. Nothing is known 
of his birth, but he was chaplain to the Bishop of 
Vizen and a canon in 1622. A missal, beautifully 
illuminated by him between 1610 and 1622, is pre- 
served in the Academy of Sciences at Lisbon. He 
died the 29th of July, 1627. 

NETSGHEE, Caspar, was born at Heidelberg 
in 1639, and died at the Hague in 1684. His 
father was a sculptor, and an engineer in the Polish 
service, who died in Prague when he was only two 
years of age, leaving a widow with three children, 
of whom Caspar was the youngest. The calamities 
of war obliged her to fly from Germany, and make 
the best of her way towards Holland. Two of her 
children died on the road, and she arrived at Arn- 
heim in Guelderland in a state of the utmost 
destitution. There an opulent physician, named 
Tullekens, took pity on her, and adopted the young 
Netscher. He educated him with the intention 
of his following the medical profession, but his 
genius strongly inclining to the art of painting, it 
was judged best to give way to it ; he was in con- 
sequence placed under Koster, a painter of dead 
game and still-life, but he did not remain long 
with him, as these were not subjects suited to his 
powers. He became a disciple of Gerard Terburg, 
and his progress under that master was great. On 

leaving Terburg, he determined to visit Italy, and 
with that intention embarked at Amsterdam for 
Bordeaux, where he was induced to remain some 
time, by the encouragement he received as a painter 
of portraits, as well as by an attachment he conceived 
for Marie Godin, the niece of the person at whose 
house he lodged. They were married, and this 
union preventing his proceeding to Italy, he re- 
turned to Holland, where his talents promised him 
a more certain success. The pictures of Netscher 
usually represent domestic subjects and conversa- 
tions, which are treated in a style reminding us 
of the productions of Frans Mieris and Terburg. 
His handling is a little woolly and wanting in life, 
but like his master, he particularly excelled in 
painting white satin, silk, ermine, &c. He some- 
times painted historical and fabulous subjects, but 
they were not favourable to his powers ; he was 
more successful in miniature portraits of a small 
size. Walpole says he visited England on the 
invitation of Sir William Temple, in the reign of 
Charles II., but did not remain here long. The 
following list includes most of Netscher's more 
accessible works : 

Amsterdam. Gallery. 
Berlin. Museum. 



Darmstadt. Gallery. 
Dresden. Gallery. 



Four portraits. 

The Lute-player. 

The Kitchen. 

Vertumnus and Pomona. 

Two portraits. 

His own portrait. 

A Lady with a Violonoello. 
(And Jive more.) 

Portrait of a Boy with a Dog. 

Lady at the Piano. 

The Letter-writer (said to be 
thepainter^s own i>ortrait). 

The Doctor's visit. 

Tlie Duet. 

Portrait of Madame de Monte- 

Portrait of Madame de Monte- 
span and her son, the Duo de 

Lady with a Dog. 

Peasant "Woman spinning. 

The Lace-maker. 

A Lady in a white satin dress. 

Nymphs adorning a statue of 

A Princess of Orange. 

His own portrait, with his Wife 
and Daugliter. 

Mr. and Mme. van Waalwijk. 

ChUtben blowing Bubbles. 

Maternal Instruction. 

Lady at a Spinning-wheel. 

Portrait of George, Earl of 

Interior with two Ladies and a 

Vertumnus and Pomona (said 
to heportraits of St. Evremond 
and the Duchesse de Mazarin). 

A Music Party. 

A Girl feeding a Parrot. 

Bathsheba at the Bath. 

Night scene. 

A Shepherd with a Girl on his 

The Singing Lesson. 

The Lesson on the Double-bass. 

Portrait of Mary II. of England. 

Portrait of the painter. 

Family scene. 

Two portraits. 

There are several of his miniatures in the Col- 
lection at Welbeck Abbey, and the Queen of 
Holland has three. 


Hague. Mitseum. 

Loudon. JVat. Gallery, 

„ BridyewaUr Gall. 

Munich . Ga llery. 

Paris. Louvre. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 
Rotterdam. Gallery. 


NETSCHER, Constantine, the younger son of 
Caspar Netscher, was born at the Hague in 1669 
or 1670. He learned the first principles of art 
from his father, but when he had reached the age 
of fourteen, death deprived him of that instructor. 
It does not appear that he studied under any other 
mast«r, but (ontented himself by imitatins: the 
pictures left by his father. He was very exten- 
sively employed in painting portraits, and was 
encouraged by the principal personages of his time. 
Among his other patrons, were the families of 
Wassenaer and Duivenvoorden, whose portraits he 
painted, with those of the Earl and Countess of 
Portland. Descanips reports, that the earl used 
every persuasion to prevail on him to visit England, 
but he declined, on account of the infirm state of 
his health. His talents were not confined to por- 
traits, as he occasionally painted domestic subjects 
and conversations ; but in these he was very in- 
ferior to his father. He was received into the 
Society of Painters at the Hague in 1699, and was 
afterwards appointed the Director. His ' Children of 
Baron Suasso ' may be mentioned as one of his 
best portraits. His works are to he found at 
Rotterdam, St. Petersburg, Copenhagen, and in the 
La Caze collection in the Louvre. He died at the 
Hague in 1722. 

NETSCHER, Theodob, the elder son and 
scholar of Caspar Netscher, was born at Bordeaux 
in 1661. At the age of eighteen he visited Paris, 
under the patronage of Count Davaus, who had 
been ambassador from France to Holland. He 
here received great encouragement as a portrait 
painter during a residence of twenty years, which 
caused him to be known at home as ' The French- 
man.' He, however, returned at last to Holland, 
fixed his residence at the Hague, and was employed 
by the principal personages of the court. Des- 
camps says he visited England in 1715, as pay- 
master to the Dutch auxiliaries. He died at Hulst 
in 1732. A portrait by him, dated 1681, is in the 
Rotterdam Museum. In his larger pictures he 
introduced fruit, flowers, Turkey carpets, and other 
decorations, and he was particularly successful in 
representing grapes and peaches. 

NETTLESHIP, John Trivktt. This distin- 
guished painter of animals was born at Kettering, 
Feb. 11, 1841 and was the second of the sons of 
Mr. Henry John Nettlesliip, a solicitor of Kettering, 
Northamptonshire. He was educated at Durham 
school, and after devoting a brief period of his life 
to other pursuits, studied painting at Heatherley's, 
and at the Slade School. Mr. Nettleship devoted 
his attention mainly to art, and for a considerable 
period exhibited regularly at the Academy, the 
Grosvenor Gallery, and at a later period at the 
New Gallery. It was to Burlington House that he 
sent his 'Puma Devouring a Peacock,' which was, 
in most respects, his strongest and most character- 
istic work. " His many pictures of wild animals 
were remarkable for their breadth and freedom— 
his beasts were always vigorous and well drawn, 
thoroughly alive, and instinct with action. His 
conceptions were, however, better than his execu- 
tion, which was often ra.irged and suggestive, rather 
than finished." Other important works which he 
produced were 'Blind,' 'Refuge,' 'Flood,' 'A 
Death Grip,' 'Crouching to Spring,' 'A Mighty 
Hunter' (1892), 'A Big Drink' (1893), 'The Blood 
Trail' (1895), 'The Honey Stealer' (1896), and 
'La Joiede Vivre' (1895). He was the second of a 
very remarkable quartette of brothers. The eldest 

brother, Henry, was a classic;il scholar of the first 
rank, and from 1878 until his death in 1893 held 
the Corpus Professorship of Latin at Oxford. He 
was also a fine musician, and his knowledge of the 
theory and methods of the great German school of 
composers was surpassed by very few. The third 
brother, Richard Lewis, became a Fellow of Balliol 
in 1869, and was philosophy tutor in that college 
until he lost his life from exposure on Mont Blano 
in 1892. The fourth brother is the eminent oculist, 
Dr. Edward Nettleship, the only one of the four 
now surviving. John T. Nettleship devoted his 
spare time and energy to literature, and one of the 
first books on the poetry of Browning was from his 
pen. It was a piece of very thoughtful and most 
acceptable criticism. In 1890 Mr. Nettleship 
issued a new edition of his ' Robert Browning : 
Essays and Thoughts,' and eight years later he 
wrote an interesting book upon 'George Morland 
and the Evolution from him of some later 
Painters.' He was greatly attracted to the work 
of Morland by reason of the love which that artist 
had for animals and the admirable manner in which 
he depicted them. The hook was the most luminous 
essay on the work of the great English master that 
had yet appeared. Mr. Nettleship married in 1876 
the daughter of the late Mr. James Hinton the 
aural surgeon. He died in 1903, at his residence 
in Wigmore Street, aged sixty-one. 

NEUBERGHE, Christopher, a Tyrolese, who 
painted historical pictures in the Vatican and at 
the Palazzo Borghese. He was employed by the 
Empress of Russia to copy all the most beautiful 
pictures in the Vatican, and was living at Rome in 

NEUBERT, LuDWlG, German painter ; born 
Feb. 28, 1846, at Leipzig ; studied at the Weimar 
Art School, being a pupil of Schmidt and of 
Kalkreuth ; completed his artistic education in 
Italy and France ; much of bis work shows the 
influence of Bocklin ; mostly painted landscapes, 
to which he gave a certain quiet, mournful charm. 
He died at Sonnenschein-bei-Pirna, March 25, 1892. 

NEUE (Nrve). See De Neve. 

NEUFCHATEL, Colin de, called Luctdel, a 
corruption of the German translation of his family 
name, born in the lordship of Mons, Hainault, 
about 1525. He is inscribed in the register of the 
Antwerp Guild of St. Luke as apprenticed to Peter 
Coucke of Alost, He settled at Nuremberg about 
1560. He painted portraits only, which he signed 
in Latin Nicolaus de Novocastello. They are re- 
markable for the care with which every detail is 
executed, and for their refined feeling for colour. 

Althorp. Earl Spencer. Anna von Botzheim. 
Berlin. Museum. A yo>ing man ; half-length. 

London. Kat. Gallery. A young lady; half-length. 

Munich. Pinakothek. The Mathematician, John Neu- 

dorfer. 1561. 
„ ,, A man in a furred robe. 

Prague. Count Nostitz. A young lady and child. 
Vienna. Museum. A young man. 

And portraits at Darmstadt, Prague, Pesth, and 

NEURATTER, Augustin, was a German en- 
graver, who resided at Prague about the year 1715. 
He engraved a set of figures, entitled ' Status 
Poutis Pragensis,' published in that year. He 
worked from 1704 to 1749, when he died. His 
plates are found in many books, some of which it 
is said he published at his own expense. 


Woodbury Co. photo'\ 


[^National Gahery 


NEURBUTHER, Eugen Napoleon, painter, 
etcher, and book illustrator, wns born at Munich 
on January 13, 1806. He studied at the Munich 
Academy under Professor von Kobell, and later 
assisted Cornelius in his frescoes for the Glypothek 
and the Konigsbau of his native town. From 1829 
to 1839 he published his illustrations to Goethe's 
poems, winning the praise of the poet himself. In 
this and much of his other work he adopted the 
style of marginal illustration with arabesque treat- 
ment, once so unfortunately popular. In 1838 he 
produced the first illustrated edition of Herder's 
'Cid,' and besides these works issued a large 
number of separate etchings. The principal works 
illustrated with lithographs or etchings by Neu- 
reuther are as follows : ' Randzeichuungen zu 
Goethe's Balladen und Romanzen ' (1829-39) ; ' Sou- 
venir du 27-29 Juillet, 1830' (1831); ' Baierisohe 
Gebirgslieder ' ( 1 829-34) ; ' Randzeichnungen zu 
den Dichtungen der deutschen Chissiker' (1832- 
35); 'Der Nibelungen Noth' (1843); ' Gbtz von 
Berlichingen ' (1846); 'Randzeichnungen zu 
neueren Deutschen Dichtungen' (1853); and 
'Randzeichnungen zu Liedern von Uichtern der 
Gegenwart' (1860). In 1868 he was made Pro- 
fessor of the Kunstgewerbeschule at Munich. 
Many buildiugs in Munich were decorated with 
his frescoes, and among his oil paintings may be 
mentioned, 'The Dying Man' and ' Peter Cornelius 
among his Pupils,' both in the Munich Gallery. 
He died on March 23, 1882. M, H 

NEUSTATTER, Louis, a German painter, born 
at Munich, September 5, 1829 ; was a pupil of 
Peter Lutz, the engraver ; then studied at the 
Munich Academy ; also with Bernhardt, the por- 
trait painter ; travelled in 1852; worked in Paris 
under Cogniet, and visited Naples and Rome ; 
established himself in Vienna as a fashionable por- 
trait painter; in 1864 returned to Munich, where 
he devoted himself to genre subjects such as 'Heim- 
kehr vom Walde,' ' Der Findling,' ' Katzenmusik,' 
and others. He obtained the Gold Cross of Merit, 
the Bavarian Order of St. Michael, &c. He died 
at Tiitzing, on the Starnberg Lake, May 24, 1899. 
NEUVEL, Simon, (or Neuvelt,) who usually 
went by the name of Novellands, was a designer 
and engraver of Cologne towards the close of 
the 16th century. In conjunction with Franz Ho- 
genberg he etched twenty-one plates of ' The 
Fimeral Pomps of Frederick II. of Denmark,' pub- 
lished in 1592. He also etched several of the plates 
for Braun's ' Civitates Orbis Terrarum,' published 
at Cologne in 1572; as well as 'The History of 
Tobias,' in eiglit plates, and 'The Good Samaritan,' 
(with Hogenberg,) in six. His son, A^GIDIUS 
Neijvel, also engraved at Cologne in the early 
part of the 17th century ; one of his plates is a 
' Christ on the Cross.' 

NEUVILLE, Alphonse Marie de, was bom at 
Saint Omer in 1836. His family was " noble " and 
well to do in the world, and they wished him to 
embark on an official career. But he had set his 
heart on the army as a profession, and he was there- 
fore sent to the preparatory school at Lorient. The 
drawing-master at Lorient is said to have at once 
discovered his unusual talent with the pencil, and to 
have prophesied his future success. After he left 
Lorient he entered a law school in Paris, to please 
his family. There he staid three years, passing 
most of his time in picking up such knowledge of 
military life as he could. After this he finally 
made up his mind to be a painter, and after a year 

of contention with his family, his father consented 
to consult various well-known artists on his 
chances. They all discouraged tlie idea, but Nou- 
ville, nothing daunted, took a small studio and set 
to work. He made the acquaintance of Delacroix, 
then in his decline, and was very kindly treated by 
him. In 1859 he won a medal for his first exhibited 
picture, and a year later he was commissioned by 
the "Cercle Artistique," to paint them 'Garibaldi 
taking Naples.' This picture was a failure. In 
1861, however, he took a second-class medal at the 
Salon with a 'Chasseurs de la Garde,' and from 
that time onward his work attracted notice. His 
great opportunity came with the war of 1870-71. 
His weak constitution prevented him from bearing 
an important part in it, but he became its chronicler 
in paint. From the time that he exhibited his pic- 
ture, ' The Last Cartridge,' there was scarcely a 
better known artist in Europe. Neuville made a 
great many designs for woodcuts, and at his death 
was occupied with the drawings for an important 
work in illustration of the incidents of a hard-fought 
campaign. He died in Paris in 1885. Among his 
works we may name : 

Fighting in the Streets of Magenta. 1864. 
Chasseurs-a-Pied crossing the Tchernaija {Lillt 

Museum). 1868. 
Bivouac before Le Bourget (Dijon Museum). 1872. 
The Last Cartridge. 1873. 

Attack on a Barricaded House at Villersexel. 1874. 
Surprise near Metz. 1875. 
Battle of Forbach. 1877. 
Cemetery of St. Privat. 
Le Bourget. 

Defence of Rorke's Drift. 
Cuirassiers at Rezonville. 
The Storming of Tel-el-Kebir. 
Le Parlementaire [his last picture) . 

NEVE, Cornelius, an English portrait painter, 
who practised in the reign of Charles I. He 
painted a group of himself and his family, which 
is now at Petworth. He painted also Lord Buck- 
hurst and Mr. Edward Sackville in one piece in 
1637. It is at Knole. In 1664 he painted Mr. 
Ashmole in his herald's coat. 

NEVE, (or Neue,) Frans van. There were 
several painters of this name, probably father, 
son, and grandson. The first was inscribed in the 
books of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 
1630, and the third in 1691. It was therefore pro- 
bably the second who was born, according to 
Balkema, at Antwerp in 1625, and died in 1681. 
He studied the works of Rubens and Vandyck, 
and at Rome those of Raphael, and became a 
better designer and colourist than many of his 
contemporaries. There are many of his pictures 
at Antwerp. At Vienna are the portraits of the 
Archduke Leopold, Governor of the Netherlands, 
and Charles II. of Spain, with the Archduchess 
Maria Anna. In the Lichtenstein Gallery are ' The 
Judgment of Solomon ' and ' The Massacre of the 
Innocents.' There are a number of etchings signed 
' F de Neve, inv et fecit.' Probably they are by the 
second Van Neve, as the figures are well drawn, 
and in the landscapes the foliage particularly well 

NEVEU, Mathijs, (or Naiveu,) was born at 
Leyden in 1647, and was first a scholar of Abraham 
Torenvliet, but he had afterwards the advantage 
of being instructed by Gerard Don. He painted 
domestic subjects and conversations, and Hou- 
braken highly commends a picture by him at 
Amsterdam, representing the 'Works of Mercy,' 



a composition of a great number of figures in- 
geniously grouped. He died at Amsterdam in 
1721. Some of liis pictures have been imported 
into England, but for the most part they are 
confined to his own country. There is a ' St. Je- 
rome' by him in the Amsterdam Museum. 

NEVEU, Noel. A painter of this name won the 
second Grand Prix of the Paris Academy in 
1692, with an ' Abraham dismissing Hagar.' 

NEWCOME, Frederick Clive, a landscape 
painter, chiefly in water-colours, was born at 
Penketh, near Warrington, January 1(5, 1847, one of 
a family of thirteen. His real name was Frederick 
Harrison Suker, and he adopted his Thackerayan 
pseudonym to distinguish him from Lis father, 
John Suker (born at Chester, December 6, 1807, 
died April 10, 1886), and his brother, Arthur Suker, 
also painters. Another brother assumed for the 
same reason the name John Sinclair. John Suker, 
wlio only embraced art as a profession in middle 
life, came of a markedly artistic stock, Tlioinas 
Crane, the father of Mr. Walter Crane, being a 
cousin. Cuming to Liverpool early in life. New- 
come studied at the Mount Street School of Art 
under Mr. John Finnic ; afterwards he was in- 
fluenced by Whitaker and Syer. At the Liverpool 
Academy Exhibition of 1867 Nevvcome showed two 
pictures (medium not stated) of 'Cox's garden at 
Bettws ' and ' The Moorland Stream,' priced ten 
guineas each. This was not improbably bis first 
appearance as exhibitor. To the first Liverpool 
Autumn Exhibition (1871) he contributed two oils : 
' The Eagle Rock, Cumberland,' and ' Lake 
Guillion,' each £40. His next contributions were 
two drawings of Lake District subjects in 1874, 
each £40. In 1875 he appeared at the Royal 
Academy with 'The Head of a Highland Glen' 
(water-colour), which attracted the notice of Ruskin, 
who in his ' Notes on the Academy ' described it as 
the best study of torrent, including distant and 
near water, that he found in the rooms. He added : 
" The rest of this mountain scene is also carefully 
studied, and very right and good." At Liverpool 
he showed in 1875 an important oil, ' Floodgates 
of a Highland River ' (£250), and two drawings. 
Newcome exhibited occasionally at the Royal 
Academy, the last of his nine contributions being 
' A lonely Mountain Tarn ' (water-colour) in 
1887. His last picture at the Walker Art 
Gallery was in 1884. Newcome's earliest sketch- 
ing-ground was at Bettws-y-Coed, and he after- 
wards worked in Scotland, Warwickshire, Devon- 
shire, and the Lake District. The last was his 
favourite, and in 1880 he made Keswick his head- 
quarters. A number of his best works were painted 
in Arran for the Dnke of Hamilton, and have never 
been exhibited. He painted the scenery, and 
especially the waters of wild mountainous country, 
with great ability, and in a manner that secured 
him immediate and continuing recognition. Un- 
fortunately he was of a careless, pleasure-loving 
disposition, and although he was of strong physique 
and constitution, his health was prematurely 
undermined, and he died at Coniston (to which he 
had removed from Keswick) in February 1894. He 
left a widow and one daughter. E. R. D. 

NEWCOURT, Richard, an English draughtsman 
in the 17th century, who drew some of the illus- 
trations for Dugdale's ' Monasticon Anglicanum.' 

NEWPjLL, Edward John. For a short time this 
remarkable Irish spy practised as a painter, and he 
must therefore be mentioned in this volume. He 


was born at Downpatrick in 1771, was apprenticed 
to a painter and glazier, and followed the trade of 
a glass stainer for some years, both in Dublin and 
Limerick. A little later on he took up with the 
profession of miniature painting, which he practised 
with some considerable success at Belfast, but at 
length, neglecting his business for the sake of the 
United Irish movement, he lost almost all his 
clients, and had to seek a maintenance in other 
ways. As a painter in miniature his work was 
eminently creditable and his success was a deserved 
one, but as a common informer or spy, in which he 
had still further success, his conduct was despic- 
able to the last extremity. He was, however, a 
man of no shame, and in his biography which he 
issued in 1798 he gloried in his infamy. He was 
assassinated in that same year by some persons 
whom he had betrayed, and in Ireland universal 
execration is given to his name and career. 

NEWELL, Robert Hasell, the son of a Col- 
chester surgeon, born in 1778, educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, lecturer and dean of 
his College, and finallj' curate for some twenty- 
five years of Great Hormead. He died in 1852. 
He was a clever amateur artist who will be best 
remembered by the drawings which he made for 
Goldsmith's ' Deserted Village,' and which were 
engraved in aquatint by Aiken. He also illustrated 
a volume on North Wales which he had himself 
written, and the illustrations of which were 
engraved by Sutherland. 

NEWENHAM, Feederice, an English portrait 
and subject painter. He exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1844 to 1865. There is a portrait 
of H. M. Queen Victoria by him at the Junior 
United Service Club. Newenham was born in 
1807, and died in 1859. 

NEWMAN, Alfred. He was a pupil of George 
Hawkins, and drew architectural subjects on stone, 
illustrating a valuable series of works, principally 
on Gothic Architecture. Among these are ' Bever- 
ley Minster,' ' Johnson's Relics of English Archi- 
tecture,' ' W. E. Nesfield's Medieval Architecture,' 
&c. Alfred Newman died in London, 13tli March, 
1866, aged 39. 

NEWTON, Alfred P., painter in water-colours. 
He was born in 1830. In 1858 he was elected an 
associate, and in 1879 a full member of the Royal 
Society of Painters in Water-colours. He died in 
1883 at Rock Ferry. He was a prolific exhibitor 
in the rooms in Pall Mall East, sending in the last 
year of his life no less than sixteen drawings, the 
records of a visit to Greece. His work was re- 
markable for its delicacy, and for a certain poetry 
of expression rather than for its vigour. 

NEWTON, Edward, is the name of an engraver 
affixed to a portrait of William Tansur, the musi- 
cian, published with his 'Melodia Sacra.' 

NEWTON, Francis Milner, was born in Lon- 
don in 1720, and was a pupil of Marcus Tuscher. 
He confined himself to portrait painting, in which 
he was considerably employed, though by no means 
an able artist. At the foundation of the Royal 
Academy he was chosen a member, and was ap- 
pointed the first secretary to that institution, which 
situation he filled until 1788, when he resigned. 
He held for some time the oflSce of ' Muster Mas- 
ter' for England, and generally wore the Windsor 
uniform. He died in 1794, upon an estate which 
had been left him, near Taimton. 

NEWTON, Gilbert Stdart, was born at Halifax, 
in Nova Scotia, in 1795. He commenced his studies 


^Colicciton of Lady Uanbuiy 
MR. T. B. BEALE, 1824 


with Gilbert Stuart, who was his maternal uncle, 
at Boston. He made a tour in Ital}' in 1817, and 
then visited Paris, and in the course of the same 
year he came to England and entered as a student 
of the Royal Academy. He at first adopted Wat- 
teau as his model, and produced several small 
pictures much in the style of that master. His 
tirst works that attracted notice were ' The For- 
saken,' exhibited at tlie British Institution in 1821, 
and ' The Lovers' Quarrel,' engraved for the 
'Literary Souvenir' of 1826. The 'Prince of 
Spain's Visit to Catalina ' was engraved in the 
same annual in 18.31, and he received 500 guineas 
from the Duke of Bedford for the picture. His 
other works, best known to the public by the 
engravings, are ' Shylork and Jessica,' ' Yoriok and 
the Grisette,' in the National Gallery ; ' The Abbot 
Boniface,' ' Portia and Bassanio,' in the South 
Kensington Museum ; and ' Lear attended by Cor- 
delia and the Pliysician.' He also painted a small 
picture of ' Abelard in his Study,' which he de- 
posited as liis diploma work on his election as 
B.A. ; ' The Vicar of Wakefield restoring his 
Daughter to her Mother ; ' ' The Poet, reading his 
Verses to an impatient Gallant,' a piece of genuine 
humour ; ' Macheath,' and a few portraits. The 
' Macheath ' was purchased by the Marquis of 
Lansdowne for 500 guineas. His last picture, 
' Abelard ' was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1838, and it was about this time that he evinced 
signs of aberration of mind, and these were fol- 
lowed by unequivocal insanity, from which he 
recovered only four days before his death. This 
occurred on the 5th of August, 1835, at Chelsea. 
He was a member of the Royal Academy from 
1832. It is said that he was irritable and capricious ; 
but he enjoyed the steady friendship and esteem 
of Washington Irving and Charles R. Leslie. His 
pictures are weak in drawing, but many of them 
are very fine in colour. 

NEWTON, James, an engraver, resided in Lon- 
don about the year 1778. He was the son of an 
engraver, Edward Newton, of whom nothing is 
known. We have, among others, the following 
prints by him : 


Sidney Parkinson, Draughtsman on boarJ of the En- 
deavour, Capt. Cook. 

■\VilUam Newton, Clerk of the "Works at Greenwich 

Edward Sargeant, Secretary to the Protestant Associa- 
tion in 1780. 


Two Vie-ws in Italy ; after Marco Ricci. 

A Landscape, with Cattle passing a River ; after Claude. 

The Herdsman, a pastoral Landscape ; after ZuccareUi. 

NEWTON, Mary (Mrs. Charles T.). She was 
the daughter of Joseph Severn, the artist and 
H.M. Consul at Rome, and studied figure painting 
under Mr. G. Richmond, R.A. Slie was born at 
Rome in 1832, and was taught drawing by her 
father, who set her to copy old master drawings 
and celebrated engravings. She became in later 
years a pupil of Ary Scheffer, and was highly 
praised by that artist. Her earlier works are in 
crayons and water-colours, her later in oils. Her 
contributions to the Exhibitions of the Royal 
Academy include pictures named 'Chess,' dated 
1855; 'Summer' and 'Winter,' 1864; and the 
portrait of herself in 1863. She married, in 1861, 
Mr. C. T. Newton (afterwards Sir Cliarles), super- 
intendent of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the 
VOL. IV. c 

British Museum, and turned her attention to paint- 
ing from the sculptures, vases, &c., in that institu- 
tion. In that branch of art she attained remarkable 
skill. Very much of her time was given up to 
preparing drawings for the illujtrations of her 
husband's books, but some of her sketches of 
scenery in Greece, near Smyrna, and on the 
Euphrates and Tigris, were of remarkable beauty 
and excellence. She died in London in 18G6. 

NE\yTON, Richard, a caricaturist, and painter 
in miniature. His works generally represent con- 
vivial scenes. ' The Blue Devils,' 1795, drawn and 
etched by himself, is perhaps his best production. 
He died in London when only 21, the 9th December, 

NEWTON, Sir William John, Kt., was the son 
of James Newton tlie engraver, and was born in 
London in 1785. He was a successful painter in 
miniature, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1808, and subsequently. He was miniature painter 
to Queen Adelaide, and was knighted in 1837. He 
died in London the 22nd January, 1869. 


NEYTS, ^GlDios or Gillis, a Flemish painter, 
who flourished at Antwerp from about 1647, in 
which year he was named a master of the Painters' 
Guild, to 1690. He was a disciple of Lucas van 
Leyden, but next to nothing is known of his life. 
In the Dresden Gallery there are two pictures 
by him, a ' Mountain Landscape with Figures,' 
signed jE. Neyts,/. 1681 ; and a 'Mountain Land- 
scape with Ruins,' signed G- Neyts f. He has left 
the following etcldngs : 

The Wooden Bridge. 
Man and Dog. 
View of Lille. 
A Peasant's Cottage. 

Besides the above signatures he also made use of 

the annexed monogram : ViX?^ 

NIBBS, Richard Henry, was a popular painter 
of marine subjects. His tirst picture, 'Lord Mayor's 
Day,' appeared at the Academy of 1841, but next 
year he sent a sea-piece, and to that branch of 
art he afterwards remained constant. He died at 
Brighton in 1893, in the seventy-eighth year of his 

NICAISE, a French painter, who flourished at 
Cambrai in 1448. He was commissioned by the 
Duke of Burgundy to write the verses and paint 
the scenery for an ' Histoire morale sur la Danse 
Macabre,' which was performed in 1449 before the 
Ducal court. 

NICAISE, Jean, a French miniaturist, who 
worked in 1375-6, for Jeanne, Duchesse de Brabant. 

NICANOR, a painter of Paros, who flourished 
411 B.C. He is mentioned by Pliny. 

NICC0L6 Dl SEGNA, is thought to have been 
the son of Segna di Buenaventura, and is the 
author of a ' Crucifix,' signed and dated 1345, in 
the Academy of Siena. 

NICCOLET. See Nicolet. 

NICCOLINO (or Messer Niccol5). See Dell' 

NICCOLO. See Semitecolo. 

NICC0L6 DELL' ABBATE. See Dell' Ab- 

NICCOLO, Gela^io di, was an ununportant Fer- 
rarese painter of the 13th century, who imitated 
the style of Giotto. ,„ 



NICC0L6 DA VERONA. See Verona. 

NICC0L6 DA FOLIGNO. See Liberatore. 

NICC0L6 Di PIETRO. See Gerini. 

NICERON, Jean FRANgois, a French monk, who 
painted the walls of hia convent in fresco, in 1643. 

NICHOLLS, Sutton, an English engraver, re- 
sided in London early in the 18th century. He was 
chiefly employed by the booksellers, for Avhom 
he executed a considerable number of plates. His 
best prints are slight etchings of shells, and other 
trifling subjects ; when be made use of the burin, 
his productions were very poor. In 1725 he pub- 
lished ' Prospects of the most considerable Buildings 
about London ;' he also engraved the metropolitan 
views for Stowe's ' Survey.' 

NICHOLS, Joseph, an English painter, who is 
remembered by two pictures painted in 1738, ' A 
View of the Fountain in the Temple,' and ' The 
Stocks' Market in the City.' The latter is an ex- 
cellent work, and was for some time attributed to 

NICHOLSON, Alfred, an English landscape 
painter in water-oolours, born at Whitby in 1788. 
He was the son of Francis Nicholson, and passed 
his early years in the navy. Devoting himself to 
art, he went to Ireland in 1813, and spent some 
years in sketching there. He settled in London 
as a teacher of drawing about 1818. The greater 
part of 1821 and 1822 were spent by him in 
sketching tours, He died in London in 1833. 

NICHOLSON, Francis, an English landscape 
painter in water-colours, born at Pickering in 
Yorkshire in 1753. His art instruction was con- 
fined to a few lessons from an artist at Scarborough. 
He settled at Whitby in 1783, where he married, 
and practised painting animals, birds, &c., and 
taught. In 1792 he went to Knaresborough, Ripon, 
Weybridge, finally settling in London. He had 
exhibited for the fiist time at the Royal Academy 
in 1789, and in 1804 he became one of the original 
members of the Water-colour Society, where he 
exhibited till 1815. In his later years he devoted 
his time to lithography, made above 800 drawings 
on stone, and did much to advance that art. 
After he retired from the practice of his art, he 
amused himself with experiments on colours, &c. 
In 1820 he published ' 'The Practice of Drawing 
and Painting Landscape from Nature.' He died 
in London in 1844. There are several of his water- 
colour drawings at the Kensington Museum. 

NICHOLSON, Georqe, was bom in 1795, 
probably at Liverpool, where he afterwards lived. 
His mother, Mrs. Isabella Nicholson, was notable for 
skilful copies in fine needlework of noted pictures. 
Several other members of the family practised art. 
In combination with his brother Samuel (a draw- 
ing-master) George Nicholson in 1821 published 
in folio twenty-six lithographs of subjects in the 
vicinity of Liverpool. This was followed in 1824 
by ' Plas Newydd and Valle Crucis Abbey ' (4to). 
George Nicholson exhibited at the Liverpool 
Academy, from 1827 to 1834, numerous landscapa 
"compositions" in water-colour or lead pencil. 
He did nut exhibit again until 1838, when he sent 
one drawing, ' Langdale Pikes.' It may be inferred 
that he died about 1839 of phthisis, from the fact 
that his sister Isabella exhibited in 1840 a drawing, 
'Mrs. Bridgman's Boarding-House, Madiera, from 
the last sketch by the late George Nicholson.' 
Miss Nicholson, who usually painted birds or 


flowers, was an exhibitor at the Liverpool Academy 
from 1828 to 1847. Samuel, already mentioned, 
died about 1825 from the effects of a mad dog's 
bite. E.R..D. 

NICHOLSON, Isaac, an English wood engraver, 
born at Melmerby, Cumberland, in 1789. He was 
one of Bewick's apprentices, and imbibed a large 
share of his master's style. He died in 1848. 
Specimens of his work will be found in : 

Sharp's ' History of the Rebellion.' 

Flower and Grover's ' Visitation of Durham.' 1820. 

' Robinson Crusoe.' 

Watts'a * Hymns,' kc, &c. 

NICHOLSON, James, glass painter, was one of 
the four who contracted to execute eighteen 
windows for King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 
in the reign of Henry VIII. 

NICHOLSON, Peter Walker, was born at 
Cupar, Fife, in 1856. Educated at the Universities 
of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, he intended to 
follow his father's profession of law, but his tastes 
inclined strongly to art, and in 1878 he resolved 
to be a painter. He received his art training at 
the School of Art, Edinburgh ; the Slade School, 
Oxford ; and Bonnat's studio in Paris. He stayed 
for a time at Barbizon, and returned in 1882, work- 
ing on happily thereafter in Fife, Edinburgh, and 
the Highlands until his accidental death by drown- 
ing at Nigg, Cromarty, in 1885. He had genuine 
literary aptitude, as his published essay on D. G. 
Rossetti (Round Table Series) attests. In 1835 he 
began to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy 
Exhibition, and in all he exhibited fifteen pictures 
(all but one in water-colour). ' Burning Weeds,' 
' In the Orchard,' and ' In the Summer Woods,' are 
his important works — figure studies of every-day 
country life, with a tender and harmonious land- 
scape setting. An illustrated memorial volume by 
Prof. H. B. Baildon and J. M. Gray was privately 
issued at Edinburgh in 188G. J.H.W.L. 

NICHOLSON, T. (?) H., was popular as a book- 
illustrator in the first half of the present century. 
He produced a series of designs for a Shakespeare, 
and was said to be the real author of Count 
D'Orsay's statuette of Wellington. 

NICHOLSON, Wii4,iAM, a portrait painter and 
etcher, born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1784. He 
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1813. 
About 1820 he removed to Edinburgh, where he 
obtained a good practice, and had a great share in 
the foundation of the Royal Scottish Academy, of 
which he was an original member, and afterwards 
secretary. His forte was in water-colour portraits, 
and he also etched a series of portraits. He died at 
Edinburgh in 1844. There is a portrait by him 
of ' Grecian ' Williams in the Scottish National 
Gallery. In 1816 he painted the portrait of W. 
Bewick, wliicli was exhibited at the Academy. A 
series of his portraits was published with short 
Biographical Notices. 

NICIAS, an ancient Greek painter, mostly in 
encaustic, was a native of Athens, and flourished 
from 348 to 308 before Christ. He was instructed 
by Antidotus, and bis works were distinguished 
for their excellent light and shade. Praxiteles, 
whose statues he painted, declared that those 
were the best upon which Nieias had rendered as- 
sistance. He particularly insisted upon nobility in 
the choice of subjects for pictures. He painted 
women with great success, as well as dogs 1 One 
of his admired works represented ' Ulysses invok- 
ing the Shades of the Dead,' from the Odyssey. 


For this picture, Attalus, King of Pergamus, offered 
liim sixty talents, but sucli was the patriotism of 
the painter, that he refused the offer, and presented 
the picture to his country. Tlie liberality of his 
fellow-citizens had, however, enabled him tlius to 
indulge his patriotism, as he liad become extremely 
rich by the bountiful remuneration he received for 
liis works. In the time of Pliny, a picture of Bacchus, 
by Nicias, was preserved in the Temple of Concord 
at Rome. 
NICKELE. See Nikkelen. 
N ICO LAI. See Swanenbubq. 
NICOLAI, G. D. C, resided at Vienna in 1720. 
Conjointly with A. J. Prenner, he executed part of 
the plates from the pictures in the Grand Gallery at 
Vienna, which were published in four sets in folio. 
NICOLAS, Adrien, a painter of the French 
school, who was by birth a Belgian. He was 
bom at Antwerp early in the 16th century, 
but, migrating to France in his youth, was 
naturalized by Francis I. He established himself 
at Orleans, where he died at an advanced age. 

NICOLAS, Lonis, a French miniaturist of the 
13th century. He was at work in Paris in 1293. 

NICOLAS LE LoRRAiN, a painter on glass, who 

was employed in the ducal palace at Nancy in 1515. 

NICOLAS LE PiCARD, a French painter and 

native of Amiens, who was at work at Avignon, 

in the church of St. Agricol, in the year 1509. 

NICOLAUS, a native of Friuli, who was at 
work at Gemona in 1332. He painted the fagade 
of the cathedral, and a martyrdom which he 
signed thus: — Mcccxxxii. Magister Nicolaus 
PiNTOR me fecit. To him some writers have 
ascribed a large picture of the ' Presentation in 
the Temple,' in the cathedral of Vengone. 

NICOLAY, Frere, was a Jesuit, and pupil of 
Rubens. He excelled in making copies of pictures 
by Rubens and Van Dyck. He also painted small 
figures in the landscapes of Nayo. 

NICOLAY, Jan Hendrik, was bom at Leeu- 
warden in 1766. He was the son of a carriage 
painter, and for a time followed the same trade. 
He was also a great ornithologist, and delighted 
in painting dead birds. He was a frequent ex- 
hibitor at Amsterdam, and his works are much 
esteemed in Holland. He died in 1826. 

NICOLET, Benedict Alphonsiit.s, or Bernhard 
Anton, (Nicollet, Nikolet, &c.,) was a Swiss en- 
graver, born at St. Immier, in the bishopric of 
Basle, in 1740. He went, when he was young, 
to Paris, where his first performances, after study- 
ing under Poilly and Cochin, were some plates, 
engraved in conjunction with Longueil, after the 
marines of Vernet. He also engraved four of the 
plates which embellish the ' Voyage Pittoresque 
du Royaume de Naples,' by the Abbe de St. Non. 
He died in 1807. The following are esteemed his 
best prints : 

Noel Hall^, Painter to the King. 1775 ; after Cochin. 
Thomas Le Sueur, Professor of Mathematics at Eome ; 

after the same, 
Fran9ois de Paul Jacquier, Professor of Mathematics 

after the same. 

St. Apollonia ; after the picture by Giiido ; in the Or- 
leans Collection. 
Mile of Crotona ; after Giorgione ; the same. 
Susannah and the Elders ; after Deshais. 
A View of Naples ; after Vernet. 
A SUpwreck ; after the same. 


A View of the Interior of the Church of San Gennaro 
at Naples, at the moment when the miracle of St. 
Januarius occurs; after Debrets ; etched by Martini 
and Germain, and finished with the graver by Nicolet. 

NICOLUCCIO CALABRESE, a Calabrian pupil 
of Lorenzo Costa, who is said to have made an 
attack on his master with a knife, in revenge for 
a supposed caricature in one of Costa's pictures. 

NICOMACHUS, a painter of about 400 B.C., 
was a native of Thebes, and the brother of Arist- 
eides. He was instructed by his father Aristisus. 
Of all the painters of antiquity, he was the most 
remarkable for the extraordinary facihty of his 
pencil, a promptness which did not, however, 
diminish the beauty of his productions ; and Plutarch 
compares the readiness with which he worked to 
that of Homer in the composition of his verses. 
Aristratus, the tyrant of Sicyon, having engaged 
him to decorate with his paintings a monument he 
intended to consecrate to the memory of the poet 
Telestus, a particular day was fixed when it was 
expected to be finished. The period had nearly 
elapsed before the painter had commenced his 
work, when Aristratus, irritated by his apparent 
neglect, threatened to punish him severely ; but 
Nicomachus satisfactorily accomplished his under- 
taking within the limit of time. Among his prin- 
cipal works was a picture of the ' Rape of 
Proserpine,' which was for a long time preserved 
in the Capitol at Rome. At the time of his death 
he left imperfect a picture of Helen. 

NICOPHANES, a painter of the school of 
Sicyon, who is reckoned by Pliny among the most 
eminent of his time. He lived about 316 B.C., 
and studied under Pausias. He was called ' The 
Courtesan Painter,' for his models were usually 
members of the class of hetairue. 

NICOTERA, Marcantonip, a painter of the 
school of Naples, scholar of P. Crisnolo, flourished 
about 1590-1600. In the church of S. Nicola alia 
Dogana at Naples, there is a picture by him 
representing ' The Virgin and Child, St. Jerome, 
and St. Blaise.' The title-page of 0. Boldoni's 
' Epigraphica,' Augusto Perusia 1600, signed M 
NIC M. and containing the portrait of Cosmo de' 
Medici, is said to be by him. 

NIEMANN, Edmdnd John, a landscape painter 
of German extraction, bom at Islington in 1813. 
In his early years he was employed at Lloyds, 
where he remained till 1839. He then devoted 
himself to art, settling in High Wycombe, in the 
neighbourhood of which he found many subjects 
for his brush. His works first appeared at the 
Royal Academy in 1844. About 1850 he spent 
a few years in London, through his connection 
with the short-lived National Institution, of which 
he was Secretary and Trustee. He then lived in 
England Lane, near Hampstead, on a site now 
swarming with artists. He died of apoplexy at 
Brixton in 1876. A collection of forty-one of his 
works was exhibited at Nottingham Castle in 1878. 
Specimens of his art are to be seen in the Kensing- 
ton Museum and the Liverpool Gallery. 

NIEULANDT, Adriaen van, painter, was bom 
at Antwerp in 1590. It has often been said that 
the date of this painter's birth is unknown; but 
underneath a portrait of Nieulandt, published in 
1649, we find this inscription: "A very good 
painter of small figures and landscapes ; he has 
also painted many scenes from the Old Testament ; 



he is a native of Antwerp ; he began as an artist 
at Amsterdam under Pieter Isaacsz and Franz 
Badeus, and is still established in that city. He 
is fifty-nine years of age." Adriaen was possibly 
the brother of William van Nieulandt, who acquired 
a reputation as a playwright. Adriaen passed most 
of l)is life at Amsterdam, but from the picture 
mentioned below as in the Brussels Gallery, he 
seems to have revisited his native town at least 
once. The date of his death is unknown, but he 
was still living in 1657. Works : 
Brunswick. Gallery. Diana and uymphs in a land- 

„ „ Diaua and Calli.sto. 

„ „ Landscape with Hunters. 

„ StiU-life. 

Brussels. Gallery. A carnival scene at Antwerp. 

^^ „ (Skaters on the ice in the town 

ditch.) At Madrid a replica 
of this picture, with some 
variations, is ascribed to 
Denis van Alsloot. 
Copenhagen. Gallery. Entry of Christ into Jerusalem. 
„ „ Triumph of Bacchus. 

NIEULANT, John, born at Antwerp in 1560, 
painted historical pictures and landscapes, of small 
dimensions, often on marble. He died in 1628. 

NIEULANT, William van, was born at Antwerp 
in 1584. After being instructed in the firet prin- j 
ciples of art by James Savery of Courtrai, he went j 
to Rome, where he became the scholar of Paul i 
Bril, under whom he studied three years, and fur 1 
some time followed the style of that master ; but 
be afterwards adopted one more bold and ex- 
peditious. On his return he was admitted free 
master into the Guild ofSt.Luke,lG05. He married 
Anne Huystaert, and settled about 1628 at A.m- 
sterdam, where he was much employed in painting 
views of the ruins of ancient architecture in the 
vicinity of Rome, from the designs he had made 
during his residence in Italy. He was still alive 
in July 1635. The following paintings remain 
from his hand: 

Antwerp. Museum. View of the Campo Vaccine at 

Home. (Signed G. V. Nieu- 
lant. 1611.) 
Copenhagen. Museum. View of the Campo Vaccino, 

Rome. 1609. 
Vienna. Museum. View of the Campo Vaccine, 

Rome, with more than fifty 
figures. {Signed gvilmo vax 


William van Nieulant etched about sixty plates of 
landscapes and ruins, from his own designs, and 
from tliose of Paul Bril ; they are occasionally 
strengthened by the burin. Among others, we 
have the following by him : 

A Landscape, with ruins, and figures representing the 

(iood J^auKiritan ; P. Bril ine. G. Nieulant fecit. 
A Mountainous Landscape, with Tobit End the Angel ; 

the same. 
Two Views of the Sea Coast ; the same. 
Three Views of Ruins in and near Rome ; Guil. Nieu- 
A large Print representing three Bridges on the Tiber, 
and a part of the City of Rome ; in three sheets, 
inscribed, Guilielmus van Nieulant fecit et excud. 
Antverpiee. 1600. 
Nieulant also wrote several tragedies. 

NIEUWENHUIZEN, Hendrik, born at Breda 
in 1747, copied with the pen with most surprising 
accuracy several engravings and etchings after 
Callot and Rembrandt. 

NIEUWERBORCH, Pieter van, an obscure 
Flemish painter, who was inscribed in the Guild 
register at Bruges in 1480. 

NIGHTINGALE, Robert, was born in 1815, and 
devoted himself to animal painting. His first work 
appeared in the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1846, 
a portrait of ' Frolic and her Pups,' and thereafter 
he exhibited frequently at the Royal Academy and 
the Royal Institution of British Artists, his work 
being popular and well loiown. He died in 1895. 
^ ^ ^ J. H.W.L 

NIKKELEN, Isaak van, (or Nickele,) archi- 
tectural painter, was born at Haarlem in the 17th 
century. He entered the guild in that city in 
1660. In the Sis Collection, at Amsterdam, there 
is an ' Interior of a Gothic church at Haarlem ' by 
him. Other productions of liis are to be met with 
at Brunswick, Brussels, Copenhagen, St, Peters- 
burg, and Stockholm. He died at Haarlem in 1703. 

NIKKELEN, Jan van, was born at Haarlem in 
1649, and instructed by his father or elder brother 
Isaak. He did not pursue the same branch of art, 
but applied himself to the painting of landscapes 
and game, in which he followed the style of Karel 
(lu Jardin. He passed some time at the court of 
the Elector Palatine, for whom he painted several 
pictures, and was afterwards made painter at the 
court of Cassel, where he died in 1716. The Gallery 
there contains a ' Roebuck in a Forest ' by him. His 
daughter, Jakobea Nikkelen, born in 1690, was a 
pupil of Herman van der Myn, and excelled in 
painting fruit and flowers. She married Willem 
Troost, a portrait painter. The pictures she painted 
at Diisseldorf have been erroneously ascribed to 
her father. See Troost. 

NIKOLET. See Nicolet. 

NILSON, F. Christian, painter, was born at 
Augsburg in 1811. He worked chiefly at Munich, 
and is principally known by his frescoes of scenes 
from the Greek "War of Liberation," executed 
after designs by Peter von Hess, in the " Hof- 
garten ; ' ' and by the decorative pictures, from his 
own designs, on the staircase of the State Library 
at Munich. His paintings in illustration of Schil- 
ler's ' SoDg of the Bell ' have been engraved by 
Adrian Sohleich. In his later years he abandoned 
painting for drawing and engraving. Nilson died 
at Munich the 19th December, 1879. 

NILSON, JoHANN Esajas, a German miniature 
painter and engraver, was born at Augsburg in 
1721. He engraved and etched several portraits, 
and a number of figure scenes in borders, which 
are good examples of the decorative art of the 18th 
century. He became Director of the Academy at 
Augsburg, and died there in 1788. His plates 
appeared in series of two, four, six, or twelve, and 
are signed either Nilson, E. N., J. E. N., or with 
a monogram. Among others are the following; 


Clement Xlll., Pontif . Max. ; Nilson inv. et fee. 
Petrus III., Russornm Imperator. 
Catherina Alexiewna, Russornm Imperatrix. 
Stanislaus Augustus, Rex Pol. 

NIMECIUS, Balthasar Meneius, was an in- 
different engraver on wood, and is said to have 
been a native of Saxony. Professor Christ attri- 
butes to him a monogram composed of a B., an 
M., and an N. 

NIMEGEN and NIMWEGEN. See Ntmegen. 

NINFE. See Dalle Ninfe. 

KlNllAM, Henry, born at Norwich on October 
15, 1793, was the son of John Ninham, who in 
1792 drew, with the assistance of the camera 
ob.scura, the ancient gates of Norwich, then about 
to be demolished. Henry succeeded to his father's 


business as an heraldic; painter and copper-plate 
printer, and was for many years employ^ d by the 
] principal coach-builders of the city to paint 
armorial bearings on their patrons' carriages. 
The artistic tendencies of the father developed 
in the son, and he became a frequent contributor 
to the Norwich Exhibitions both in oil and water- 
colours. In the Norwich Castle Museum is a 
water-colour ' Gateway and Castle,' and in the 
possession of Jlr. James Reeve, Mr. Russell Colman 
and other Norwich collectors are several of his oil 
and water-colourpaintingsof picturesque old houses 
and churches of Norwich and its neighbourhood. 
Ninham was a good etcher, and published, without 
letterpress, ' Eight Etchings of Antiquities of 
Norfolk,' and not long before his death, 'Views 
of the Gates of Norwich,' from drawings made by 
Kirkpatrick about 1720. He also etched for private 
circulation a series of small but spirited plates of 
Norfolk views. He supplied etched illustrations 
for Blomes' ' Castle Acre ' and Grigor's ' Eastern 
Arboretum' (1847), and from 1847 till his death 
contributed largely to the illustrations of 'Norfolk 
Archaeology ' and other local antiquarian works. 
' Remnants of Antiquity in Norwich ' and ' Norwich 
Corporation Pageantry,' published by Muskett, 
were illustrated by Ninham in lithography from 
his own drawings. Ninham died at his house in 
Chapel Field, Norwich, on October 23, 1874, and 
was buried in Norwich Cemetery. M.H. 

NINO DE GUEVARA. See Guevara. 

NIPOTE, II. See Gabbieri, Loe. 

NIQUET, Claude, the elder, was born in 1770. 
He was one of the engravers employed on the 
' Galerie du Mus(5e Napoleon,' published by FilhoL 
He was still living in 1831. Among his plates are : 

The Death of St. Bruno ; after Le Sueur. 

The Triumph of Flora ; after N. Fonssin. . 

The ApoUo Belvedere. 

The Diana of the Louvre. 

The Laocoon. 

Cupid and Psyche. 

The Transfiguration ; after Raphael. 

NIQUEVERT, Alphonse Alexandre, a French 
historical and landscape painter. He was bom in 
Paris in 1776, studied under David and Regnault. 
and exhibited at the Salon from 1806 to 1824. 
He was a friend of the painter Jean Louis Cesar 
Lair, whose biography he wrote, and after whose 
death he retired into private life. There are several 
of his works in the cathedral of Metz. Niquevert 
died 2nd December, 1860. There are by him : 

Tobit and the Angel. 

The Siege of Paris by Henry IV. 

Christ before Pilate. 

NITTIS, Giuseppe de, an Italian, was bom 
near Barletta, Naples, in 1845, and was a pupil of 
Gerome, in Paris. He painted genre subjects, 
chiefly scenes in the streets of Paris and London, 
which are remarkable for their truth. His works 
are realistic in the best sense. He painted for a 
time in England, and with much success. He won 
the orthodox honours at the Salon, and was 
" decorated " in 1878. He died suddenly in 1884. 
Among his works we may name : 

Bougival. 1875. 

Paris, Place de la Concorde. 1875. 
„ „ des Pyramides. 1876. 

Naples, on the Koad to Castellamare. 1876. 

Paris, from the Pont Royal. 1877. 

Paris, Arc de Triomphe. 1878. 

London, The Victoria Embankment. 

NIVOLSTELLA, (? Johann Georq,) was a wood- 

engraver of Mayence, who was at work towards 
the end of the 16th century. He is known by a 
set of borders after the designs of B. Castelli for 
the first Genoa edition of Tasso's ' Gerusalemme 
liberata.' His son, Johann Georg, was born in 
Genoa in 1594, and was also a wood-engraver, but 
his works are inferior to those by his father. He 
produced a set of wood-cuts for an edition of the 
'.lEneid,' and another after Anton Tempesta's 
' Patriarchs.' He died at Rome in 1624. 

NIXON, James, an English miniature painter. 
He was a member of the Incorporated Society, 
studied in the Royal Academy, where he first ex- 
hibited in 1772, and was elected an Associate in 
1778. Nixon received court patronage, and held 
appointments to the Prince of Wales and the 
Duchess of York. He was born in 1741, and died 
at Tiverton in 1812. 

NIXON, John, an English engraver, who was 
born in 1706, and was still at work about 1760. 
His best prints are small portraits, in which the 
faces are entirely finished in stipple. Among 
others we have the following portraits by him : 

Frederick, Prince of Wales. 

Wilham Augustus, Duke of Cumberland ; two plates. 

Archbishop Tillotson. 

John, Earl of Granville. 

NIXON, John. The only important work which 
was done by this clever amateur artist was in 
connection with a series of views of county seats 
in England and Ireland issued by Watts the en- 
graver in 1779-86. Most of the original drawings 
for the series were the work of Nixon. He was a 
merchant in the city of London, who was born 
about 1760 and died in 1818. He amused himself 
with etching, and some clever caricatures were 
etched by him from the drawings of his friends. 
He often exhibited at the Royal Academy. 

NIXON, Robert. This artist is said to have been 
the brother of John Nixon, but by other authorities 
it is stated that he was his cousin. He was a 
clergyman and the father of a Bishop of Tasmania, 
but he is best known for the fact that it was at his 
house that Turner as a lad completed in 1793 his 
first painting in oil-colours. He exhihited frequently 
at the Royal Academy, and his name appears at 
the foot of certain drawings in Watts' book of 
county seats alluded to in the biography of John 
Nixon, but it is not even certain whether these 
drawings were executed by this man or by another 
Robert Nixon, an Irishman, who lived at about the 
same time, and who died in 1837. About this 
latter man nothing very definite is known, but 
some writers have stated that there was but one 
artist of the name of Robert Nixon, and that the 
father of the Bishop of Tasmania was the Irishman 
who died in 1837. The exhibitor at the Academy 
was bom in 1759, but he is called a Scotchman in 
contemporary documents, whereas the man alluded 
to above claimed to have been born in Cork. The 
confusion is now almost inextricable. 

NOBLE, George, a brother of Samuel Noble, 
and an engraver of some considerable merit. His 
chief works are some illustrations in Boydell's 
' Shakespeare ' and in Hume's 'History of England.' 
He also engraved many portraits. He lived at the 
latter end of the eighteenth century, but the dates 
of his birth and death are not known. 

NOBLE, John, an English painter, bom in 1797. 
He was a member of the Society of British Artists, 
and occasionally painted Italian landscapes. He 
died in 1879. 



NOBLE, Samuel. Better known aa an eminent 
Swedenborgian minister, Noble demands attention 
in these pages for his work as an engraver. He 
was born in 1779, tlie son of Edward Noble, a 
bookseller, who was the author of a small volume 
on perspective. He was apprenticed to a silver- 
plate engraver, but soon left him and went to 
another man in the same profession who did book 
work, and for him he executed several important 
arcliitectural plates. In 1798 he set up in the 
profession for himself, and from that time down to 
1819 he worked steadil}' at it and was a popular 
engraver, commanding good prices for his archi- 
tectural and landscape plates. In 1820 he became 
a Swedenborgian minister and attained great 
eminence in his new profession. In 1848 he 
became quite blind, and he died in 1853. 

NOBLE, William Bonneau, an English land- 
scape painter, was born in 1780. He taught draw- 
ing, and exhibited a few works at the Royal Academy 
in 1809-11. Having lapsed into irregular habits, 
through disappointment in love and art, he at- 
tempted suicide in 1825, and died in Somers Town 
in 1831. He left a MS. poem called, ' The Artist.' 
NOBLESSE, (or Nublet,) Franqois, according 
to Nagler was born at Cahors in 1652, and resided 
in Paris, where he died in 1730. He excelled in 
drawing with a pen, and appears to have formed 
his taste by studying the works of Callot. He 
etched a few small landscapes. 

NOBILI, Antonio, named Straforo, was an 
excellent landscape painter of Verona. He died 
young in 1G96. 

NOBILI, Durante de', an Italian painter, who 
flourished at Caidarola about 1571, and formed 
himself on the style of Michelangelo. At S. Pier 
di Castello, Ascoli, there is a ' Madonna' inscnbed 
with his name, birthplace, and the above date. 

NOBLIN, H. and L. Two indifferent engravers 
of portraits, who lived in Paris about the year 1680. 
NOCHER, J. E., a French engraver, born in 
Paris about the year 1736. He was a pupil of 
Etienne Fessard, and has engraved several book- 
ornaments, and a few portraits ; among the latter 
a ' J. J. Rousseau,' after Ramsay, dated 1766. 

NOCRET, Jean, (or Nocroit,) a French painter 
and engraver was born at Nancy in 1618, and be- 
came a scholar of Jean Leclerc, but tinished his 
studies in Italy under the direction of Poussin. 
On his return to Fiance he was much employed at 
St. Cloud and the Tuileries. He painted the por- 
traits of several of the royal family of France, 
among them the Queen of Louis XIV. as ' Mhierva.' 
He engraved several plates after his own designs ; 
the is ' L'hommage du petit St. Jean.' He 
was principal painter to the Duke of Orleans, and 
Rector of the Royal Academy of Painting and 
Sculpture in Paris, where he died in 1671. P. Syl- 
vestre engraved his portrait of himself, and Nan- 
teuil that of the Duke of Beaufort. His son Charles 
(born 1647, died 1719) painted portraits with some 
success, and was known as Nocret Jeune. 

NODDER, Frederick, a botanical painter and 
engraver who exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
and who in 1788 was created " Botanical Painter 
to the King." It is not known where or when he 
was born, but his name appears first in the 
catalogues in 1786, and he is said to have died in 
1800. He illustrated many important botanical 
books, and started a long series of volumes on 
natural history which were completed by other 
relations of his after his death. 

NODDER, R. P., an English painter of horses 
and other animals, exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1786 to 1820. He was appointed botanic 
painter to George III., and after that exhibited a 
few flower pictures. Nothing is known of his life. 
NOE, Am£d6e Charles Henri, Vicomte de. 
Tliis brilliant draughtsman and caricaturist was the 
second son of Jude-Am6d6e, Comte de Noe, a peer 
of France. The name of the family, whose nobility 
dates from the time of the Carlovingian kings, is 
that of a small island near Mirande. There Am6- 
d&e Charles was born the 20th of January, 1819. 
The date and place of his birth are thus given 
by G^rome, who no doubt knew the facts. His 
mother was an Englishwoman, and as he grew 
up he combined in his manners the most striking 
characteristics of the two nations from which he 
derived his origin ; the calmness of the English- 
man with the vivacity of the Frenchman. It was 
to this singular union of very different qualities, 
and to his ever ready wit that he owed his great 
popularity. Although his talent for design had, 
from his childhood, been known to his friends, and 
had led to his abandoning the military career for 
which he had been educated, to study under Paul 
Delaroohe, Charlet, and Lanny, it was only in 1842 
that his first "album" appeared. It is entitled 
' Calembours, betises, jeux de mots tirfe par les 
cheveux. Paris, 1842. Par Cham de N**,' and 
affords, it is said, the only instance in which the 
name of ' Cham,' that he rendered so famous, is 
combined with any hint at the de No6. Between 
that year and 1879, when he died, de No6 produced 
at least forty thousand designs, illustrating every 
phase of life in France and Algeria. They are to be 
found in so many different publications, that want 
of space will not permit us to name them separately. 
Although ' Cham ' dealt so many hard blows, they 
were always so fair and honest that de No6 was 
a man esteemed alike by friends and foe8._ One of 
the former proposed to inscribe upon his tomb, 
"Quarante ans d' esprit, et pas un de mechancete." 
His wife, the Comtesse de No^, died in 1880, six 
months after her gifted husband. 

NOEL, AcHiLLE Jules, a French landscape and 
marine painter, born at Quimper in 1815. His 
works first appeared at the Salon in 1840, and he 
was awarded a medal in 1853. He died in Paris 
in 1881. As one of his best works we may name 
' The Arrival of the Diligence at Quimper in the 
time of the Directory.' The following pictures are 
in the French public collections : 

Besan(;on. Museum. View of Brest Harbour. 1840. 
Bordeaux. Museum. Two landscapes. 
Nantes. Museum. Sea-piece. 1840. 

NOEL, Alexis Nicolas, designer, lithographer, 
and painter, was born at Clycby-la-Garenne in 
1792. He studiL'd in Paris under David, and his 
sketches in oil and water-colours represent land- 
scapes, military scenes, hunts, and architectural 
views. He published a ' Voyage Pittoresque et 
Militaire en France et en Allemagne, dessini d'apres 
nature, par A. Noel : ' most of the plates in this work 
were lithographed by himself. He died in 1848. _ 

NOEL, Alphonse L£on, a lithographer, born in 
Paris in 1807, who studied under Gros, Hersent, and 
Girodet. He began his career as a painter, but 
acquiring great skill in lithography, he devoted 
his time almost exclusively to that branch of art. 
Among a great number of works by him we may 
name a set of lithographs from the more remarkable 


pictures in the Gallery at Dresden. He reproduced 
a number of Winterhalter's portraits of royalty. 
He died in 1879. 

NOEL, Jean Alexandre, a French marine 
painter, was born in 1750, and became a scholar 
of Joseph Vernet. He visited California in 1768-70, 
and afterwards Spain and Portugal, and painted 
storms, fogs, conflagrations, moonlights, and falls 
of snow, principally in water-colours. He also made 
sketches of the combat of the French corvette. La 
Bayonnaise, with the English frigate, L'Embuscade, 
and of a French frigate passing Alexandria by night. 
He painted views of Gibraltar and Lisbon ; and was 
an industrious exhibitor till the year 1822. His 
views of Gibraltar and Cadiz have been engraved 
by F. Hegi. He was still living in 1831. 

NOEL, Peteb Paul Joseph, was bom at Waul- 
sort sur Meuse, near Dinant, in 1789, and was there 
instructed in the rudiments of art. At Antwerp 
he studied under Herreyns and Regemorter, and 
obtained several prizes there and at Brussels. In 
Paris he became a disciple of Schwebach ; and after 
visiting Rome, went to Brussels, where he for a 
time painted landscapes with animals and figures, 
and then devoted himself entirely to genre subjects. 
He died at Sosoye in 18'22. There are by him : 

A Peasant falling from a Tree, and upsetting a Basket 
of Fruit. 

Halt of Bavarian Cavalry. 

Postilion before an Ion. 

The Market-place of Amsterdam. (Amsterdam Museum.) 

Girl with grapes. (The same.) 

A Cavalry Outpost. (Brussels Museum.) 

Repose of the Shepherds. (The same.) 

NOFERI, MiCHELE, a Florentine painter, of whom 
little is known. He worked in the 17th century, 
and was a pupil of Vincenzo Dandini. 

NOGARI, Giuseppe, a Venetian painter, was 
bom in 1699, and became a scholar of J. B. Pittoni 
and Antonio Balestra. He especially devoted him- 
self to the painting of half-length figures, and from 
the numerous heads by him which have been 
brought to England, it may be concluded that he 
was an excellent portrait pamter. He was Director 
of the Academy at Venice, where he died in 1763. 
We are indebted to him for the excellent copies of 
the 'Madonna de San Sisto,' after Raphael, at Pia- 
cenza, and the ' Notte,' after Correggio, at Modena. 
T. Cattini and T. E. Hayd have engraved after him. 
Among his better works we may name : 

Dresden. Eot/al Gall. An old Man. 

„ „ The Bust of an old Woman. 

St. Peter. 
Stockholm. Gallery. An old Man. 

„ „ An old Woman with a Spindle. 

NOGARI, Paris, (called Romano,) a painter 
and engraver of Rome, who flourished during the 
pontificates of Gregory XIII., Sixtus V., and Clement 
VIII. He imitated the manner of Raffaello Motta, 
and was employed in the Loggie of the Vatican, 
and in the library and church of the Lateran. He 
also painted several pictures for other churches, 
both in oil and fresco. In the church of the 
Madonna de Monti is a picture by this master 
representing our ' Saviour bearing his Cross ; ' in 
San Spirito in Sassia, the ' Circumcision ; ' and in 
the Trinit4 de' Monti, the ' Taking down from the 
Cross.' In later years he painted in miniature and 
practised engraving ; his best plate is considered to 
be ' The Battle of King Ramirez with the Moors ' 
(1588). He died at Rome in 1596. 

NOLIN. See Nollin. 

NOLLEKENS, Joseph Francis, (called Old 
Nollekens,) was born at Antwerp in 1702. He 
came to England in 1733, and was for solto time 
a scholar of Pieter Tillemans. He painted land- 
scapes and domestic subjects, and was much em- 
ployed in copying the works of Watteau, and the 
architectural views of Giovanni Paolo Pannini. 
Lord Cobhara employed him in several ornamental 
works at Stowe ; and he was also patronized by 
the Earl of Tilney. Nollekens died in London in 
1748. He was the father of the sculptor, Joseph 
Nollekens. His subjects, like Watteau's, were 
often musical and fashionable conversations al 
fresco, but they are not imitations of that master: 
the scene is generally the gardens at Wanstead, 
the seat of Lord Tilney. There is a painting at 
Windsor by him containing portraits of Frederick 
Prince of Wales and his sisters. 

NOLLET, Dominique, was born at Bruges in 
1640, and was a scholar of Frans van der Meulen 
in Paris. He painted history, but was more dis- 
tinguished for his landscapes, battles, and sieges. 
His talents recommended him to the patronage of 
.Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, who sent him to ac- 
company the Duchess to Venice ; the governor of 
the Low Countries also appointed him his principal 
painter. He was made a member of the Society of 
Painters at Bruges in 1687. In the church of the 
Carmelites at Bruges is an altar-piece representing 
' St, Louis embarking for the Holy Land.' There 
are several of his battle-pieces and landscapes in 
private collections in Belgium. He died in Paris in 
1736. His pictures on close inspection have more 
the appearance of crude sketches than finished 
works, but viewed at a proper distance, the colours 
become warm, and the arrangement harmonious. 

NOLLI, Carlo, painter and engraver, was a 
native of Como, a son of Giovanni Battista Nolli 
the architect, and a scholar of Agostino Masucci 
and Corradi. He engraved after Guercino, Prima- 
ticcio, Parmigianino, and others. He was em- 
ployed by command of the King of Naples, on the 
' .\ntichiti d'Ercolano ' (Napoli, 1757-62), and en- 
L^raved also for Hamilton's works on Greek, Etrus- 
I an, and Roman Antiquities. He died at Naples 
in 1770. 

NOLLI, Giovanni Battista, the father of 
I'arlo Nolli, was a native of Italy, and flourished 
about the year 1755. He was an architect by pro- 
fession, but he engraved nineteen sheets of plans 
and views of buildings in Rome in 1748. 

NOLLIN, (or Nolin,) J. B., a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1657. He studied in Paris 
under N. de Poilly, and in Italy, where he executed 
some plates after Annibale Carracci, Nicholas 
Poussin, and other masters. He engraved several 
of the prints in a work entitled, ' Vues, plans, 
coupes et ^l^vations de Versailles.' He died in 1725. 

NOLPE, PlETER, a Dutch painter and engraver, 
was born at the Hague about 1601. Of his works 
as a painter little is known apparently beyond 
a 'Dutch Landscape' in the Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; but we have several prints by him. They 
are usually begun with the point, and finished 
with the burin. His best productions are his 
landscapes. He usually signed his prints with 
his name at length, joining the initials P. and 
iV. together, and in a few instances with this 

monogram ^J. or J^''., only. He is said to 

have engraved as early as 1616, and as late as 
1670. The following are esteemed his best works : 



The Portrait of Johann Adler Salvius, Swedish Minister 

A set of eight Cavaliers ; etched. 
A set of eighteen etchings of Beggurs ; in the style of 

P. Quast. 
St. Peter delivered from prison ; after J, V. I'ucht. 
Judah and Tamar, in a large landscape ; from his 

own design. The same figures were afterwards 

introduced into another landscape, of a smaller 

The Broken Dyke ; from his own design (a masterpiece). 
Daniel in the Den of Lions ; after Blancert. 
An Allegorical Print on the Marriage of the Prince of 

Orange with the Princess Mary of England. 
A set of six Landscapes ; after Adriaan van Nieidant. 
A set of six Landscapes ; after R. Rogman. 
Eight Months of the Year ; Pieur ^'olp'' fee. et exc. 
The Prophet Elijah and the T^idow of Sarepta. 
St. Paul, the Hermit, fed by an Eagle in the Desert ; 

after Pieter Potter. 
The Cavalcade of 1838 at Amsterdam, on the entry of 

Mary de' Medici into that city ; after C. ilolyn ; a 

large print in six sheets. 
A Landscape in the style of Van Goyen. 1616. 
Six plates of Costumes ; a;fter P. Quast. 
Six plates on the Entry of the Prince of Orange ; after 

J. Wildens. 
Ten plates on the Entry of Maria de' Medici; after 

Moijart de Jonghe. 1639. 
Thirty plates on the funeral of Prince Frederic Henry ; 

after P. Post. 1651. 

NON, DoM. Viv. de. See Denon. 

NON, J. C. R. DE Saint. See Saint Non. 

NONOTTE, (or Nodnotte,) Donat. This painter 
was born at Besan^on in 1707, and became a 
favourite pupil of Lemoine, who employed him on 
many of his works, and whose biography he 
eventually wrote. The death of his protector, the 
Duke d'Antin, prevented his accomplishing a 
long-desired journey to Rome. He was made 
painter to the King, and a member of the Academy 
of Paris in 1741. In 1754 he was appointed painter 
to the city of Lyons, where he established a free 
school of design, tlie model of all subsequent 
institutions of the kind in France. He published a 
' Complete Treatise on Painting,' in four parts, and 
was in a literary capacity Associate of the Academies 
of Rouen and Lyons. He died at the latter city 
in 1785. His historical pictures are of the style 
of his age, displaying an abuse of allegory. One 
of them is the 'Taking of Besan^on by the 
Protestants.' But after the earlier portion of his 
career, he abandoned this branch of art for por- 
traiture. Among his portraits we may name: 

Eobert le Lorrain, sculptor {engraved ly J. A". 

Gentil Bernard, {engraved by DauUe). 

NONZIO, (or Annunzio,) an Italian miniaturist, 
was born at Trent, but lived and worked at Milan 
in the last half of the 16th century. His daughter, 
Fede Galizia {q.v.), was born at Trent in 1575. 

NOOMS, Renieb, (or Remigius,) conimonly 
called Zeeman, was born at Amsterdam about 161'2 
Very little is known of his life. It is supposed 
that at one time he worked with the elder Willein 
van de Velde. He resided for a long time in 
Berlin, where he was painter to the Elector 
Frederick William ; he also visited England and 
France. On etchings published by him in Amster- 
dam, we find the dates 1652, 1654, and 1656 ; on 
others published in Paris, 1650 and 1652. He 
also etched three plates of the naval fights 
between the English, French, and Dutch, which 
took place in 1673. The paintings of Nooms 
betray the influence chiefly of Backliuysen and 

Claude. The date of his death is not known, but 
it must have been later than 1673. Isaak and 
Enoch Zeeman, who were working in London about 
the middle of the 18th century, were most likely 
related to Nooms. Paul Zeeman was the son of 
Enoch. (See Zeeman.) Among the better works of 
Nooms we may nanje : 

Amsterdam. JJuseuin. Sea-fight near Leghorn, 14th 
March, 1653. 
„ „ "View of Amsterdam. 

Berlin. Museum. A Quiet Sea. 

„ „ Seashore with Boats. 

Paris. Loitvre, View of the old Louvre, from 

the South bank of the Seine 
(rt masterpiece ; etched by 
Vienna. Belvedere. A Sea-piece. 

The following is a list of his plates: 

Two plates of Block-houses. 

Landscape with Canal and Boats. 

The Dutch Herring Fleet. 

A set of eight plates of Shipping ; designed and en- 
graved by Remy Zeeman. 1632. 

A set of four Views in Amsterdam. 1636. 

A set of four Sea-ports in Holland ; published at 
Amsterdam in 1656. 

The Four Elements ; in four plates ; Reinier Seem(in,fec. 

Two Views in Puri.s, one of the Faubourg St. Marceau, 
the other of the Gate of St. Bernard. 

A set of twelve Views of Shipping ; published in 
London by Ar Tooker. 

NOORDE, CoENELis VAN, painter and engraver, 
was bom at Haarlem in 1731. He was the scholar 
successively of F. Decker and F. H. Jalgersma, 
and afterwards became master of the Haarlem 
school of design. He died in 1795. Among his 
works may be named : 

His own portrait, in chalk and Indian ink. 
,, „ a woodcut. 

Portrait of Frans Hals, a mezzotint. 

A View of Haarlem, engraving after J. Van Eych. 

A Landscape with Cow (etching). 
Van Noorde signed himself C. V. N. 

NOORDERWIEL, Hendrik, a painter on glass, 
who was one of the founders of the ' Pictura' fra- 
ternity at the Hague in 1656. 

NOORDT, Jan van, was a painter of the 17th 
century, who produced emblematical subjects, 
bathing nymphs, and also portraits, some of 
which have been engraved. Strutt cites him 
as an engraver, on account of an etching dated 
1645, of a ' Landscape with Ruins,' probably after 
P. Lastmann. Bartsch mentions another after P. 
van Laer ; and the portrait of Prince Baltazar 
Carlos of Spain, inscribed, ' Jitan de Noort fecit,' 
is probably by him. 

NOORT, Adam van, painter, was born at 
Antwerp in 1557. He was the son of Lambert 
van Noort, and shares with Otho Van Veen and 
others the Iionour of guiding the youthful steps of 
Rubens. The facts of his life are obscure. He has 
sometimes been represented as a brutalized victim 
of dissipation, but considerable doubt hangs about 
many of the traditions to that effect. He is said 
to be the author of the 'Tribute of St. Peter,' 
in the church of St. James at Antwerp, in which 
case he must have had a genius for colour only 
inferior to that of Rubens. Van Noort's daughter 
became the wife of Jordaens, who was his pupil. 
Pictures under the name of Van Noort are very 
rare, although in his long life he must have 
produced a great number. They pass, no doubt, 
as a rule, under the names of his various pupils. 
Van Noort died at Antwerp in 1641. Among his 
works we may name : 


Brussels. Gallery. Christ blessing the Children. 

Ghent. S. Michael's \ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^j ^^^ Lame Man. 

LhuTcn. ) 

A ' Standard-bearer ' at Munich, ascribed to 
Hendrik Goltzius, is perhaps by Adam van Noort. 

NOORT, Arthus van, a painttr on glass, who 
flourished at Nymegiien in the 16th century. 

NOORT, lAMBEET VAN, historical painter, was 
born at Aniersfort about 1620, and became a 
master of the guild at Antwerp in 1547. He was 
the father of Adam van Noort. He died iu 1571. 
In the Antwerp Museum there is a 'Nativity' by 
him, signed Lambertus a Noort, Inveii : pingehat 
Ao. 1555, as well as fifteen other pictures. At 
Brussels the Museum possesses an ' Adoration 
of the Shepherds,' and a ' Descent from the Cross.' 
Lambert designed the windows in St. John's 
Church at Gouda, and himself painted two of 
them, which were dated 1551 and 1559. He also 
practised with success as an architect. 

NOORT, PiETER VAN, a little known Dutch 
painter of the 17th century, who painted fish and 

NOORTIG, Jan, (or NooRTBTS,) a native of Fries- 
land, and painter of genre subjects in the manner 
of Bega. According to Kramm he was an amateur. 
He flourished about 1660. 

NOOTT, Wemmer, a native of Arnhem, who 
flourished between 1670 and 1750. He lived chiefly 
at Emmerik, where he painted perspectives, and 
excelled in the imitation of sculptured surfaces. 

NOP, Gerrit, an obscure painter, who was 
born at Haarlem late in the 16th century. He 
lived for a time in Germany and Italy, where he 
painted history and portraits. He died in 1622. 

NORBERT, Pater. See Baumgaetner, Joh. 

a painter and etcher, was born at Misy, near Sens, 
in Burgundy, in 1745. He was a pupil of 
Casanova. In 1774 lie visited Poland, and founded 
a school for painters at Warsaw ; he also became 
court-painter to King Stanislaus, by whom he was 
subsequently knighted. He returned to France 
in 1804, and died in 1830. His most important 
works, seventy-seven etchings of scenes from the 
Bible, heads, and landscapes, are in the style of 
Rembrandt. He signed his plates with the initials 
N ; N. /.; N. 1776. W. (that is Warsowiae), or 
a monogram. 

Louis Guilladme, the son of Jean-Pierre and an 
historical painter, was born at Warsaw in 1796. 
Taken to Paris when young, he, studied under 
Regnault and Blondel, and iu the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. In 1823 he obtained the second, and in 
1825 the first, grand jirix ; which enabled him to 
pursue his studies in Rome. He returned to France 
in 1882. There are several of his works in the 
church of St. Louis en I'IsIe, in Paris, and the 
Orleans Museum possesses his 'Death of Ugolino.' 

NORBURY, R., painter and sculptor, was born 
at Macclesfield in 1815. He held successively the 
posts of assistant master to tlie Schools of Design 
at Somerset House and at Liverpool. After his 
resignation of the latter appointment he was 
elected President of the Liverpool Water-Colour 
Society. He was also a member of the Liverpool 
and Cambrian Academies. He painted a large 
number of portraits, and was also much employed 
in decorative design and in book illustration, prac- 
tising at Liverpool, but frequently exhibiting in 
London. He died April 25, 1886. 

NORCINO (or Norcini). See Parasole. 

NORDEN, Frederick Ludwig, a Danish naval 
captain and draughtsman, was born at Gliickstadt 
in 1708. He travelled for Christian VI. in Egypt 
and Nubia, and coming to England, he published 
with his illustrations, 'Travels in Egypt and 
Nubia,' and 'Ruins at Thebes' (1741). He died 
in 1742. There is another edition in French 
(Copenhagen, 1755), in which the plates are en- 
graved by M. Tycher. 

NORDEN, John, an English artist, was an 
eminent engraver of topographical subjects. An- 
thony Wood conjectures, with great probability, 
that he was the author of several tracts which he 
enumerates, and thinks he was born in Wiltshire, 
about the year 1546. He was a commoner of 
Hart Hall, Oxford, in 1564, and took the degree of 
Master of Arts in 1573. He resided at Hendon, in 
Middlesex, was patronized bj- Lord Burleigh, and 
his son, Robert, Earl of Salisbury, and was sur- 
veyor of the King's lands in 1614. He died about 
1626. His principal work, as an engraver, was his 
' Speculum Britanniae,' or an Historical and Topo- 
graphical Description of Middlesex and Hertford- 
shire, with a frontispiece and maps. He also 
engraved a 'View of London' in 1609, with a 
representation of the Lord Mayor's Show ; and a 
series of costumes. 

NORDENBERG, Bengt, Swedish painter; born 
April 22, 1822, at Kompikalla (Sweden) ; for seven 
years he followed the trade of carpenter, and then 
began to study art at the Stockholm Academy, 
subsequently going to Diisseldorf, where he was a 
pupil of Th. Hilclebrandt ; painted genre episodes 
of Swedish peasant life ; in 1853 went to Dale- 
carlia; in 1857 was in Paris, visiting Italy in 
1859. His works include: 'Holy Coniiiiunion in 
the Village Church,' ' A Golden Wedding,' and 
' A Forest Fire.' He obtained a medal at Lyons 
in 1866 ; medals at Stockholm in 1845, 1847, and 
1848 : an honourable mention at the Paris Salon 
in 1864 ; also at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 ; 
and a gold medal in London 1879. He died in 
June 1903. 

NORGATE, Edward, "limner," was the son 
of Dr. Robert Norgate, master of Bennet College, 
Cambridge, where he was born. He was brought 
up by Nicholas Felton, Bishop of Ely, who married 
his mother. He showed early a strong inclination 
for Heraldry and Illumination. As he became cot 
only one of the best artists in the latter branch of 
art, but also an excellent judge of pictures by the 
old masters, he was sent to Italy by the Earl of 
Arundel to make purchases for him in that country. 
Fuller speaks of hiin as the best illuminator of his 
time, and he became Windsor Herald and Clerk 
of the Signet. Fuller says that he died at the 
Herald's OflBce the 23rd December, 1650, but Dal- 
laway says that his 'Miniature, or the Art of Lim- 
ning,' in his own hand, is dated 1654. Among his 
best works were a letter from James I. to the 
'Sophy 'of Persia, and the letters-patent appointing 
the Earl of Stirling Governor of Nova Scotia. The 
latter was found in the last century, and was at 
first attriliited to Van Dyck. 

NORIEGA, Pedro, a Spanish historical painter 
of little note, who was living at Madrid in 1668. 

NORMAND, Charles Pierre Joseph, designer, 
engraver, and architect, was born at Goyencourt 
(Lourme) in 1765. He was instructed by M. 
Thierry and Gizors, and in 1792 obtained a prize 
and went to Rome, where he pursued his studies. 



He exhibited in the Louvre in 1800 and 1802, 
published a number of works with plates, and pre- 
pared others for the 'Annales du Mus^e,' ' Les 
vies des peintres, par Landon,' and ' Nouveau 
parallfele des ordres d'architecture des Grecs, des 
Komaine, et des auteurs modernes ' (1819). Among 
his other plates may be mentioned : 

The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Eaphatl. 

The CeUiiig of the Sistine Chapel ; after Michelanyelo. 

He died in Paris in 1840. 

NORMA ND, Loujs Maiue, son of the above, was 
taught design by Lafitte, and engrnving by his 
father. He was born in Paris in 1789. Besides 
the plates for a large number of books, he engraved 
the ' Marriage at Caua,' after Paul Veronese, and 
other important works. 

NORKIS, Charles, an eccentric well-to-do 
amateur artist who resided in Pembrokeshire and 
whose claim to fame rests upon his drawings of 
the architectural antiquities of Wales, and especi- 
ally upon those of the Cathedra! of St. David's, 
which he published in 1811. He was also a 
talented etcher, and did many delightful plates 
illustrating Tenby and the castles, such as Manor- 
bere and Llamphey, in its neighbourhood. He 
was born in London in 1779, early left an orphan 
with a considerable estate, was an officer in the 
army for a few years, but on his marriage resigned 
his position and gave up his time to art and to 
the study of architecture. He died at Tenby in 

NORSINI (or Norsino). See Parasole. 

NORTH, Marianne, the sister of Mrs. John 
Addington Symonds, and perhaps one of the best 
and most accurate flower painters who ever lived, 
was born at Hastings in 1830, and died in 
Gloucestershire in 1890. She was the daughter 
of Frederick North, member for Hastings, who in 
1865 retired from Parliament, and she travelled 
with him through many lands, and from him 
acquired her passionate love of flowers. She 
painted them in every quarter of the globe, 
exploring the forests of Java and Borneo, Australia 
and Chili, in search of new blossoms which she 
could depict with loving skill. Her whole collec- 
tion she presented to Kew, adding to her generosity 
the gift of a gallery in which they might be 
exhibited, and arranaing them herself with the 
utmost patience and diligence. She is believed to 
have been offered a peerage by Queen Victoria, 
who very highly esteemed her, and who was most 
grateful for her generosity to the nation and her 
services to botanical science. She was a woman 
of marvellous charm, great refinement, and con- 
siderable learning, but united with the pleasant 
and even affectionate manner in which she treated 
her friends a very stiff and formal if not stilted 
demeanour to others. Her work cannot be too 
highly praised for its perfect accuracy, and students 
of botanical science owe very much to her profound 
knowledge and her assiduous industry and patience. 
She ruined her own health by her travels in 
tropical regions in search of flowers, and a tropical 
fever which siie first of all obtained in Borneo 
was the eventual cause of her decease. Her auto- 
biography, edited by her sister, Mrs. J. A. Symonds, 
appeared in 1893 in two vols., called ' Recollections 
of a Happy Life,' and in the same year was issued 
'Further Recollections of a Happy Life,' being 
selections from her journal, edited by the same 
sister. G. C. \V, 

NORTHCOTE, James, an English historical and 


portrait painter, was born at Plymouth in 1746. 
His father was a watchmaker, and he for some 
time assisted in the same business, but with his 
whole mind bent upon being a painter. The fame 
of his countryman, Joshua Reynolds, inflamed his 
desire ; and the kind view that some of his towns- 
men took of his attempts in art, and their friend- 
ship or acquaintance with the President, introduced 
Northcote to his notice. In liis 25tli year he was 
permitted to enter the studio of Sir Joshua, and he 
remained in the employment of that master for 
about five years. In 1777 he went to Rome, to 
see, as his biographer says, " if fame reported truly 
of the prime works of the chiefs of the calling." The 
journey at least enabled him to talk of Michelangelo, 
Raphael, and Titian. This he never ceased doing, 
and his productions served as commentaries. North- 
cote returned to England in 1780, and applied him- 
self to the long life's work which did not come 
to an end till more than fifty years had passed. 
Among his best pictures may be named, 'The 
Death of Wat Tyler' (City of London Gallery) ; 
' The Murder of the Children in the Tower ; ' ' The 
Entry of Bolingbroko and Richard 11. ;' ' Hubert 
and Arthur ;' ' The Earl of Argyll asleep ; ' ' Lady 
Jane Grey ;' 'Prospero and Miranda ;' ' A Vulture 
and Snake ; ' 'A Lion Hunt,' and some others of 
the like kind, in which he showed a considerable gift 
for animal painting. His portraits are numerous ; 
but whatever veneration he felt for Titian, or for 
his master Sir Joshua, he failed to emulate their 
works. In 1796 he published a series of ten en- 
gravings from his own pictures, the subject being 
the contrasted careers of 'A Diligent' and 'A 
Dissipated Maidservant,' a sort of female version 
of Hogarth's ' Idle and Industrious Apprentice.' 
It is a very feeble performance. There is a por- 
trait of Northcote, by himself, in the National 
Portrait Gallery, and another in the gallery of 
Haarlem. In the former collection there are also 
portraits by him of Jenner and Lord Exmouth. 
Northcote was elected A.R.A. in 1786 ; R.A. in 
1787 ; and died in 1831. 

Northcote exercised the pen as well as the pencil. 
His earliest known literary productions are some 
papers published in ' The Artist,' entitled ' Origin- 
ality of Painting;' 'Imitators and Collectors;' 
' A Letter from a discontented Genius ; ' 'Character 
of John Opie;' 'Second Letttr of a discontented 
Genius ; ' 'On the Imitation of the Stage in Paint- 
ing ; ' 'The History of the Slighted Beauty;' 'The 
Dream of a Painter, an allegory.' His most im- 
portant performances as a writer, are his ' Life of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds,' containing anecdotes of many 
distinguished personages, and a brief analysis ; to 
which are added, ' Varieties on Art,' published in 
1813, in quarto. A supplement appeared in 1815; 
and an octavo edition in 1819, with considerable 
additions. In 1828 he published an octavo volume 
of ' One hundred Fables,' original and selected, 
with engravings on wood from his own designs. In 
1830 appeared the ' Life of Titian ; ' and, after his 
decease, a second volume of Fables, published under 
the title of 'The Artists' Book of Fables,' and 
illustrated with numerous woodcuts, executed 
under the direction of Har\'ey. The curious 
process Northcote made use of in designing these 
cuts has been often described. He clipped figures 
of animals out of all kinds of ixjoks, papers, &c., 
and selecting such as fitted the fable to be embel- 
lished, pasted them down to paper in the required 
places, filling in backgrounds with his pencil. The 


designs thus made were freely interpreted by the 

NORTHEN, Adolf, battle painter, was born at 
Miinden in Hanover, in 1828, studied from 1847 
to 1851 at the Academy of Diisseldorf. In liis 
first productions he painted scenes from the wars 
of Napoleon I., and brought himself especially into 
notice by his ' Battle of Waterloo' (1855), which 
is in possession of the King of Hanover, and at a 
later date he executed several lively and charac- 
teristic sketches from the Franco-German war. 
He died at Dusseldorf in 1876. The following are 
some of his best pictures : 

Guerillas with captured French Soldiers. 1852. 

The Skirmish on the Gohrde. Hildesheim 3Ius. 1852. 

Napoleon's Ketreat from Russia. 

Episode at Gravelotte. 

The Prussian Guards at Konigratz. 

Attack of the 16th UhUm Regiment, near Vionville, 

NORTON, Christqpher, an English engraver in 
the latter half of the 18th century. He studied in 
the St. Martin's Lane Academy, and at Rome in 
1769, gaining a Society of Arts' premium the same 
year. There are plates by him after Pillement, 
Vaudevelde, Canot, &c. 

NOSADELLA. See Brizzi, Franc. 

NOTER. See De Noter. 

NOTER, AoGUSTE Herman de, the son of P. F. 
Noter, was born at Ghent in 1806. He painted 
landscapes and scenery in winter in the style of 
the Wouvermans. He died in 1839. 

NOTER, Pierre FRANgois de, was born at Wal- 
hem, near Malines. He was the son of an architect 
and a pupil of Van Gheel the sculptor, but in 1811 
devoted himself entirely to painting, in which he 
rose to some eminence. His pictures represent 
landscapes, shipping, and above all streets and 
the interiors of churches. In 1824 he was a 
member of the Academy of Amsterdam, and Pro- 
fessor in that of Ghent. In most of the Museums 
of Belgium, Holland, and the north of France his 
pictures are to be found. He died in 1842. 

NOTERMANN, Emanuel, animal and genre 
painter, was born at Oudenarde in 1808, and 
studied in the Academy at Ghent, but in 1830 he 
became a scholar of Maes-Canini, and finished his 
art education under Peter Kremer. Ilis paintings 
represent domestic scenes by day- and candle-light, 
consecrations of churches, carnivals, &c. He died in 
1863. His best known works are : ' A Spaniel,' and 
' A Poacher bewailing the Loss of his Dog.' Among 
his etchings, which are rare, ' The Death of Anton 
Van Dyck,' after P. Kremer, is the best. 

NOTHNAGEL, Johann Andreas Benjamin, a 
German painter and engraver, was born at Buch, 
in the principality of Saxe-Coburg, in 1729. He 
resided at Franl;fort, and worked at the manufacture 
of wall-papers under Lentzner, after whose death 
he married his widow and continued the business 
himself. He acquired considerable reputation as a 
painter of landscapes with merry-makings, in the 
style of Teniers ; but he is now more known as an 
engraver. His best productions are a immber of 
heads and busts, in which he has imitated the style 
of Rembrandt with great success. His plates 
amount to sixty-five, marked with N. and a nail, 
or B.N.F. He died at Frankfort in 1804. 

NOTTI, Ghesardo dalle. See Honthorst. 

NOUAILHIER, (or Notlier,) was the name of 
a family of enamel painters of Limoges from the 
16th to the 19th century: — Godly, or Colin, was 
burgomaster from ^513-31. Jacques was born in 

1605, and flourished under Louis XIV. ; he painted 
the 'Adoration of the Magi,' after Van Aken, in 
the Louvre at Paris. Pierre, was born in 1657, 
and flourished 1686—1717. jEAN-BArriSTE was 
born in 1752, and died in 1804. A collection of 
the works of these artists is in possession of M. de 
Lille-Loture at Orleans. 

NOVA, Pecino db. There were several artists 
at Bergamo of this name. Tassi quotes documents 
which prove that Pecino and Piero de Nova were 
two diiierent men. The former was the son of 
Alber-io de Nova, a painter. Pecino worked at 
intervals at Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, from 
1363 to 1381. In 1375 Piero, who was probably the 
brother of Pecino, Pecino, and Michele de Roncho, 
a Milanese, were all working in conjunction at the 
above church. Fragments of frescoes by one of 
the Novas can still be seen in the belfry, together 
with a 'Virgin and Saints,' 'Tlie Epiphany,' and 
other Scripture subjects. On the front of a house 
in the Contrada Sant' Andrea, Bergamo, some re- 
mains of frescoes by one of the Novas can also be 
seen. We may also name two altar-pieces at 
Bergamo : 

Virgin and Child, with SS. Catharine, Francis, and 

Virgin and Child, with SS. Bartholomew and Agatha. 

Tliere are other works of theirs in the Locchis 
Carrara Gallery. 

Pecino de Nova was still working at Bergamo 
in 1399, and was buried there 6th June, 1403 

NOVARRA. See Ricci. 

NOVELIERS, Pierre. In 1605, a painter of this 
name was appointed conservator of the pictures in 
the p daces of Brussels and Tervueren. 

NOVELIERS, Salomon, son of the last-named. 
In 1618 he succeeded to the office of his father, and 
was also named painter to the court. In 1613 he 
was commissioned to catalogue the pictures left by 
Charles de Croy, Due dArschot. A certain David 
Noveliers is supposed to have been a second son 
of Pierre. 

NOVELLANUS. See Neuvel. 


NOVELLI, Francesco, the elder, an engraver, 
was born at Venice in 1764. After learning the 
principles of his art under his father, he attended 
the Academy of his native place for some time, 
and then went to Rome. In conjunction with 
Cumauo he etched the works of Rembrandt with 
such skill that his copies have been often mistaken 
for the originals ; he also imitated the designs 
of Mantegna with success, and engraved that 
artist's 'Madonna della Vittoria' (about 1800), 
The date of his death is not recorded. He was a 
member of several academies. He signed his prints 
with a monogram in a circle. His son of the same 
name was also an engraver. 

NOVELLI, PiETRO, painter and engraver, called, 
from his birthplace, Monrealese, or Morrealese, 
was born in 1603. He resided for a long time in 
Palermo, but in later life, it is said, he visited 
Rome, which city, as well as the former, jiossesses 
several pictures from his hand. He was living up 
to 1660. His masterpiece is the ' Marriage at 
Cana,' in the refectory of the Benedictines at Mon- 
reale. Novelli's style is a little like tliat of Uara- 
vaggio. His life was published by Agostino Gallo 
(Palermo: 1829). 

NOVELLO, Giovanni Battista, a painter of 
Castelfranco, and pupil of the younger Palma. In 



the neighbourhood of Castelfranco are some good 
altar-pieces by him. He was the master of Pietro 
Domini. He was born in 1578, and died in 1652. 

NOWER, Fean'cis, a lierald painter of the 
seventeenth century, who died with his children 
and servants in 1670 in a fire in Bartholomew 
Lane, London. He was the editor of the fourth 
edition of Guillim's ' Display of Heraldry,' and he 
supplied all the new illustrations for the work. 
He did many coats-of-arms for the City Companies, 
and his name constantly appears in their books of 
accounts. He also painted banners for the City 
regiments, and for two at least of the City Guilds. 

NOYLIEK. See Nouailher. 

NUERI, AvANzio, painter, was born at Castello, 
near Rome, studied under Pomerancio, and was 
employed by Sixtus V. His works are to be found 
in the churches of Rome. He was born in 1562, 
and died in 1629. 

NUIJEN, WiJNAND Jan Joseph, (Nuyen,) painter 
and designer, a scholar of A. Schelfhont, was born 
iu 1813, and died at the Hague in 1839. In his 
sixteenth year he exhibited a landscape at Ghent, 
for which he received a prize ; some time after he 
obtained a first prize from the Felix Meritis society 
at Amsterdam. In 1838 a winter scene, which he 
exhibited at Ghent, attracted attention, and led to 
his nomination as a member of the Academy of the 
Fine Arts at the Hague. He was also a member 
of that of Antwerp and of the Netherlands Insti- 
tute. His premature death prevented the fall 
development of his talents. There is a landscape 
with ruins by him in the Amsterdam Museum, 
which is considered one of his finest works. 

NULCK, L., a painter apparently of the Dutch 
schonl, of whose life nothing is known. In the 
Collection of M. Ch. Careus, Brussels, there is an 
interior with figures by him, signed L.Nulck, 1680. 

NUMAN, Hermanus, painter and etcher, was 
born at Ezinge, near Groeningen, in 1744. He first 
designed and painted birds and landscapes, but 
devoted himself later on to portraiture in oil and 
pastel, and studied engraving under Le Bas at 
Paris. He produced many portraits at Amsterdam, 
and pubUshed in 1797 a series of etchings repre- 
sentins Dutch country houses. He died in 1820. 

NUNEHAM, Simon Haecourt, Viscount, was an 
amateur etcher. There are various landscape plates 
by him, some after Paul Sandby, and some ' Views 
of the Kuins at Stanton Harcourt.' He became the 
second Earl Harcourt, and died in 1809. 

NDNES, Philip, (or Fra Philipe das chazas,) 
a Portuguese artist, born at Villa Real de Tras-os- 
montes. He entered holy orders in 1591, and took 
the name of Fra Philipe das Chazas (of the wounds). 
He was one of the most celebrated artists m 
Portugal in his time, and author of 'Arte de 
pintura, symetria e perspectiva,' 1615. 

NUNEZ, Juan, one of the earliest of the nainters 
of Seville, lived at the commencement of the 16th 
century, and was a scholar of Sanchez de Castro, 
and married Ana de Castro, a relation of that master. 
The greater number of his works have been de- 
stroyed. In the catliedral of Seville there is still 
a picture by hira representing the ' Virgin with 
the dead Christ in her arms, accompanied by St. 
Michael and St. Vincent Martyr;' in the fore- 
ground are several figures on their knees adoring 
the Virgin. This picture Cean Bermudez compares 
to the work of Albert Diirer. 

NU5fEZ, Pedro, was born at Madrid early in the 

ITth century. He studied under Juan de Soto, 
and afterwards at Rome, it is said under Guercino. 
On his return he painted a series of the Spanish 
sovereigns for the theatre of the Alcazar at Madrid. 
In 1625, by command of Prieto, General of the 
Order of Mercy, he executed some works for the 
cloister of the convent of the order. He died at 
Madrid in 1654, having unsuccessfully competed 
with Angelo Nardi for the post of King's painter. 

NUNEZ DE VILLA VICBNCIO, Pedro, a chevalier 
of the order of St. John, was born at Seville in 
1635, of an illustrious family. He studied painting 
for amusement, and placed himself under the direc- 
tion of Murillo, to whom he became the most 
attached friend. Such was his progress in the art, 
that from an amusement it became his constant 
occupation. Asa knight of the order of St. John, 
he was obliged to perform the usual expedition 
{las carabanas) ; and on his arrival at Malta he 
placed himself under Matteo Preti, called II Cala- 
brese, who was also a knight of the same order ; 
and with him he increased his knowledge, particu- 
larly in chiaroscuro. On his return to Spain he 
rejoined Murillo, who loved him tenderly, and for 
whom he felt such attachment and veneration that 
he always resided with him. The two conjointly 
founded the Academy of Seville. The master died 
in the arms of his scholar. Villavicencio, like 
Antolinez, Tobar, and Meneses Osorio, approached 
so near to the manner of Murillo in painting chil- 
dren, that it is sometimes difficult to decide be- 
tween the two ; he was also an excellent portrait 
painter. He died at Seville in 1700. There is a 
picture by him at Alton Towers, the seat of Lord 
Shrewsbury, partaking of the dark manner of Cala- 
brese. It represents the Virgin sewing, and Joseph 
embracing the child Jesus. The Madrid Museum 
contains a picture by him of ' Boys playing with 
Dice; ' and the Suermondt Gallery at Cologne had a 
' Child Jesus, in a Landscape.' The Carmen Calzado, 
at Seville, has also some genre pictures and por- 
traits by him, including his own portrait. 

NUNZIATA, ToTO (or Antonio del), painter, 
was a pupil of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. He is said to 
have visited England in 1531. 

NUSBIEGEL, Johann, (or Ndssbiegel,) an en- 
graver, born at Nuremberg in 1740, was a son 
and scholar of Georo Paul Ndsbieqel (who died 
1776). He studied perspective under Stettner, 
and attended the Academy at Nuremberg under 
Preissler. He engraved several plates and por- 
traits for Lavater's works, and executed some 
ofcfiers after the designs of Chodowiecki. One of 
his best plates is the ' Death of Schwerin,' after 
Berger. He died in 1818. 

NUTI, GiDLiA, the wife of Antonio Marini (q-v.), 
frequently painted flowers in her husband's pictures. 

NUTSCHIDEL. See Ne'dchatel. 

NUTTER, William, an English engraver, who 
studied under J. Smith and Bartolozzi, and practised 
in the stippled manner. He was born in 1754. 
There are plates by him after Reynolds, Morland, 
Westall, Hoppner, Wheatley, and Russell. He 
died in Somers Town in 1802. 

NUTTING, Joseph, was an English engraver, 
who resided in London at the begirming of the 
17th century. He was principally employed by 
the booksellers, and executed among others the 
following portraits: 

Charles I., with the persons who suffered in his cause. 

Mary Capel, Duchess of Beaufort ; after Walker. 

Matthew Mead, father of Dr. Mead. 


Sir John Cheke. 

Lucius Gary, Viscount Falkland. 

Kobert Pierpoint, Earl of Kingston. 

George St. Loo, Commissioner for the Navy. 

Henry Sacheverel, D.D. 

John Locke. 

Aaron Hill. 

G. Parker, the Almanack-maker. 

Johannes Jacobus Scheuchzerus ; after Melchior Fuss- 

William Elder, Engraver ; after Faitliorne. 
Dr. Monk, Bishop of Hereford, who died in 1661. 

NUVOLONE, Carlo Francesco, (called Pan- 
FILO,) was the eldest son of P^mfilo Niivolone, and 
was born at Milan in 1008. He received liis first 
instruction from his father, but was afterwards a 
scholar of Giulio Cesare Procaccini. He abandoned 
the principles of that master to imitate the works 
of Guido Keni, and some of his pictures, particularly 
those of the Virgin, approach so near to the style 
of the latter, that he acquired the soubriquet of 
' the Guido of Lombardy.' In the oratory adjoin- 
ing the church of San Vincenzio at Piacenza is his 
' Purification of the Virgin,' considered his best 
work. In the church of San Vittore, at Milan, 
is a fine picture by him of ' St. Peter's Miracle at 
the Gate of the Temple.' Other works of his are in 
public buildings at Parma and Cremona. He 
also painted portraits with great success. In the 
year 1649, when the Queen of Spain visited Milan, 
he was selected to paint her portrait. He died in 

NUVOLONE, Giuseppe, also called Panfilo, was 
the younger brother of Carlo Francesco Nuvolone, 
and was born at Milan in 1619. Possessed of a 
fervid imagination, and great facility of hand, his 
works form a striking contrast to those of his 
brother. During a long life, he painted many 
altar-pieces for the churches at Brescia, and other 
cities in the states of Venice. A ' St. Jerome ' in 
the church of San Tommaso at Piacenza is regarded 
as one of his best productions. Towards the latter 
part of his life his powers became languid and 
feeble, which is not extraordinary, as he continued 
to paint till his eighty-fourth year. He died in 

NUVOLONE, Panfilo, was a native of Cremona, 
and flourished about the year 1608. He was one 
of the ablest disciples of Giovanni Battista Trotti, 
and painted history in the style of that master. In 
the church of the monastery of SS. Domenico and 
Lazzaro at Milan, is one of his principal works, 
representing the ' Rich Man and Lazarus ; ' and in 
the cupola of the church of La Passione, the ' As- 
sumption of the Virgin.' Zani places his death in 

NUVOLSTELLA. See Nivolstella. 


NUZI, Allegretto, (or Ndcci di Ndzio,) called 
Allegretto, or Gritto, da Fabriano, was born at 
Fabriano in the 14th century, and first appears on 
the Register of Florence in 1346, at which date he 
may be said to have brought to that city the man- 
ner of the Umbrian school. Nothing is known of 
the details of his life, and the earliest picture signed 
and dated by him is a ' Madonna and Child, between 
the Archangel Michael and St. Ursula,' with the 
six donors kneeling on each side of the throne, 
which bears the date of 1365. In 1369 he executed 
the altar-piece now in the sacristy of the catliedral 
of Macerata ; and in 1372 he completed the ' Virgin 
and Child,' now in the possession of Signer Romo- 
aldo Fornari, of Fabriano; the same gentleman 

also possesses an ' Ecce Homo ' that can be assigned 
to Allegretto. In the Gallery at Berlin are two 
panels by this artist, viz., a 'Virgin and Child, 
between SS. Catherine and Bartholomew,' and a 
' Crucifixion.' Crowe and C'avalcaselle have attri- 
buted to tills artist an altar-piece now in the 
sacristy of the Fabriano cathedral, containing the 
' Virgin and Child, with SS. Bartholomew, John 
the Evangelist, and Mary Magdalene ; ' as also the 
' St. Augustine between SS. Nicholas of Tolentino 
and Stephen,' in the sacristy of Sant' Agostino, 
in the same city. According to Ricci, Allegretto 
is the author of the frescoes in Santa Lucia of 
Fabriano, which represent the ' Death and Coron- 
ation of the Virgin,' the ' Crucifixion,' and other 
sacred subjects, executed between 1345 and 1349. 
Other paintings by him are to be found at Cancello, 
near Fabriano. in which church he was buried in 
1385. He signed his pictures, Aller/rettus N^ttii 
de Fabriano. 

NUZZI, Mario, called Mario da' Fiori, or Mario 
DELLA Penna, was bom at Penna, in the diocese 
of Fermo, in 1603, and was a scholar of his uncle 
Tommaso Salini, a flower painter. He chiefly 
resided at Rome, where his pictures of fruit and 
flowers were held in the highest estimation. But 
from using something of a noxious quality in the 
preparation of his colours, his works soon lost their 
original freshness, and many of them have almost 
entirely perished. He was in 1657 made a member 
of the Academy of St. Luke, and died at Rome in 
1673. He was much employed in painting garlands 
to decorate figures of the Virgin, Saints, and other 
religious subjects. The church of Sant' Andrea 
della Valle at Rome contains a wreath of flowers 
painted by him round Andrea Camassei's portrait 
of St. Cajetanus. A ' Bird Concert ' was engraved 
after him in mezzotint by Earlom. 

DiONlJS VAN, son and scholar of Elias, was born at 
Rotterdam in 1705. He painted similar subjects 
to those by his father, and also excelled in por- 
traiture, it is related that at the age of eighty- 
one he painted, without the aid of spectacles, a 
perfect likeness of a young lady. His cniyon 
drawings are also much esteemed. He died in 
1798 or 1799. 

NYMEGEN, Elias van, was born at Nymeguen 
in 1667, and was taught the first elements of the 
art by his elder brother, who was an indifferent 
painter of flowers and portraits ; but on the death of 
his instructor, when he was little more than fourteen 
years of age, he resolved to dispense with further 
assistance, and applied himself to the study of 
nature till he became a tolerably correct desigiier 
of the figure, and acquired a competent acquaint- 
ance with perspective and architecture. He also 
excelled in painting landscapes and flowers. His 
principal occupation was ornamenting the ceilings 
and saloons of mansions in Holland, with emblem- 
atical and historical subjects, embellished with 
bas-reliefs and other accessories. His talents re- 
commended him to the patronage of the Princess 
of Orange, who employed him in adorning the 
apartments of her difterent palaces, in which he 
was occupied several years. He died at Rotterdam 

in 1755. , ,^. .. 

NYMEGEN, Gerard van, was the son of Dionijs, 
and was born at Rotterdam in 1735. He was in- 
structed by his father, and at a very early age painted 
the portrait of Prince William V., which was en- 
graved by Beauvarlet ; but he applied himself mora 



particularly to landscape, in which he made the works 
of Ruysdael, Everdingen, and Pynacker his models. 
His best pieces are mountainous landscapes, and 
forest scenery with rivulets, ornamented witli 
animals an<i figures. He painted many portraits, 
and made drawings and copies after Jacob Kuys- 
dael, Wynants, Hackaert, and Hobbema. There 
exist twenty-one etchings of landscapes by liim. 
He died at Rotterdam in 1808. 

NYMEGEN, Sdsanna Catharina van, born 
VlJGH, the wife of Gerard van Nymegen, has left 
several drawings of landscape of some merit. She 
died in 1805. 

NYMEGEN, Tobias van, the younger brother of 
Elias van Nymegen, was born at Nymeguen about 
the year 1670. His technical education was similar 
to that of Elias ; and he pursued the same branch 
of the art. He was invited to the court of the 
Elector Palatine, in whose service he remained till 
his death, the date of which is not ascertained. 

NYMEGEN, (or NIMWEGEN,) Willem van, 
of Haarlem, was admitted as master into the 
Guild of St. Luke, at Delft, in 1684. He was cele- 
brated for imitating engravings with the pen. He 
died in 1698. 

NYPOORT, Jdstus van (or van der), painter and 
etcher, a little-known artist, who is, nevertheless, 
of some importance. He painted scenes of peasant 
life, often humorous, several of which he etched 
in the style of Ostade. He flourished about 1680. 
Plates : 

Pat. Joan. Maldonatus ; an Angel beside him and Death 
in the distance. 

Zoylns ; " De giistibus non est disputandum." 

Peasants in a Room. 

Interior of Farm-house, with the Farmer and his Family. 

A Knife-grinder before a Farm-house. 

A Peasant with his Wife and Child. 

Peasants drinking and playing Cards. 

Peasants and Children in an interior. 

Three Peasants smoking and drinking. 

Group of three Boors in a Cottage. 

The Fruit-dealer. 

A company of Peasants 

Three Card-players. 

A Boor looking into an empty Jug. 

A village Surgeon aud a Boor with toothache. 

Landscape, with a Sacrifice. 

A Genius laying a Halberd on the breast of a wmgoU 
old man asleep under a tree. . 

A book-plate for the Prince-Bishop, Carl von Olmutz. 

NYS, Jacqdes de. See Denys. 
NYTS. See Neyts. 

0. See Van der 0. 

OAKES, John Wright, a landscape painter of 
eminence, was born at Sproston House, Middlewich, 
Cheshire, the home of his family for several genera- 
tions, on July 9, 1820. Early in life he was brought 
to Liverpool, where he was educated, and appren- 
ticed to a house painter. In 1839 Cakes rnade his 
first appearance as an exhibitor, at the Liverpool 
Academy, wnth a picture of 'Fruit,' priced 5 
guineas. His residence in the following year and 
until 1846 was 4, Parker Street. He continued to 
exhibit fruit pieces for several years, but in 1843 
he began modestly as a landscapist with a three- 
guinea ' Sketch on the Lancashire Coast.' W. J. 
Bishop is credited with being his chief preceptor in 
art, and he seems to have attended classes at the 
Liverpool Academy, but his training was in all 
probability desultory. Oakes continued a house 


painter, until success as a picture-maker enabled 
him to dispense with ladders and pails. This pro- 
bably was about 1846, when he exhibited ten 
landscapes, of local or Welsh subjects, at the 
Liverpool Academy. In the following year he was 
elected an associate of that body, removed to 100, 
Bold Street, and exhibited ' Nant Frangcon, Car- 
narvonshire,' at the British Institution. About this 
date Oakes maiTJed a lady who had a prosperous 
business as a dressmaker. In 1848 his pictures at 
Liverpool included some subjects in the Lake 
District, one of them, 'On the river Greta, Keswick,' 
having previously been shown (his first appear- 
ance) at the Royal Academy. 'Thereafter, with a 
single exception, he was always represented at the 
Royal Academy, where in all (according to Mr. 
Graves) he showed ninety works ; his London 
record otherwise being twenty-eight at the British 
Institution, eleven at Suffolk Street, and twenty-six 
at other Exhibitions. In 1850 Oakes became a full 
member of the Liverpool Academy, and the sub- 
jects of his work at its Exhibition give evidence of 
a visit to Scotland. Two years later he exhibited 
some Irish subjects. In 1853 Oakes became 
Secretary of the Academy, a post he filled until 
1855, when he removed to 28, Victoria Road, 
Kensington, London. The innovation of printing 
prices in the exhibition catalogue of 1853 was 
probably due to the practical sagacity of Oakes. 
None i^f his own four exhibits were for sale. In 
1854 his highest price was 150 guineas for 
'The Vale of Bersham'; in 1855, 1001. each 
for ' Twll-du ' and ' Loch Eanza, Arran.' After 
going to London, Oakes remained a non-resident 
member of the Liverpool Society, and continued to 
send to its Exhibitions. In 1858 he showed at the 
Royal Academy ' The Warren,' and ' Maldreatb 
Sands — rain passing off,' in 1859 'Marchllvn- 
Mawr,' in 1860 'Aberaifraw Bay,' and in 1861 
' A Carnarvonshire Glen,' which all rank among 
his finest achievements. ' The Forest, Glen of the 
Gardewalt,' shown in 1865, is evidence of a foreign 
tour, and it was followed in 1866 by ' Morning at 
Angera, Lago Maggiore.' In the next year there 
were three Scottish subjects (two of the Bass 
Rock), and in 1868 he showed nothing. In 1869, 
the first year of Burlington House, ' Early Spring' 
was Oakes' sole contribution. It is said to be in 
the Glasgow Corporation Gallery, but the curator 
states that this is incorrect ; that it at one time 
belonged to the Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, 
and was sold with all the other pictures belonging 
to that institution about 1880. Its present location 
has not been traced. In 1871 the ' Linn of 
Muick, near Ballater,' was one of three pictures at 
the Royal Academy, and to the first Corporation 
Autumn Exhibition at Liverpool, Oakes sent four 
works, of which the most important was ' Morning 
in the Bay of Ceri, Lake of Lucerne ' (Royal 
Academy, 1870), which was priced £367 10s. in 
the catalogue. In the following year he again 
sent four pictures to Liverpool, and ' A North 
Devon Glen, Autumn ' (£367 10s.) was purchased 
for the Permanent Collection. It is now in the 
Walker Art Gallery. The size is 48 by 96 
inches. In 1873, when he removed to Leam 
House, Addison Road, ' A Mountain Stream, Glen 
Derry, Aberdeenshire' (£367 10s.), was shown both 
at the Royal Academy and at Liverpool. In the 
following year Oakes was elected Associate of the 
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, but in 1875 
he resigned, doubtless having in view the As- 


Bociateship of the Royal Academy, which fell to 
hira in 1876. 

In 1883 Oakes was elected an honorary member 
of the Hoyal Scottish Academy. Two or tliree 
years before this he had fallen into chronic ill 
health due to asthma, wliich interfered with the 
practice of his art. He continued to exhibit 
regularly, however, at the Royal Academy, his last 
contributions, in 1887, being ' Barnton Mill' and 
' Hailstorm at the Devil's Bridge, Pass of St. 
Gothard.' He died at Leam House on July 9, 
1887, and was buried at Brompton Cemetery. In 
the 1888 Exhibition at Burlington House Oakes was 
represented for the last time by ' The Warren.' On 
March 10, 1888, his remaining pictures were sold at 
Christie's: they realized £3,848. The range in land- 
scape of Oakes is fairly well indicated by the titles of 
pictures which have already been quoted. He had 
a passion for the scenery of mountainous country, 
and particularly loved North Wales, but he also 
chose subjects from Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of 
Man, England, and occasionally the Continent. 
Extensive prospects pleased him better than " bits," 
and he exhibited in his treatment of such themes 
a brilliant, almost unerring, sense of composition, 
a fine perception of light, atmosphere, and colour, 
and the poetry of nature. The work of his early 
years was particularly brilliant, but after going to 
London he did not progress as his early admirers 
anticipated. Although he was closely associated 
with the Liverpool pre-Eaphaelites, the style of 
Oakes was not aflEected by them. One of his con- 
temporaries has described him as a man of sturdy 
appearance, more like a sea-captain than a painter, 
much marked by small-pox, and addicted to wear- 
ing black satin waistcoats. He habitually had his 
left hand in his pocket. Unlike most artists he 
would never allow any one to see him paint. A 
son, Frederick Oakes, was intended for an artist, 
and did some good work in his youth, but event- 
uallj' entered upon a business career. He died 
young. E.E.D, 

OAKLEY, Octavius, a painter in water-colours, 
was bom in 1800. After having practised as a por- 
trait painter at Leamington and at Derby, he came 
to London in 1842, was elected an Associate of the 
Water-colour Society, and a full member in 1844. 
His pictures consist chiefly of rustic figures, groups 
of gypsies, &c. , and in his later years of landscapes. 
He began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1826, 
and ceased in 1860. Most of his contributions to 
that exhibition were portraits. Oakley died at 
Bayswater in March, 1867. 

OAKMAN, John, an English wood engraver, 
born at Hendon, who practised about the middle 
of the 18th century. He was chiefly employed 
on illustrations for children's books. In his later 
years he turned ballad and novel writer, and died 
in indigence in 1793. 

OBACH, Kaspar, painter, engraver, and litho- 
grapher, was born at Zurich in 1807, and was a 
pupil of Fiissli. He went to Stuttgart in 1825, 
and made many landscape sketches in pencil, which 
he reproduced in water-colours or lithographed. 
He died at Stuttgart in 1865. 

OBEET. A good Flemish picture of still-life 
(fruit, oysters, and goblets) in the Madrid Museum 
bears this name. 

OBERMANN, Antonis, painter and etcher, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1781, and died in the same 
city in 1850. He painted landscapes, horses and 
cattle, flowers and fruit, and was a member of 

the Academy of his native place. At Haarlem 
there is a ' Vase of Flowers' by him. He etched a 
series of twenty ' Studies of cattle, sheep,' &c. 

OBERMULLNER, Adolf, Austrian painter; 
born September 3, 1833, at Wels, Upper Austria ; 
studied at the Vienna Academy under Steinfeld 
and subsequently with Zimmermann ; travelled 
through France and Holland : then returned to 
Vienna, where he settled in 1860, painting Alpine 
scenery, glaciers and the like with striking truth 
and vigour. He died at Vienna, October 29, 1898. 

OBERTO, Francesco da, an artist wlio painted 
at Genoa in 1368. His name appears in the Register 
of Painters of Genoa immediately before that of 
Lodovico Brea, but nothing is known of his life. 

OBIDOS, JosEPHA DE, a Portuguese artist, was 
the daughter of Balthazar Gomes Figuiera, said to 
have also been a painter, and was born at Seville 
about 1630. She must have studied painting and 
other arts in Spain ; but she was still young when 
her father returned to Obidos, in Portugal, taking 
her with him. She painted in that country a 
number of pictures in oil for the churches ; also a 
portrait of Marie Fran^oise Isabell de Savoie, which 
was sent to Victor Amcd^e, Due de Savoie, before 
their marriage. She likewise painted flowers, fruit, 
&c., and engraved ; for in the ' Statutes of the Uni- 
versity of Coimbra, 1654,' there is an engraving 
signed ' Josepha Ayala (her mother's name) Obidos, 
1653.' In the church of Saint Peter at Obidos, 
where she died, and in which she was buried in 
1684, there are many of her pictures; also in the 
Academy at Lisbon, at Evora, &c. A 'St. John,' 
described as being in the manner of Velvet Breu- 
ghel, is dated 1680. 

OBREGON, Pedro de, the younger, was born 
at Madrid about 1597. He was a disciple of Vin- 
cencio Carducho, and proved a reputable painter of 
history and genre subjects, particularly in pictures 
of an easel size, of which there are several in the 
private collections of Madrid. Of his larger works. 
Palomino particularly notices his picture of 'The 
Trinity,' in the convent of La Merced, and ' The 
Immaculate Conception,' in the church of Santa 
Cruz. He died at Madrid in 1C59. He was an 
excellent engraver ; as were also his two sons 
Diego and Marcos Obregon, the former of whom, 
in 1683-4, prepared thiriy-six plates of Birds and 
Beasts to illustrate a work by Andres de Valdecebro ; 
also other engravings in 1687 and 1699. Pedro 
DE Obregon, ' the elder,' was a miniaturist and 
illuminator of books of devotion, wlio worked for 
the cathedral of Toledo, in 1564 ; but there are no 
further particulars of him. He may have been the 
father of the younger Pedro. Marcos de Obregon 
became priest, and lived until 1720. 

OBRY, Adrien, a French designer and painter 
of windows, who was at work in the year 1532 at 
the Chateau d'Auxy. 

OBRY, Jean, was a French miniaturist of some 
talent, who embellished many manuscripts about 
the \-ear 1484. He was a native of Amiens. 

OCCHIALI, Dagli. See Ferrantini ; also 


OCH, Georges, an obscure French landscape 
p.iinter, who flourished at the beginning of the 
19th century. He was a pupil of Cioeri. His chief 
work was a view of Paris from the towers of Notre 

OCHILICH, Johann Conrad, a painter of land- 
scapes, animals, and portraits, who flourished at 
Nuremberg at the end of the 18th century. His 



education was partly gained at Munich. His works 
were mostly copies from the old masters. 

OCHOA, Francisco, a painter of Seville and 
pupil of Murillo. He is believed to be identical 
with Francisco Antolinez y Sarbia (q. v.). 

OCHS, Fbibdeioh, was born in Basle, and studied 
in Paris under Augustin. He migrated to St. 
Petersburg, where, about 1812, he had a consider- 
able reputation. His miniatures were good and 
expressive likenesses, and agreeable in colour. The 
date of his birth and death are unknown. 

OCHTERVELT, Jacob, (sometimes wrongly 
called jA>f, and Uchtervelt or Achtervelt,) was 
born perhaps at Rotterdam. In 1667 he was a 
candidate for the presidency of the Brotherhood of 
St. Luke in that city. In 1672 he was still working 
there. In 1674 be painted the portraits of the 
Regents of the lepers' hospital at Amsterdam. He 
died before 1710. He formed himself on the ex- 
amples of Metsu and Terburg, more especially of 
the latter. In some respects his best work does 
not fall far below the level of the last-named artist. 
Good pictures by Ochtervelt, in good condition, 
are, however, very scarce. The following list 
includes most of them : 

Amsterdam. Museum. The Governors of the Zf/jro^^n- 
Iniis. (Signed /. ochtervelt 
feat, 1674.) 
Berlin. Museum. The Last Testament. 

Brussels. Arenhurg Coll. Interior of a Kitchen. 
Cologne. Walraff 3[us. Two Musicians. 
Copenhagen. Jfuseutn. Lady playing the violm. 
Dresden. Gallery. "Woman with a Girl and Dog 

(purchased as hy Jerhard auf 
der Feld !). 

Hague. Museum. Lady buying Fish (a very good 

Rotterdam, Museum. * La Collation ; * young man and 
woman eating oysters. {Per' 
haps his masterpiece.) 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Buying Fish. 
„ „ Buying Grapes, 

n „ Young Man singing to a young 

„ „ The Breakfast Party. 

OCLE, Robert, (or Okyll,) member of a family 
of painters settled at Norwich, painted a ' Life of 
St. Katberine' on panel in 1415-16, for which he 
was paid 34s. id. 

O'CONNOR, James A., an Irish landscape painter, 
born at Dublin in 1793. He was brought up as an 
engraver by his father, who followed that profes- 
sion. In 1813 he came to London with his friend, 
Francis Danby, but his means were soon exhausted, 
and he made his way on foot to Bristol, whence 
he contrived to get a passage back to Dublin. In 
1822 he returned to England, and from that time 
he chiefly resided in London, with the exception 
of visits to Brussels, Paris, and Rhenish Prussia. 
But his abilities were not recognized, and he had 
a hard struggle for existence. He occasionally 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1822 ; also 
at Suffolk Street. He died, in embarrassed circum- 
stances, at Brompton in 1841. There are eight of 
his pictures in the Kensington JIuseura. In style 
they may be classed with the work of Richard 

O'CONNOR, John, a very talented scene painter, 
born in Ireland in 1830. He was early left an 
orphan, and liad to work hard for a livelihood. He 
was first of all errand boy and call boy in a 
Belfast theatre, but began scene painting when 
quite a youth. In 1848 he was in England, and 

employed at Drury Lane Theatre and the Hay- 
market. Later on be painted a diorama and then 
took lip water-colour subject painting, and in that 
field of art acquired more than a passing renown. 
He was also drawing-master to a London literary 
institution, but held his position for a very few 
years. For many years he was chief scene 
painter at the Haymarket, and as a master of 
architectural design and an admirable colourist 
had few equals in that branch of art. He was a 
very popular snd most genial man, and made 
hosts of Iriends, who were always introducing to 
him fresh commissions for decorative work. He 
decorated two rooms at Eaton Hall for the Duke of 
Westminster, designed costume and scenery for 
Shakesperian tableaux, made drawings of many 
important Court ceremonials, and painted wonder- 
ful scenery for various performances of Greek 
plays both in London and at Cambridge. His 
architectural drawings were numerous and of 
great beauty. One of his chief friends was Lord 
Ronald Sutherland Gower, the eminent sculptor, 
with whom we worked for some years, and most of 
the facts in the foregoing narrative are derived from 
his old friend. O'Connor on leaving London 
moved into Hampshire, and there he died of 
paralysis in 1889. 

OCTA'VIEN, Francois, a French painter, was 
born at Rome about 1695. He was received into 
the Paris Academy in 1725, as a genre painter. His 
reception picture, 'The Fair at Vesoul,' is now in 
the Louvre. He died in Paris in 1736. No further 
particulars of his life are known. 

ODAM, GiROLAMO, was an artist who resided at 
Eome, and distinguished himself at the beginning 
of the 18th century as a painter, sculptor, and 
architect. He was born in 1681, and was a pupil 
of Carlo Maratti. He drew portraits in crayons, 
engraved on copper, and copied small cameos on a 
larger scale. He was made a Knight of St. George 
by the Duke of Parma, and was a member of the 
Academia degl' Arcadi. 

ODASI, Giovanni, (or Odazzi,) was born at 
Eome in 1663, and studied for some time under 
Bloemart and Ciro Ferri, but afterwards was a 
scholar of Giovanni Battista GauUi. Of his works 
at Rome, the most creditable are his picture of the 
' Prophet Hosea,' in San Giovanni in Laterano ; 
'St. Bruno,' in Santa Maria degli Angeli ; and an 
altar-piece, representing ' The Fall of Lucifer,' in 
the church of the Santi Apostoli. He also executed 
some paintings in the cupola of the cathedral of 
"Velletri. He died at Milan in 1731. 

ODDI, Giuseppe, a native of Pesaro and pupil of 
Carlo Maratti. No details of his life are known. 

ODDI, Mauro, a painter, designer, etcher, and 
architect, who was born in 1639 at Parma, where 
he was instructed in the first principles of art. He 
went afterwards to Rome, where he studied six 
years, under Pietro da Cortona. On his return to 
his native city his talents recommended him to the 
patronage of the Duke of Parma, who employed 
him in ornamenting the ducal palace, and the Villa 
di Colorno; giving bim also the appointments of 
court painter and builder. He drew two thousand 
medals in the ducal cabinet of coins, and painted 
some altar-pieces for the churches of Parma, Pia- 
cenza, and Modena. Kiisel, N. Dorigny, and others 
have engraved after his works. Two etchings by 
him are also known, ' The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds,' after Parmigiano and Caraglio, and 'The 
Rape of Europa,' after Agostino Carracci. His 


death occurred in 1702 or 1703. He signed his 
works with a monogram composed of a Maltese 
cross between M. and 0. 

ODEBRECHT, Otto Friedrich Hermann, land- 
scape painter, was born in Greifswald in 1833. 
He was principally formed in the studio of Prof. 
Ang. Weber at Diisseldorf, where he died in 1860, 
from the effects of a poisonous sting. In the Berlin 
National Gallery there is a 'Moonlight View on 
the Konigs-See, with a ferryman,' by In'm. 

OUEKERKEN, Willem, a painter of Delft, who 
lived about the middle of the 17th century. His 
wife was one Maria Sasbouts van der Dussen. His 
works are very scarce. He is said to have very 
accurately copied a picture by Metsu which repre- 
sents a ' Cook in her Kitchen, surrounded by culin- 
ary utensils.' A work of that class by him has 
lately (1885) been added to the collection in the 
Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. He also painted 
still-life. His activity extended from 1642 to 

ODERICO DA SIENA, flourished about 1213. 
He was a canon of Siena, and painted miniatures 
in the Byzantine manner. 

ODERICO, Giovanni Paolo, was born in 1613, 
of a noble family of Genoa. According to Soprani 
he was a scholar of Domenioo Fiasella, and painted 
liistory with some success, but was more distin- 
guished for his portraits. Of his historical works, 
the most esteemed is his picture of the 'Guardian 
Angel,' in the church of the Padri Scolopi at 
Genoa. He died in 1657. 

ODERIGI da GUBBIO, (Oderisco, Oderisio,) 
was born at Gubbio, in 1240. His only known works 
are two mass-books of the Virgin and St. George ; 
but some miniatures in the Archivio de' Canonici 
di San Pietro, at Rome, are supposed to be by him. 
He is said to have painted at Gubbio in 1264, at 
Bologna in 1268, and in 1295 at Rome, where Vasari 
says he made the acquaintance of Giotto. Oderigi 
died in Rome in 1299. He is mentioned by Dante, 
who represents him as expiating in Purgatory the 
pride with which his skill inspired him. 

ODERISIO, RoBERTDS DI, was a Neapolitan, and 
the author of a ' Crucifixion ' in the church of San 
Francesco d'Assisi, at Eboli. He lived in the 
14th century, and is said to have been a pupil 
of Giotto. 

ODEVAERE, Joseph Dionisids, an historical 
painter and critic, was born at Bruges in 1778. 
After receiving a good scholastic education at the 
college of the Augustins, and obtaining several 
prizes at the Academy of Design, he was sent in 
1728 to Paris to study painting under Suv^e and 
David. In 1804 he obtained the prix de Rome 
for his picture of the 'Death of Phocion.' On 
his return to Bruges he was received in triumph, 
and treated with every mark of distinction by the 
Academy, the municipality, and the public. Shortly 
afterwards he returned to Paris ; and the following 
year, 1805, went to Italy, where he remained for 
about eight years, and executed several pictures 
of large dimensions. In 1814 he was again in 
Bruges, and painted for William I., King of the 
Netherlands, the picture of ' The Peace of 
Utrecht;' and, after the battle of Waterloo, an- 
other representing that action at the time the 
Prince of Orange received his wounds. For this 
and others relating to the history of the country he 
received special marks of the Royal favour. His 
pictures are numerous, and are to be found at 
Paris, Brussels, Ghent, and Bruges. They are 


generally large, one painted for the King of the 
Netherlands measuring twenty-four feet long and 
sixteen feet high. Odevaere while in Italy col- 
lected materials for a history of the state of the 
arts in that country from the revival of painting to 
the time of Raphael ; his MS. still hes in the Royal 
Library at Brussels. He died at Brussels in 

ODIEUVRE, Michel, was a French engraver 
and printseller, who resided at Paris about the year 
1735. He began life as a tailor. He etched and 
pubhshed in 1738 a set of portraits entitled, ' Por- 
traits^des^ Personages illustres de I'un et de I'autre 
Sexe.' These are usually found in the large paper 
quarto editions of the ' Memoires de Sully' and 
' Memoires de Commines.' Odieuvre died at 
Rouen in 1756. 

OECHS, Joseph Dominicus, a painter of excel- 
lent portraits in oil and iu miniature, and a designer, 
was born at Erbach, near Ehingen in Wiirtemberg, 
in 1776. He studied under his brother, A.nton 
Oechs, at Ratisbon, under Frost in Nuremburg, 
and under A. Graif and Klengel in Dresden. In 
1804 he went to Courland, and was in 1824 made 
drawing-master in the Gymnasium at Mitau. His 
principal works were portraits, and the Provincial 
Museum of Courland possesses a complete set in oil 
by him of the Dukes and Duchesses of that province. 
He died at Mitau in 1836. 

OEDING, Philipp Wilhelm, painter and de- 
signer, was born at Benzigerode, near Blankenburg, 
in 1697. Having studied under Huber at Halber- 
stadt, and Busch at Brunswick, he was in 1722 
sent by Duke Ludwig Rudolph to Nuremberg, 
where he worked under Preisler, Desmarees, and 
Kupetzki, and chiefly adopted the style of the last- 
named master. In 1729 he married Preisler's 
daughter, Barbara Helena, who, in addition to 
painting, practised engraving, embroidery, and 
working in wax and alabaster. About 1741 he 
painted among other pictures a large ' View of 
Altona,' the 'Adoration of the Magi,' and the 'In- 
stitution of the Last Supper,' for the Lutheran 
Church at that place ; where also he painted por- 
traits and taught drawing. Subsequently he was 
appointed a professor in the ' Karolinum ' at Bruns- 
wick. Preisler engraved after him the portrait of 
his wife, and Tyrof and others some drawings of 
antique vases. Oediug died in 1781. 

OEFELE, Franz Ignaz, called Bavarese, was 
born at Posen in 1721, and studied under various 
masters at Landsberg, Augsburg, and Munich, 
until he went to Venice, where he placed himself 
under Giuseppe Nogari, and remained with him six 
years. Subsequently he went to Rome, and studied 
under Giovanni Barca for two years. Returning to 
Munich, he was made painter to the Elector Masi- 
mihan III., as well as professor in the School of 
Design. Of his works the principal are, 'Joseph 
and Potiphar's Wife,' the portrait of the Electress 
Adelhaid in tlie Court Chapel of MuTiich, and his 
own portrait in the Schliessheim Gallery. Of his 
etchings the best are, ' The Woman of Samaria,' 
and ' The Daughter of Dibutades,' both after his 
own designs. He died in 1797. 

OEHME, Ernst Friedrich, was born at Dresden 
in 1797, and alter studying under Professor 
Friedrich, and travelling from 1819-25 in Italy, 
became court-painter at Dresden and died there 
in 1854. He painted chiefly landscapes, and 
signed his works with an E in a circle. Among 
them are : 



Tl'.e Mountain Chapel. 

View of the " Jagdschloss " of Moritzburg. 

Autumn Landscape {H. Pietsck, Dresden), 

OELENHAINZ, August Friedrich, (Oehlen- 
HAINZ, &c.,) was born at Endingen, near ISalingen. 
in 1749, and after commencing the study of 
theology at Tubingen, prepared himself as an 
artist in the same place, under Meyer, and then 
under Baier at Stuttgart. In 1766 he went for 
further improvement to Vienna, where he painted 
the portraits of the Royal Family, of several 
courtiers, and of the poet Blumauer. In 1789 he 
was made a member of the Academy, and he died 
at Falzburg in 1804. His portraits were flatter- 
ing, and thereby ensured him piitronage. Durmer, 
about 1796, engraved two plates after him for the 
Fraiienholz Collection : 'The Maiden of the Black 
Forest,' and ' The Bernese Girl ; ' and Pheifer, the 
portrait of Lavater. 

OERI, Hans Jakob, was an historical and por- 
trait painter, also a draughtsman and lithographer, 
who was born at Kyburg in Switzerland, in 1782, 
and studied under Kuster and David. He travelled 
a great deal, principally in Russia. As an artist 
he distinguished himself by the truth of his por- 
traits, and above all as a lithographer. He died in 
1843 ('?). ' Dsedalus and Icarus ' and ' Chloe,' are 
two of his best paintings. Noticeable among liis 
lithogrsphs are : 

The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Baphael. 

Joseph sold by his Brethren ; after Overbed. 

Madonna with Sleeping Child ; after Catarini. 

Christ in the House of Martlia ; after Overbeck, dated 

OERI, Peter, a Swiss artist, and a native of 
Zurich. He appears to be the man of whom 
Nagler says that he was born in 1737, and died in 
1792. After studying six years iii Italy, he re- 
turned to Switzerland, where, probably for want 
of employment, he abandoned painting, to follow 
the occupation of a chaser and working goldsmith. 

OESER, Adam Friedrich, a German painter, 
modeller, and engraver, was born at Presburg in 
1717. He was sent at thirteen years of age to 
Vienna, but was compelled to return home for 
want of means, and then found employment at 
the country-seats of Hungarian noblemen. In 
1735, however, when eighteen years of age, he 
returned to Vienna, and gained the gold medal at 
the Academy. His talent was noticed and en- 
couraged by Raphael Donner, a sculptor, who 
taught him to model. Dresden was at that time 
the residence of several artists of eminence, and in 
1739 he visited that city, where his abilities 
procured him the esteem and friendship of its 
most distinguished residents. Here also he 
tiaed enamel and miniature painting. In 1749 he 
decorated the ceilings and walls of the Hubertsburg 
Schloss. He formed an intimate acquaintance with 
Winkelmann, whom he assisted in his first studies of 
the antique, and who makes mention of him in his 
first literary work as " the successor of the Theban 
Aristides." In 1756 he proceeded to Dahlen, 
where he painted in the Biinau'sche Schloss; and 
thence removed to Leipsic, where, in 1763, he 
became Director of the Academy. He settled in 
that city, and during a residence of many years 
he painted some important works for public build- 
ings and private collections, both in oil and fresco. 
He was also Professor of the Academy at Dresden 
and court painter. He died at Leipsic in 1799. 
Among his chief productions are the frescoes in 


the church of St. Nicholas, at Leipsic. There is 
a portrait group of his own children in the Dresden 
Gallery. Oeeer etclied a variety of plates from his 
own compositions and after other masters ; among 
many others are the following: 

A variety of vignettes and frontispieces for books. 

designed and etched by F. Oeser. 
The Circumcision ; after G. van den Eeclchotit. 
Saul and the Witch of Eudor ; after Rembrandt. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same. 
Christ brought forth by Pilate ; after the same. 
Cupid and Psyche ; piobab/i/ after Guercino. 

OESER, JoHANN Friedrich Ludwig, son of 
Adam Friedrich Oeser, was born at Dresden in 
1751, and was a landscape painter and engraver. 
He was for seven years a teacher in the Academy 
of Leipsic, and in 1774 became professor of 
historical and landscape painting at Dresden, and 
in 1780 a member of the Academy there. He 
executed numerous drawings in Indian ink and 
colours, togetlier with oil paintings, representing 
views in the neighbourhood of Dresden, and 
chiefly in Ruisdael's stylo. His principal etchings 
are after Rejnbrandt, Rubens, and Salvator Rosa. 
He died in 1791 or 1792. 

OESTERLEY, K. W., German painter, was 
also a well-known art critic. He was born in 
1805, and was Professor of the History and 
Theory of Fine Art at Gottingeu. He died in 
1891 at Hanover. 

OESTERREICH, Mathias, a German designer 
and etcher, was born at Hamburg in 1716. He 
learnt the art of design under J. B. Groni at 
Dresden, and twice travelled in Italy, where he 
gained a knowledge of art which enabled him to 
take the position of superintendent of the Electoral 
Gallery at Dresden. In 1757 he became Director 
of the Gallery of Sans Souci at Potsdam. He 
died at Berlin in 1778. His principal productions 
are a set of twenty-four caricatures, etched from 
the designs of P. L. Ghezzi, and published at 
Dresden in 1750, entitled ' Raccolta di XXIV. 
Caricature, disegnate coUa penna dal celebre 
Cavaliere P. L. Ghezzi;' these plates were repub- 
lished at Potsdam in 1776, with the afldition of 
eighteen from the designs of Giovanni Battista 
Internari, and others. Oesterreich also engraved a 
set of forty plates from drawings in the collection 
of Count von Bruhl, published at Dresden in 1752, 
under the title of ' Recueil de quelquea dessins de 
plusieurs habiles maitres,' &e. Several of the plates 
in ''The Dresden Gallery" were engraved by 
Oesterreich. He marked his plates M. 0- Am- 
burgese fecit, with a monogram composed of two 
interlacing triangles, or with his initials. He has 
left descriptive accounts of several collections of 

OEVER, Aleertine ten, born Roelfsema, was 
an aujatenr of some abihty. She was a native of 
Holland, and flourished early in the 19th century. 

OEVER, Hendiuk ten, a Dutch painter, who 
flourished about 1690. No details of his life are 
known. A portrait group of regents by him still 
hangs in the church of St. Michael, at ZwoUe. It 
is signed and dated Hendrik ten Oevee, pinxit, 

OFFERMANS, Antonis Jacob, a Dutch animal 
painter, was a pupil of D. van Donge, and was 
painting at Rotterdam about 1800. 

OFFERMANS, Jan, born at Dordrecht in 1646, 
painted landscapes for some time ; but failing to 
succeed- became a house painter. 


Spooner photo] Haniplon Court Galleiy 



OFFIN, Charles d'. See Dauphin. 
OFHDYS, Jan, a Flemish glass painter, who 
flourished in the first half of the 16th century. 

OGBORNE, David. Very little is known as to 
this artist, whose chief works are views of the towns 
of Chelmsford (his native place) and Dunmow. 
He also painted a few portraits and did some 
illustrations for local guide-books. He called 
himself a " limner," and dabbled also in literature 
and the drama, writing poetry, pl;iys, and accounts 
of local sights. He was born about 1700, and died 
in 1768 at a village near Dunmow. 

OGBORNE, John, an English designer and en- 
graver, was born in London about the year 17"25. 
He was a schular of Bartolozzi, and engraved in 
the dot manner. Several of the large plates for 
Boydell's Shakspeare Gallery are among his best 
works. He was chiefly employed on the pictures 
of the painters of that time ; Smirke, Stothard, 
W. Hamilton, A. Kautfinann, Westall, and Rom- 
ney ; and he also engraved some subjects from his 
own designs. In his later plates line is combined 
with stipple. He died about 1795. MaryOgborne 
assisted him on some of Ins plates. 

OGGIONNO, Marco d', was born at Oggionno, 
near Milan, probably about 1470. He was one of 
the chief pupils of Leonardo da Vinci, whose 
famous wall picture, ' The Last Supper,' he copied 
more than once. The best of these copies is now 
in the possession of the English Royal Academy 
of Arts. Among las most important works were a 
series of frescoes in the church of S. Maria della 
Pace, at Milan. The two best, a ' Marriage at 
Cana,' and an ' Assumption,' are now in the Brera. 
Marco died in 1549. Works: 
Berlin. Museum. A ' Holy Conversation.' 

London. Kat. Galleri/. A Madonu.T. and Child. 

„ Hoyal Academy. Copy of Leonardo's ' Cenacolo.' 

„ Hampton Court. The Infants Christand St. John. 
Milan. Brera. Michael suppressing Lucifer. 

{A masterpiece ; signed ' Mar- 

„ „ The Assumption. 

„ „ A ' Holy Conversation.* 

„ .. Marriage at Cana. 

„ Santa 3faria ) St. John the Baptist and a 

detie Grazie. j Donator. 

„ Samta Eufemia. Madonna, St. Enfemia, and 


„ Santa Maria della ) rm r^ -c • 

" P I ^"^ Crucifi.xion. 

„ Bonomi-Cereda Coll. A Madonna. (A masterpiece; 
signed ' Marcus.^) 
Paris. Louvre. A Holy Family. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Copy of Leonardo's ' Cenacolo.' 
Turin. Galleri/. Christ bearing His Cross. 

OHME, Eenst Friedrich, an obscure German 
painter of landscape, who was active in Dresden 
in the first years of the 19th century. 

O'KEEFE, (or KEEFE,) Daniel, was a painter 
in miniature, who practised in London, and ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1771 to 1783. 
He died at Brompton, 1787. 

O'KEEFE, (or KEEFE,) John, painted in 
miniature, and was the brother of Daniel. He 
was born at Dublin in 1748. After studying in 
the Academy of Dublin, and in London under 
Hudson, he made a number of humorous designs. 
Relinquishing painting, he became an actor of 
low comedy in London and Dublin, and was also 
the author of some successful dramatic pieces, 
lie died at Soutliainpton in 1833. There is a 
portrait of him by Lawrenson in the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

OKEY, Samuel, an English mezzotint engraver, 

D 2 

in the second half of the 18th century. He gained 
Society of Arts' premiums in 1765-7. About 1771 
he emigrated to America, and settled in Rhode 
Island, where he continued to practise. Amongst 
his engravings are : 

Nelly O'Brien ; after Reynolds. 
Old Man with Scroll ; ajter the same. 
Lady Anne Dawson ; after the same. 
Girl with Lamb ; after Kettle. 
William Powle ; after Bine. 

OLAGNON, Pierre VIctoe, a French painter 
of genre and portrait, flourished about 1786. He 
was a pupil of Regnault. His best works are a 
' Vintage at Macon,' and ' Toilet in the Mansarde.' 

OLANDA, Alberto d'. See Odwater. 

OLANDA, Antonio and Francisco d', two Por- 
tuguese artists of the 16th century who are famous 
for their illuminations. Francisco, who was An- 
tonio's son, made a voyage to Italy, and on his 
return in 1549 presented a petition to John XL, 
which by protesting against the influence of 
Flemish art in Portugal, prepared the way for that 
of Italy. 

OLANDA, Ghglielmo d'. See Aelst, Willem 


OLDENDORP, Christian Johann, a landscape 
painter, born in 1772 at the Castle of Marienborn 
in the "Wetterau. He was almost self-taught, and 
studied the works of Berghem, but distinguished 
himself most by his firelight pictures, which were 
exhibited a-t Weimar in 1802, such as the burning 
of Magdeburg, Gorlitz, Moscow, &c. Some of his 
other landscapes, views in Saxony, were engraved ; 
and in 1826 two appeared in lithography. 

OLDERMAN, Ernst Friedrich, or Fritz, a 
German engraver, was born in the village of 
Werther, near Bielefeld, in 1802, and was the son 
of a merchant, who intended him for his own 
business. His love of drawing induced him to 
devote to it all his leisure time, and he was encou- 
raged by a drawing-master whose acquaintance he 
made. Convinced that he could never settle to 
business, he left his home and travelled to Dussel- 
dort and Berlin, where he endeavoured to improve 
himself, but was obliged from want of money to 
eulist for a time as a soldier. After this he entered 
the service of a Hthographer, and commenced as an 
engraver in mezzotint. He died at Berlin in 1874. 
Among his best mezzotints we may name: 

Jubal ; after Klohers. 

The Compromise of the Dutch Nobles; after Biefve. 

Parade before Frederick the Great ; after Camphausen. 

Richard III. ; after Stilke. 

Children at Play ; after Meyerheim. 

After the Wedding ; after Kindler. 

Durer in Antwerp ; after Oer. 

Philippa Welser ; after Schrader. 

OLDONI, Boniforte db, belonged to a family of 
artists which appears to have moved to Vercelli 
from Milan in tlie middle of the 15th century. 
Boniforte worked from 1463 to 1510. He had 
three sons, Ercole, Giosufe, and Eleazar, all 
painters. In the parish church of Verrone, near 
Biella, is a fresco signed by Giosue ; and in the 
possession of the Countess Castelnuova, at Turin, 
IS a small ' Adoration of the Infant Christ,' signed 
by Eleazar, ' Eleazar de Oldonibus.' 

OLEN, Jan van. See Alen. 

OLENDOKF. See Olmdorf. 

OLESZCZYNSKI, Anthony, a Polish engraver 
and painter, born in 1796 at Krasnystow (Lublin). 
He at first studied law at Warsaw, and then spent 



six years in the School of Fine Arts at St. Peters- 
burg. With government aid he further prosecuted 
his studies at Paris, under Eegnault and Eichomme. 
He then passed some time at Florence, in the 
Academy of which city he was appointed a Pro- 
fessor. His patriotic tendencies at length lost 
him the support of the Russian Government, and 
he then produced the series of plates known as 
'Polish Varieties.' Among the best are: 

The Hungarian Ambassadors offering the Crown to the 
Son of Ladislaus Jagello. 

The German Emperor begs the assistance of John 

The Entry of Boleslaw into Kief. 

Bogdan Schmielnicki. 

The Shoemaker Kilinski. 

The Enchantment of Twardowski. 

Portrait of Kosciusko. 

OLGIATI, GiROLAMO, an Italian engraver, who 
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century 
He formed his style of engraving by studying the 
works of Cornells Cort. Among other plates by 
him is an etched print representing the ' Trinity,' 
with a number of saints and angels, after Federigo 
Zuccaro, inscribed Hieronymus Olgiatus f. 1572 ; 
the ' Entombment,' after Guido Clovis, and others. 

OLIPHANT, Francis Wilson, chiefly known 
as a designer of stained glass. Oliphant had also 
a considerable talent for oil painting, and was a 
frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He 
was born in 1818 at Newcastle-on-Tyne, but passed 
most of his life in London, working at decoration 
and stained glass, and in the latter department of 
art he attained great renown. Windows in Ely 
Cathedral, Aylesbury Church, and the ante-chapel 
to King's College, Cambridge, are from his hand. 
He was a great friend of William Dyce, R.A., and 
worked with him in some of his frescoes and 
cartoons. He was always a very weakly man, 
and frequently compelled to leave England in the 
winter, and he died at Rome in 1859. 

OLIS, Jan, a Dutch painter, born in 1610, at 
Dordrecht (?). He painted ' Corps-de-gardes,' 
corporation groups, and a few single portraits. He 
died in 1665, most likely in Amsterdam, where 
most of his life was passed. In the Kijks Museum 
there is a ' Kitchen Interior ' by him. Though .signed 
J- Olis/ecit. 1646., it used to be ascribed to Sorgh. 
A landscape with figures in the Darmstadt Gallery, 
given in the Catalogue to Jan Lis, is most likely 
the work of Olis. 

OLIVA, Ignazio, a Neapolitan painter and 
scholar of Domenico Gargiulo, called Micco Spa- 
daro. The latter was the fellow-pupil of Salvator 
Rosa under Aniello Falcone, and they all painted 
landscapes and marine views much in the same 
style in the latter half of the 17th century. 

OLIVA, Philip, a native of Middleburg, was 
admitted a bourgeois of Antwerp in 1642, and a 
free member of the Society of St. Luke in 1655 or 
1656. He died at Antwerp about 1659. In 1648-9 
an Andreas Oliva was also inscribed on the guild 
books, and in 1 667-8 a Michael and a second 
Philip, all described as sons of a master. 

OLIVA, PlERo, painter, a native of Messina, and 
pupil of Antonello, flourished about 1490. 

OLIVEIRA-BERNARES, Ignacio de, belongs to 
a family of artists in Portugal who bore this name. 
The first mentioned is Manoel Rodriguez, a painter 
who seems to have been known also as Oliveira 
Bernares. He had a son Antonio, and three grand- 
sons, Ignacio, Fra Jose de Santa-Maria, a monk, 
and Polycarp, all painters. Ignacio, who was born 


at Lisbon in 1695, was one of the young artists 
whom John the Fifth of Portugal sent to Rome, 
where he wished to establish a Portuguese Academy 
of Painting. At Rome Ignacio studied painting 
and architecture uuder Benedetto Luti and Paolo 
de Matteis. On his return to Lisbon lie was ad- 
mitted into the Brotherhood of St. Luke, and 
afterwards made a professor of thj Academy. He 
died in 1781. At Lisbon many of his works, both 
in architecture and in painting, are to be seen. His 
son Joas Pedro de Oliveira, born at Lisbon in 1752, 
was also an artist, and there are pictures by him in 
the Lisbon churches. 

OLIVER, Archer James, an English portrait 
painter, was born in 1774. He studied in the schools 
of the Royal Academv, of which he was elected an 
Associate in 1803. For some years he had a wide 
and fashionable circle of sitters at his studio in New 
Bond Street, and he exhibited largely from 1800 
to 1820. In 1835 he was appointed curator of the 
painting school in the Academy. Through ill 
health in his latter years his means were reduced, 
and he became a pensioner of the Academy. He 
died in 1842. 

OLIVER, D., supposed by Fiissli to have been 
a French painter, resided in London in the 17th 
century. The portrait of the painter P. Sevin, 
by D. Oliverus was engraved by De La Croix 
in 1692. 

OLIVER, Isaac, an English mezzotint engraver 
in the latter part of the 17th century. He was the 
son of John Oliver, glass painter. Amongst his 
engravings are : 

The Seven Bishops. 

Chiirles II. 

George, Prince of Denmark. 

E. van HeemsliVrk. 

OLIVER, LsAAC. This eminent miniature painter 
was probably a man of French origin, but may 
possibly have been bom in England. Some 
references have quite recently been found by 
Mr. Lionel Oust in the registers of the French 
church, Threadneedle Street, and the Dutch 
church, Austin Friars, and in a return of ahens in 
London for 1571, which seem to make it clear that 
Oliver's parents were one Peter Oliver, a gold- 
smith, who was born at Rouen, and Typhan hia 
wife, and that they were in London, lodging in 
Fleet Lane, in 1571, and later in that year in the 
parish of St. Sepulchre's, and that they had with 
them one child named Isaac, who appears at that 
time to have been under six years old. The con- 
temporaries of Oliver appear to have all regarded 
him as an Englisliman. Sandrart, in his ' Teutsch 
Academic,' speaks of him as " Membranarum pic- 
tor Londinensis," and in the inscription below the 
portrait of him which was engraved by Hendrik 
Hondius he is styled " Isaacus Oliverus Anglus." 
In all probability he is identical with one Isaac 
Olivier of Rouen, who on February 9, 1602, was 
married at the Dutch church, Austin Friars, to 
Sara Gheeraerts of London, the record of whose 
marriage Mr. Oust found in the registers of the 
church. If this was so, it may enable us to iden- 
tify the author of the treatise on limning which 
is now in the British Museum, and which 
was_ considered by Vertue to be the work of 
Hilliard. The anonymous author in this treatise 
refers more than once to " your late countryman 
and my dear cousin, Isaac Oliver," and therefore, 
in all probability, Vertue's attribution was not 
correct. Mr. Cust, in the 'Dictionary of National 


\_Froni the miniature at Windsor Casile 


[Collection of /lie Queen of Holland 



Biographj',' points cut that Sara Gheeraerts, 
Oliver's wife, appears to have been the daughter 
of Marcus Gheeraerts the elder by his second 
wife Susannah de Critz, who was certainly related 
to John de Critz, Sergeant Painter to James I. 
Francis Meres, in his'Palladis Tamia ' of 1598, 
selects three artists, Hilliard, Isaac Oliver, and 
John de Critz, as specially excellent in the art of 
painting, " and assuming," says Mr. Oust, " that 
John de Critz was the cousin by marriage of 
Isaac Oliver, he may well have been the author 
of this treatise on limning." It should be noticed, 
liowever, that there is nothing in this theory to 
prevent the treatise having been taken down from 
the teaching of Hilliard, or having formed part of 
the manuscripts of that eminent artist, edited as it 
is now by De Critz. 

C)liver frequently spelt his own name Olivier or 
Ollivier, but from the constant references to In'm 
as an Englishman by his contemporaries, it would 
seem likely either that he was born in England, or 
else that he came to England at such a tender 
age that he was considered as an Englishman. 
Burton's Manuscript Collections for Leicester- 
shire, collected by Nicholls in his history of the 
county, connected Oliver with a family seated 
at East Norton in that county, while at Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch there is an entry of the birth of an Isaac 
Olliveer in 1651. It is probable, however, that these 
entries refer to another family, and that Mr. Cast's 
discoveries bring us as near to definite information 
about this painter as can be attained. More than one 
writer has drawn attention to the fact that in the 
portrait of Oliver by Hondius there is to be seen 
through a window a river-scene whicli resembles 
nothing in England, but is very like the scenery 
of the Seine near Kouen, and tliat this is further 
evidence of the connection of the family with 
France. Haydocke's Introduction to Lomazzo'e 
'Art of Painting' tells us that Oliver was the 
pupil of Nicholas Hilliard, and from examination 
of his work it is clear that he followed Hilliard's 
manner of painting very closelv. He, however, 
excelled his master in the painting of the face 
and hands, and he in his turn was surpassed by 
his son Peter. Vertue states on the authority of 
Nathaniel Russel, a painter, that Oliver also 
painted larger pictures in oil, and he mentions two 
pictures, representing ' St. John the Baptist ' and the 
' Holy Family,' as at that time in Russel's posses- 
sion. Russel appears to have been a kinsman to 
Oliver, and was therefore well acquainted with his 
work, but tliere are no oil paintings whicli can 
now be definitely attributed to this artist. There 
are a large number of his miniatures in existence, 
some of the finest being .at Windsor Castle, Mon- 
tagu House, Chatsworth, Sherborne Castle, Belvoir 
Castle, and Minley Manor, in the latter house 
being some famous works of this artist, which 
were at one time at Penshurst Place. Perhaps 
one of the finest works which Oliver ever did is 
the group of the three sons of the second Viscount 
Montagu, with their servant, which he painted in 
1598, and which now belongs to the Marquis of 
Exeter, and is to be seen at Burghley. 

Oliver resided in the district of Blackfriars, and 
he died in 1617. He was buried on October 2 of 
that year in the church of St. Anne, Blackfriars, 
where a monument was erected to his memory, 
with a bust and an epitaph. This was destroyed 
in the Great Fire of London, but Vertue declares 
that he saw a clay model of the bust in the pos- 

session of Russel, together with several leaves 
from Oliver's sketch-book. His will was dated 
June 4, 1617, and was proved on October 30 in 
the same year, and by it he appointed his wife 
Elizabeth his executrix, and referred to his eldest 
son Peter, wiio would carry on his work, and to 
other sons who were under age. In all probabil- 
ity Oliver was married twice, possibly even three 
times. His will is signed " Isaac Oliver," and not 
"Olivier." His portrait is to be seen both at 
Montagu House and at Windor Castle amongst 
the miniatures in these two important Collectious. 
. . G. C. W. 

OLIVER, John, was born in 1616 in London, and 
died in 1701. Some authorities, Walpole among 
others, suppose him to have been the son of James 
Oliver, one of the youngest sons of Isaac Oliver 
(q.v.); others speak of him as a descendant of John 
Oliver, master mason to James I. He is probably 
the John Oliver who was one of the Commissioners 
appointed to direct the rebuilding in London after 
the Great Fire of 1666, and who became possessed 
of the MS. designs of Inigo Jones. His most 
important achievements were in glass-painting, 
but he also executed some engravings. 

Northill Church, Bedfordshire : a window put up by 
the Grocers' Company, no longer iu its original place. 
The Royal Arms and other heraldic devices ; dated 
1664. There was also in Northill Kectory a sundial 
painted with insects, &c., signed and dated John 
Oliver fecit 1664. 

Lambeth : a sundial put up by Archbishop Sheldon 
(died 1677), with arms and a view of the Sheldonian 
Theatre, Oxford ; this was finished iu 1669. 

Petworth : the arms of the Percys in the great window 
of the chapel. 

Oxford, Christ Church: 'St. Peter delivered from 
Prison ' ; dated and inscribed J. Oliver tetat. su/s 
84, anno 1700, pinxit deditque. This window has been 

The engravings ascribed to him are a portrait of 
James II., in mezzotint ; Judge Jeffries as ' Earl of 
Flint'; and some others. Also a 'View of the Hot 
Wells, Bath,' dated 1676; a 'View of Tangiers,' 
after Hollar ; besides a ' Boy asleep, a Skull by his 
side,' after Artemisia Gentileschi. C. B. 

OLIVER, Peter. This notable miniature painter 
was the eldest son of Isaac Oliver, probably by 
his first wife. It is not known for certain when he 
was born, but that event probably occurred in 
1594. He died at Isleworth in Middlesex in 1648, 
and was buried beside his father in St. Anne's, 
Blackfriars. His will was dated December 12, 
1647, and was proved on December 15, 1648, and 
by it he left his whole estate to his wife Anne. 
He was a pupil of his father, Isaac Oliver, but his 
work is richer in colouring than that of his father, 
and the painting of the bauds and faces is of extra- 
ordinary merit. He was employed by Charles I. 
to make water-colour copies of many of the more 
important paintings in the Royal Collection, of 
works by Raphael, Titian, Correggio, and Holbein 
especially, and these copies were put in frames 
provided with locks, and known in the old in- 
ventories as simtting glasses. These miniature 
copies were taken by the King on his travels, in 
order that he might enjoy and appreciate the 
beauty of the pictures when unable to be near the 
gallery. They were dispersed at the sale of the 
Collection, but several of them still remain in the 
Royal Collection at Windsor. One exceedingly fine 
signed example, still in its original frame, is at 
Burghley, and in the same Collection there are 



three more copies in water-colour of old masters' 
paintings, wliich were probably the work of Oliver 
or of his pupils. Another is to be found in the 
Jones Collection at South Kensington, and yet 
another is at Monfcigu House. Oliver also made 
copies in miniature of works of Van Dyck, and 
two of these copies are at Sherborne Castle, 
while one, which is of unusual size and great 
beauty, represents Rachel de Riivigny, Countess 
of Southampton. One of his most beautiful works 
is the portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales, which 
is now at Belvoir Castle. The Prince is re- 
presented in gilded armour, wearing the blue 
ribbon of the Garter and a fine lace ruff. A 
miniature in the same Collection of Charles, Prince 
of Wales, is very probablj' the work of the same 
artist. Peter Oliver's portrait as a boy, painted by 
his father, is to be seen at Welbeck, and another 
one of himself as a young man, which is his own 
work, is at Montagu House. Tliere are several 
miniatures in the possession of the Queen of 
Holland, who also owns some of the finest works 
of his father Isaac, and other examples of the work 
of Oliver appear in the Rijks Museum at Amster- 
dam. A great many of his miniatures remained 
in the possession of his widow at Isleworth, and it 
is said that Charles II. heard of their existence 
and was desirous of obtaining them. Vertue tells 
ns that the King went privately and unknown to 
see Mrs. Oliver, taking with him a man whom 
Vertue calls Rogers, but who was probably a man 
named Progers, who was well known for being 
employed in the King's private pleasures. Mrs. 
Oliver showed the King a large lunnber of minia- 
tures both finished and unfinished, and when he 
revealed himself to her, promised to look over her 
husband's books and let him know what prices 
his father the late King had paid. The King took 
away, says Vertue, what he liked, and sent a 
messenger to Mrs. Oliver with the option of a 
thousand pounds for them or an annuity of £300 
for her life. She chose the latter sum, but it was 
subsequently reported to the King that Mrs. Oliver 
had denounced in disrespectful terms the Royal 
mistresses to whom many of the pictures had been 
given, and stated that if she had thought the King 
would have given them to such persons, he would 
never have had them. From the moment that the 
story reached the Court the poor woman's salary 
was stopped, and she never received it after- 
wards. The rest of the miniatures in Mrs. Oliver's 
possession passed, so Vertue tells us, into the 
hands of Theodore Russel, the father of Vertue's 

Oliver's portrait is said to have been engraved 
by T. Chambars ; there is an anonymous etching 
known which represents him. In the Earl of 
Derby's Collection there is a leaf of a pocket- 
book with drawings by Oliver in black lead of 
himself on one side and of his wife on the other. 
His pictures are painted on cardboard, or on an 
exceedingly thin vellum mounted on card. Several 
of his works belong to Mr. L. Currie, and are at 
Minley Manor, there is a beautiful one at Ham 
House, and an important one at the Wallace 
Gallery, several at Welbeck, and very many at 
Montagu House. 0- C. W. 

OLIVER, William, an English landscape 
painter, born in 1805. He chiefly practised in 
water-colours, exhibiting at the New Water-Colour 
Society, of which he was a member. His subjects 
were mainly taken from foreign scenery. He died 


in 1853. There is an oil-painting ot Foligno, in the 
Papal States, by him, in the Kensington Museum. 

OLIVERUS, a skilful French miniaturist of the 
12th century. He worked in Paris. The library 
of Douai possesses a fine MS. illustrated by him. 

OLIVES, Francisco, a Spanish painter, who 
flourished at Tarragona about 1557. He filled for 
a time the post of valuer of works of art for the 

OLIVIER, Adbin, a die-sinker and engraver on 
wood, was born at Ro3'e, in Picardy, in the first 
half of the Kith century; and was Director of the 
Mint, under Henri II., in 1553. As a wood-en- 
graver, in conjunction with Jean le Royer, his 
brother-in-law, he engraved the sixty figures which 
illustrate the ' Lievre de Perspective de Jehan 
Cousin,' the celebrated French artist, which was 
published in Paris in 1560 by Jehan le Royer, in a 
large folio. The date of Aubin Olivier's death is 
not known. 

OLIVIER, Heinrich, elder brother of Johann 
H. Ferdinand Olivier, was bom at Dessau in 1783. 
He underwent the same course of study as his 
brother, and ultimately became a teacher of draw- 
ing and of languages in Berlin, where he died in 
1848. In Vienna he executed a copy of Pordenone's 
'St. Justina,' and also produced original paintings 
for the churches of his native town. 

OLIVIER, Johann Heinrich Ferdinand, painter 
and lithographer, was born at Dessau iu 1785. 
His first instructions were received from K. W. 
Kolbe and Haldeiiw.ang, but in 1804 he went to 
Dresden, and studied under Jakob Mechau. In 
1807 he accompanied his brother Heinrich to Paris, 
and together they painted a portrait of Napoleon I. 
on horseback, as well as ' The Baptism of Christ ' 
and a 'Last Supper' for the church of Worlitz. 
In 1811 he proceeded to Vienna, and in 1828 pub- 
lished a series of lithographs at Salzburg. His oil 
pictures are for the most part either purely his- 
torical, or historical landscapes. In 1833 he became 
professor of art history and general secretary to 
the Academy at Munich, where he died in 1841. 
His last and best painting is a landscape in the 
possession of Fraulein Linder of that city. He 
usually signed his work with a monogram of F. 0. 

OLIVIER, Michel Barth^lkmy, was born at 
Marseilles in 1712, and died in Paris in 1784. He 
was received into the Academy as painter of land- 
scape and genre, and became painter to the Prince 
du Conti. His style is that of his time, the execu- 
tion neat, and colour undecided. 

OLIVIER, Woldemar Friedrich, younger 
brother of Heinrich and Ferdinand Olivier, was 
born at Dessau in 1791. From 1811 he studied 
under his brother Ferdinand : but in 1813-14 he 
served as an ofiScer in the Lutzow volunteer corps, 
and as such obtained the iron cross and the Order 
of St. Anne and St. George. In 1815 he travelled 
in England and the Netherlands, and proceeded in 
1818 to Rome, where he studied under Overbeck 
and Cornelius. He here painted his picture of 
' Christ with the Tribute Money,' together with 
landscapes with historical figures. In 1824 he 
returned to Vienna and practised .is a portrait 
painter, but removed in 1829 to Munich, where he 
worked upon the frescoes in the Konigsbau, in the 
Nihelungenand Homer Saloons, and also designed 
a ' Pictorial Bible' with fifty illustrations from the 
New Testament. He died at Dessau in 1859. 

OLIVIERI, DoMENico, was bom at Turin in 
1679. He particularly excelled in painting droll 


[From the miniature at one time at Castle Nozuard 












scenes, fairs, and merry-makings, in imitation of 
the style of Peter van Laer, in which he displayed 
infinite humour, and a talent for caricature. In 
the gallery of the court of Turin were two of his 
best pictures, in one of which he has represented a 
fair, with an immense assemblage of figures, of 
quack-doctors, and groups of peasants, sporting or 
quarrelling. Though chiefly employed in painting 
what are called Bambocciate, he was not incapable 
of historical painting, as appears in his picture of 
'The Miracle of the Sacrament,' in the sacristy of 
Corpus Domini, at Turin. He died in 1755. Boni 
says that he had a pupil who painted in the same 
style, and of whom he speaks as N. Graneri of 

OLIVIERI, DoMENico, called S.^lvatoriello, a 
Neapolitan, born in the last half of the 17th 
century. He was the best of Solimena's pupils, 
and painted, in fresco, ' Tlie Virgin and Child,' in 
S. Maria delle Grazie ; ' Rinaldo and Armida,' and 
other pictures on a large scale. He died in 1718. 

OLIVIERS, Jacob Frans and Adriaen, two 
obscure painters of Haarlem, who flourished in the 
17th and 18th centuries. Jacob was inscribed on 
the Guild in 1632. In 1650 he received, from the 
military authorities, a sum of 150 florins for re- 
storing pictures, and in 1667 a requisition was made 
for a tomb for him in the church of St. Bavon. 
Adriaen was inscribed on the Guild in 1707. 

OLLMtJTZ, Wenzel or Wesceslaus von, (Oi.- 
MtJTZ, or Olomocz,) was a painter and engraver of 
the 15th century, who produced several extremely 
good copies, as well as original plates. By Bartsch 
he was supposed to be identical with the " JIaster 
signing W," while some have endeavoured to iden- 
tify him with Michael Wolgemut. The more recent 
opinion is that the plates with W upon them 
are the work of Wolgemut, and that instead of 
being copies from Diirer. DiJrer copied them. For 
a fuller discussion of the question see Wolgemut. 
The name of Waiceslaus von Olomucz appears on a 
copy from Scliongaiier's 'Death of the Virgin,' 
dated 1481. He was still working as late as the 
beginning of the 16th century. The best of liis 
plates are in the above-mentioned copy from Schon- 
gauer's famous engraving. 

OLMDORF, Hans von, (or Olmendorf,) a Ba- 
varian artist, who painted between 1460 and 1518. 
He was court painter to the Duke Sigmund. He 
painted at Munich and at Bhitenburg, where it is 
thought ke made the designs for tlie windows 
painted by Hans Hebenstreit. To him is ascribed 
also the picture of 'God the Father with the dead 
Christ on His knees,' the engraving from which is 
attributed to The Master of 1466. Some of his 
pictures, on panels with gold backgrounds, are 
at Schleissheim. One of his best works is the 
' Crowning of the Virgin,' in which the Duke Sig- 
mund is introduced on his knee. 

OLMO, Giovanni Paolo. Siret speaks of a Ber- 
gamese painter of this name, and of a ' Vierge 
Glorieuse,' at Berlin, signed Jo. Paidits Vlmiis. 

OLMO, Marco. Burn in 1683, of a noble family 
in the territory of Bergamo, Marco Olmo showed 
early such a strong inclination for painting that he 
was sent to Bologna, and studied for some years 
under Gio. Giosetle dal Sole. On his return he 
painted a great number of pictures for the churches 
in his native country, and many portraits. He 
died in 1753. 

OMEH, Rowland, a draughtsman, born in Ire- 
land, who worked about 1750. He drew many 

public buildings in Dublin and other parts of Ire- 
land, whicli were engraved. 

OMINO, L'. See Lomeardl 

OMME, H. van, a mediocre painter, who was 
active at Oudewater in 1651. In the orphanage 
of that town tliere is a large picture of ' Orphans 
at Dinner,' by him. 

OMMEGANCK, B.4LTIIAZAR Paul, a distin- 
guished painter of landscapes and animals, was 
liorn at Antwerp in 1755, and studied under Hen- 
dricus Josephus Antonissen from 1767. In 1789 
he became dean of the Guild of St. Luke in his 
native city, and in 1796 professor in the Academy 
there. In 1799 lie won the first prize for landscapes 
in Paris, and in 1809 became a corresponding 
member of the Institute. He was also a member 
of the Academies of Amsterdam, Brussels, Ghent, 
Munich, and Vienna. He died at Antwerp in 1826. 
He was one of the cumniissioners of 1816, appointed 
by Belgium to reclaim from France the objects of 
art which she had acquired by force of arms during 
the great war. During his life his works were 
in such request that only the rich could obtain 
them, and they are therefore seldom to be found 
but in the finest modern collections of England, 
France, and Holland. And yet in handling they 
were soft, weak, and oversmooth, in conception 
confused, and in colour poor. It is in fact greatly 
to the example of Ommeganck that the poor work 
done by Belgian landscape and animal painters in 
the early part of the present century is to be 
traced, especially their shortcomings in the matter 
of colour. Carpentero, J. F. Lenzen, and some of 
the more recent Belgian painters, have imitated his 
manner ; a female painter, long resident in Holland 
and Belgium, has copied several of his pictures 
very successfully ; and others in Engliind and else- 
where, under the auspices of the dealers, have made 
it a very profitable speculation. He executed some 
admired drawings, and also clay models of sheep 
and cows. Among his oil-paintings there are (be- 
sides some at Antwerp, Brussels, and Cassel) : 

Frankfort. Stddel Inst. Landscape with sheep and 

London. StaJ^ord House. Cows in the wat<^r. 
Paris. Louvre. Landscape with sheep. 

OMMEGANCK, Maria Jacoba. See Baesten. 

O.MPHALION, a painter of the 4th century B.C., 
who, as Pausanias tells us, was a pupil and friend 
of Nicias. 

ONA, (or Onna,) Pedro de, a Spanish painter, 
born in Spain about 1550, son-in-law to Esteban 
Jordan, sculptor to Philip II. He painted in 1590 
the principal altar-piece in the parish church of 
Santa Maria de Rioseco. 

ONATAS, an early Greek sculptor of iEgina, 
practised painting also to some small extent, and 
was employed in conjunction with Polygnotus in 
the temple of Athene at Platsea. 

ONATE, Miguel, a Spanish portrait painter, 
was born at Seville in 1535, and studied under 
Antony Mor, who was in Spain in 1551. He ac- 
companied his instructor to Portugal, where he was 
sent to paint the portrait of the first consort 
of Philip II. He then returned with him to 
Madrid, where he died in 1606, leaving to his 
heirs a considerable fortune acquired by his pro- 

O'NEAL, Jeffrey Hamet, was bom in Ireland, 
jractised in London for many years, and died early 
in the 19th century. He painted landscapes, birds, 
flowers, small conversations, and miniatures ; and 



oontributed several years to the Spring Gardens' 

O'NEIL, Henry Nelson, was born at St. Peters- 
burg in 1817; came to England and entered the 
Royal Academy schools in 1833. Some years after- 
wards he started on a journey to Italy with Mr. 
Elmore, with whom he contracted a friendship while 
in the schools. On his return to England he rapidly 
rose to fame as a contributor to the Exhibitions of 
the Royal Academy. He was elected an Associate 
in 1860. He died on the 13th of March, 1880. The 
fallowing are a few of his best works ; they were 
very popular at the time they were painted: 'By 
the rivers of Babylon,' ' Ahasuerus and the Scribes,' 
'Eastward Ho 1 ' and 'Home Again, 'The Wreck 
of the Royal Charter,' and ' The Death of R:iflFaelle.' 
The last is considered his best picture. Besides 
these, he executed a number of landscapes and 
portraits. He was also the author of various 
treatises on art. 

O'NEILL, Hugh, an English draughtsman, born 
in London in 1784. He was helped by Dr. Munro, 
and afterwards taught drawing in Oxford, Edin- 
burgh, Bath, and Bristol. His subjects were archi- 
tectural antiquities, and his sketches of Christ Church, 
Oxford, and of Bristol were pnblished. He died at 
Bristol in 1824. There are three water-colour 
drawings by him in the South Kensington Museum. 
Fifty of his sketches of antiquities in Bristol were 
etched by J. Skelton, and published in 1826. 

ONGARO, MiCHELE, an artist of the middle of 
the 15tli century, a native of Ferrara. A picture 
of the ' Virgin and Child ' discovered there in 1842, 
is supposed to be by him. 

ONGHERS, Jacob, a Dutch painter established 
at Prague in 1691. In 1714 he became chief of 
the corporation of painters in that citj-, and died 
there about 1730. 

ONGHERS, Oswald, painter, was born at Mechlin 
in 1628, and died at Wiirzburg in 1706. He studied 
mainly after Van Dyck, and in 1660 settled at 
Wiirzburg as painter to the Prince Bishop. He 
produced an 'Assumption of the Virgin' for the 
Haug Church, and a 'Mocking of Christ' and 
'Martyrdom of St. Kilian' for the cathedral. 

ONOFRI, Francesco, a Roman unight and en- 
graver of the 18th century, who published a set 
of twelve etchings, with a title, after the works 
of G. L. Bernini. 

ONOFRIO PA FABRIANO, a painter of the 
Umbrian school, who is said to have been contem- 
porary witli Gentile da Fabriano, and to have 
painted in 1460 the 'Life of St. Benedict,' in one of 
the cloisters of St. Michele in Boseo at Bologna. 

ONOFRIO, Cresoentio, (Honophrus, or Hon- 
UFRIIS,) landscape painter and etcher, was born at 
Rome most likely some years later than 1613, the 
date usually given. He was a scholar of Giispar 
Poussin, and painted landscapes in the style of that 
master. He resided chiefly at Florence, where he 
was much emploj'ed by the court and for private 
collections. He died at Florence. Lanzi and Zani 
say he was living in 1712, which is more probable 
than that he died in 1688, as he etched a fine series 
of twelve plates of landscapes, after hte own designs, 
which are dated 1696 I 

OORT, Van. See Noort, Adam van. 

OORTMAN, Joachim Jan, an engraver, of Dutch 
parentage, but, from his long residence in Paris, 
reckoned among French artists, was born at Weesp 
in 1777, and studied successively under W. Koch, 
C. H. Hodges, and Claessens. He engraved after 


Rembrandt, Gerard Don, A. Ostade, Jan Steen, and 
other eminent Dutch masters ; also after Titian, 
Giulio Romano, Caravaggio, and Valentino : and 
some French painters of more modern date. He 
died in Paris in 1«18. In addition to two plates 
in illustration of the ' Lusiad,' he supplied the 
following to Filhol's ' Musee Fran9ais : ' 

Portrait of Eembrandt ; aftt'r that artist. 
The Death of the Virgin ; after Caravaggio. 
Martyrdom of St. Laurence ; after Titian. 
Human Life ; after J. Steen. 

COST, James van, the elder, son of John and 
Geraldine Weyts, born at Bruges before 1600 ; 
inscribed in the register of the Guild of St. Luke 
as apprenticed to his brother Francis, and as free- 
master October 18, 1621. Shortly after he went 
to Italy, where he studied under Hannibal Carracoi. 
He returned to Bruges in 1629, and was soon after 
elected milder of the Guild. In 1633-34 he held 
the office of Dean. He was twice married, and 
died in 1671. He painted a great many pictures, 
the figures in which are generally life-size, and 
the backgrounds architectural. Tlie churches of 
Bruges contain many of his religious paintings. 
His portraits are often excellent. He was also a 
good musician. 
Bruges. St. Saviour's. The Flight into Egypt. 

,, „ Martyrdom of St. Godeleva. 

„ „ Descent of the Holy Ghost at 

Pentecost. 1658. 
„ St.Mari/'s. Saints adoring the Infant Jesus. 

„ St. Janus'. Presentation of the Blessed 

Virgin. 1655. 
,, Jltisevm. EpiscKles in the Life of St. 

Anthony of Padua. 
„ „ Portrait of a religious dictating 

to a clerk. 1668. 
„ St. John's Hospital. A Christian meditating. 1647. 

„ Guitdhonse of St. ) p^^trait of T. Pauwels. 1667. 
Srhastian. j 
Lisle. Museum. St. John of the Cross dressing 

a friar's leg. 
,, „ St. Teresa and St. Peter of 

Alcantara in prayer before 
the Holy Family. 
,, „ Portrait of a man. 

Paris. Louvre. St. Charles Borromeo adminis- 

tering the plague-stricken in 
Vienna. Miisfinn. The Nativity. 

Bihliotfraphy : Weale, 'Catalogue du Musee de 
Bruises,'' pp. 75-80. Bruges, 1861. W. H. J. W. 

OOST, James van, the younger, son and scholar 
of James van Cost the elder, born at Bruges, 
February 10, 1639. He studied under his father 
until he was tvventy,and then went to Paris and, two 
years later, Rome for improvement. He returned, 
after some years, to Bruges. After painting there 
some pictures for the churches, he went to Lille, 
where he married and settled. Having lost his 
wife after forty-one years, he returned to Bruges, 
where he died on September 29, 1713. He 
painted history and portraits, and was so eminent 
in the latter, that his partisans ventured to compare 
his work with that of Van Dyck. His historical 
pictures partake more of the Roman than of the 
Flemish school. Works : 

Bruges. Museum. Portrait of a man. 1697. 

Brassels. Musenni. Portrait of a man. Signed J. 

V. Oast de ionghe. 
Lille. St. Stephen. Martyrdom of St. Barbara. 

„ Capuchin Ch. Christ contemplating the In- 

struments of His Passion. 
„ Museum, Tw» portraits of men. 168ft 

and 1693. W'.H. J. W. 


Woodbury Co. plioto] \_National Gallery 



II \hhibnry Co. photo 

I The Louvre 



OOST, William van, son of James, the elder, 
born March 8, 1651, entered the Order of St. 
Dominic in 1671, and died August 31, 1686. 

Bruges. Museiun. St. Dominic seated readiug, in 

a landscape painted by Luke 

W; H. J. W. 

OOSTEN, J. VAN, was an artist who painted 
small landscapes, with figures and animals, in the 
manner of Jan Breughel, to whom they are usually 
ascribed when they appear in sales. There are 
no particulars of him recorded. There is a good 
example of his work, a ' Paradise,' in the "Liechten- 
stein Collection, at Vienna. It is signed J. van 
Oosten, fecit. 

OOSTERHOUDT, Thierry van, was born at 
Tiel, in Guelderhiiid, in 1756. He was a scholar 
of R. van Eynder, and frequented the Electoral 
Academy at Dtisseldorf. After several years' study 
of the pictures of Raphael, Carlo Dolci, Rubens, 
Viin Dyck, and other masters there, he returned to 
his native city, and painted portraits, and finished 
numerous compositions. Some of his subjects are 
scenes in private life, and are to be met with at 
Tiel and Utrecht. He painted also in water- 
colours. He died in 1830. 

OOSTERWIJCK, Maria van, a celebrated 
painter of flowers and fruit, was born at Nootdorp, 
a small town near Delft, in 1627 or 1630. She 
was the daughter of a clergyman, who encouraged 
the disposition she evinced for art by placing 
her under the tuition of the flower painter, Jan 
Davidsz de Heem, whose works she in a few years 
almost equalled. Her pictures of fruit, flowers, 
and still-life found their way into the choicest 
collections, and she received commissions from 
many of the princes and sovereigns of Europe. 
Tlie Emperor Leopold L engaged her to paint a 
picture for his collection, and on its completion 
sent her the portrait of the Empress and his own, 
set with diamonds, as a mark of his approbation. 
William HI. and Louis XIV. were among her 
most munificent patrons. Maria van Oosterwijck 
died at Entdam in 1693. Her works are extremely 
scarce, from the care she bestowed upon thein. 
Among them we may note : 

Dresden. Gallery. Glass filled with Flowers in 

great variety. 
„ „ Fruit-piece, with Clusters of 

Vienna. Schdnhntv Gall. The same subject. 
„ „ Still-life subject. 

OPIE, (or OrFEY,) a portrait painter, was born 
in Cornwall, but is said to have been in no way 
connected with John Opie. He is believed to have 
been self-taught. In the catalogue of the Exhibition 
held in London in 1780, by the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, he and his works are thus described, 
" Master Oppey, Penryn. ' A Boy's Head.' An 
instance of genius, not having seen a picture." 
This head is said to have been expressive, well 
coloured, and to have attracted notice ou its 
merits. Oppey died young, in London, 25th Nov. 

OPIE, John, painter, was born in the village of 
St. Agnes, about seven miles from Trurc, in 1761. 
He was the son of a master carpenter, who was 
very desirous of bringing him up to his own 
business, but the love of drawing appears to have 
given an early bent to his inclinations, and as his 
propensity was encouraged by an uncle, who had 
instructed him in arithmetic and the elements of 

mathematics, his desire of becoming a painter gained 
an entire dominion over his mind, and nothing could 
divert him from it. He had already acquired some 
practice in portrait-painting, when his talent was 
accidentally discovered by Dr. Wolcott, 'Peter 
Pindar,' who at that time resided at Truro. He 
interested himself in his advancement, and lent 
him some of his pictures to study and copy. By 
Wolcott's assistance and recommendation, the 
talents of young Opie soon became known through- 
out the county, and he met with considerable em- 
ployment as a portrait painter. His earliest efforts, 
though not distinguished by taste, or a graceful dis- 
position of the figure, were extraordinary produc- 
tions for an artist reared in so remote and secluded 
a situation. About the year 1777 he was introduced 
to Lord Bateman, who employed him in painting 
old men, beggars, &c., which he designed with 
uncommon vigour and great truth of expression. In 
1780 he visited London under the auspices of Dr. 
Wolcott, where his merit and the extraordinary 
circumstances of his early artistic life, made him 
the object of widespread interest. Commissions 
crowded upon him, his partisans were zealous in 
his praise, and for sometime 'the Cornish wonder' 
was the rage. 

The powers of Opie were not calculated to flatter 
the frivolit}' of fashion ; he was not verj' suscept- 
ible to female grace, and his portraits of men were 
rather distinguished by identity and truth, than by 
dignity. Thus it was not long before the curiosity 
excited on his arrival in London in a great degree 
subsided, but as his talents were not confined to 
portraiture, he continued t9 meet with employment 
in painting domestic or rustic subjects. The great 
undertakings which were in hand at this time, such 
as Boydell's ' Shakespeare,' Bowyer's ' English 
History,' Macklin's ' Poets and Bible,' opened a 
new field to Opie, and perhaps his most popular 
performances were his pictures of the 'Murder of 
James I. of Scotland,' the ' Death of Rizzio,' 
' Jephtha's Vow,' the ' Presentation in the Temple,' 
and 'Arthur supplicating Hubert.' In the best of 
these he shows not only vigour, but also a curious 
sense of stjde which is hardly to he found in any 
other English historical pictures of the time. 

On Fuseli's appointment to the office of Keeper 
of the Royal Academy, in 1806, Opie became a 
candidate for the vacant professorship of painting, 
and was elected. In that capacity he read four 
lectures at Somerset House, which bear testimony 
to the extent of his powers, and to his acquaintance 
with the theory of his art. He died in 1807, and 
his remains were interred in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
near tliose of Sir Joshua Reynolds. A catalogue 
of liis paintings was published in 1878. Ttiere are 
ill public collections : 
London. National ) Portrait of Himself. 

Portrait Gallon/, f „ I'.artulozzi. 

Th. Holcroft. 
',', National Gallery. „ 'William Siddons. 

J, „ Mary Wollstone- 

„ City Art Gallery. ,. Daniel Finder. 

Murderof James I., of Scotland. 
'[ „ Murder of Eizzio. 

Dul'wich. Gallery. Portrait of Himself. 

Manchester. Gallery. Troilus, Cressida, and Pan- 
darus. (Lent by the National 
Gallery. ) 

OPITZ, Georq Emanuel, was born at Prague in 
1775, and studied underCaaanova in Dresden. Dp 
to 1807 he painted portraits in oil and miniature. 


but tlien commenced painting popular scenes,' 
character sketclies, costume figures, and so forth. 
In 1813 he followed the Ducliess of Courland to 
Paris, where he found a rich source of such sub- 
jects. Afterwards he lived at Heidelburg and 
Altenburg, and finally settled at Leipsic, where lie 
died in 1841. He was also successful in aquarelle 
and gouache painting, and as an engraver. 

OPPENORD, GiLLES Marie, (or Oppknort,) a 
draughtsman and architect, was born in Paris in 
1672, and was sent with a pension from tlie King 
to Rome, where he spent eight years. He died 
in Paris in 1742. He prepared the designs for 
the higli altars of St. Germain des Pris and St. 
Sulpice. Huquieres engraved some ornaments after 

OPPERDOES, Jan Pietersz, a Dutch painter, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1631 or 1632. In 1648 
he was bound apprentice to Govaert Camphuysen. 
Little is known of him. In the Rijks-Museum 
there is a landscape by him, signed Opperdoes. 

OPPERMANN, C. There is a miniature of the 
Czar, Alexander I., in the Dresden Gallery, signed 
with this name, and dated 1809. 

OPPI, Bernardino, a designer and engraver, who 
■worked at Rome in 1590. He helped to engrave 
a collection of sixteen plates representing the 
' Virtues,' after designs by Lanfraiico, which are 
dedicated to Cardinal Piccolomini. 

OPSTAL, Antony van, a Flemish painter, who 
was in the service of the Archduke Charles of 
Austria, in 1624. Nagler says that Van Opstal 
lived at Brussels, and that Van Dyck painted his 
portrait. Jan Meyssens was his pupil and engraved 
after him. 

OPSTAL, Gaspar Jacob van, the younger, was 
born at Antwerp in 1654. He was probably a 
pupil of his father. In 1676 he entered the guild, 
of which in 1698-9 he was dean. He painted his- 
tory and portraits, and there are several of his 
works in the churches in Flanders and Brabant ; 
but the defective pigments which he used have 
caused them to darken. In 1714 he was employed 
by Marshal Villeroy to copy the celebrated altar- 
piece by Rubens, in the cathedral at Antwerp, 
representing the ' Descent from the Cross,' together 
with the shutters of the organ. The commissions 
■which he received were so numerous that he fre- 
quently had to entrust them to his pupils. He 
died at Antwerp in 1717. Of his other works we 
may name : 
Antwerp. Museum. A Portrait. 1699. 

„ Jesuits^ Ch. The Child Jesus addressee! by 

Angels. 1693. 
Darmstadt. Gallery. The Holy Family resting near 

a cl.issic r tin. 
St. Omer. Cathedral. The Fathers of the Church. 

OPSTAL, Gaspar van, the elder, a pamter oi 
Antwerp, who studied under Simon de Vos in 1632. 
He was admitted a master in 1644. His sun, 
Gaspar Jacob, was a better painter than he. 

ORAM, Euward, an English landscape painter 
in the latter half of the 18th century. He was the 
son of William Oram, and acted as assistant to 
Loutherbourg. He exhibited .at the Incorporated 
Society in 1766, and at the Academy from 1775 
to 1799. A work of his, apparently posthumous, 
' Precepts and Observations on the Art of Colour- 
ing in Landscape Painting,' was published in 

ORAM, William, called 'Old Oram," was 
brought up as an architect, but taking to land- 


scape painting, arrived at success in that branch 
of art, and was, in 1748, made superintendent of 
the Board of Works by the interest of Sir Edward 
Walpole, who had several of his pictures and draw- 
ings. There is a picture by him in the Hermitage 
at St. Petersburg ; it probably went there with the 
Houghton Collection. Oram was much employed 
in decorating halls, staircases, and the panels over 
chinmey-pieces. Walker has engraved the tri- 
umphal arch erected by him for the coronation of 
George III., at Westminster Hall, and has intro- 
duced the entrance of the Champion and the Lord 

ORATII, (or Or.Azi,) Alessandro, painted about 
the middle of the 15th century, at Bologna. Mal- 
vasia speaks of a picture of the Virgin by him, 
which he found over the Macchiavelli altar in the 
church of San Francesco. 

ORAZI, Andrea Antonio, painted in fresco and 
in oil. He was born about 1630, and was a pupil 
of L. Garzi and C. Ferri in Rome. In the Crozat 
collection was a drawing by him, 'The Angel and 
Gideon's Fleece,' which was etched by Oaylus, and 
engraved by N le Sueur. He died about 1690. 
Giuseppe Orazi, wlio painted the vault of St. Maria 
del Orto, is believed to have been a relation of 
Andrea Antonio. 

ORAZZI, Niccol6, was an Italian engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1760. He was employed 
to execute part of the plates for the ' Antiquities of 
Herculaneum,' published by tiie authority of the 
King of Naples. 

ORBETTO, L'. See Turchi. 

ORCAGNA. See Cione. 

ORDE-POWLETT, Thomas, an English ama- 
teur etcher, born in 1746. His plates are chiefly 
caricatures and portraits. There is a burlesque 
portrait of Voltaire by him, signed ' T. 0. ftcit, 
1772.' He was raised to the peerage as Lord Bolton 
in 1797, and died in 1807. 

OKDONNANCE. See Mouchekon, Is. 

ORELLI, Antonio Baldassare, an obscure 
painter of the Milanese. There is a large altar- 
piece by him in the ' Calvary ' Church at Domo- 

ORELLI, GiDSErrs Antonio Felice, was born 
in 1700, in the Milanese, and received his first 
instruction in art from his father, Antonio Bal- 
dassare. He also worked under Baptista Sassi for 
fight years, but Tiepolo having been called to Milan 
by Count Archinti, Orelli had the good fortune to 
be employed by him, and afterwards accompanied 
him to Venice. There he remained six years. He 
then went to Bergamo, ■where he executed several 
works for the convents and churches, also at Milan 
for Count Brentatu. He also painted a few portraitB. 
He died in 1774. 

ORFELIN. See L'Horfelin. 

ORIENT, Joseph, was bom at Burbach, near 
Eisenstadt, in Hungary, in 1677, and was a pupil 
of Anton Feistenberger. He became sub-director 
of the Academy at Vienna, and died there in 1737 
It is said that he made use of a concave mirror in the 
painting of his landscapes, in which Ferg, Canton, 
and Janneek used to supply the figures. Among 
them are : 

I>au<lsc«pe with a Hunt. (Liechtenstein Col.) 
A Flat Landscape. {The sanie.) 
Two Tyrolese Land.scapes. (dallen/.) 
Forest, with Game {engraved try Rd^l). 
Mouutain Landscape, with river. (Town Gallery, Stutt- 







ORIENTE, Jose, a Spanish piiiil^r, born in or 
Bear Villareal in Valencia, who painted in the 
capital of that province about 1680-9. Among 
ether works by liirn, are ' Virgin of the Rosary,' in 
the church of S. FeHpe Ncri, and a portrait of Do- 
mingo Sarrio, whicli was engraved by Crisistomo 

ORIOLI, Bartolommeo, was of Treviso, and 
painted there about 1616. His principal work is 
a large picture painted for the clmrch of Santa 
Croce, in which there is a procession of the inhabit- 
ants of Treviso, all portraits. 

ORIOLI, GiDSEPPE, painted at Mantua. His best 
picture is ' The Last Supper,' in the Refectory of 
the Carmine in that place. He died in 1750. 

ORIOLO, Giovanni, of Ferrara, is known only 
by a portrait of Leonello d'Este, in the National 
Gallerj' ; it is signed Ojms Johanis OHoli, and 
was formerly in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara. 
Oriolo painted in the middle of the 15th century. 
He is supposed to have been a pupil of Vittor 
Pisano of Verona, called Pisanello, because this 
Leonello d'Este is a free copy from one of that 
master's medals. 

ORIZONTE. See Bloemen, J. F. Van. 
ORLANDI, Deodato, lived at the close of the 
13th centurj', and is the author of a ' Crucifix' now 
in the Palace of Parma, and bearing the date 1288. 
In the Pisa Gallery there is a ' Virgin enthroned 
between SS. James, Damian, Peter, and Paul,' 
painted by him in 1301. No certain dates can be 
given for his birth or death. 

ORLANDI, Francesco, the son of Stefano 
Orlandi, was born in 1725, and educated by his 
father. He painted in the same style for theatres 
at Leghorn and a chapel at Cente, and was Pro- 
fessor of Architecture in the Clementine Academy 
at Bologna. He was also a good musician. He 
died at Bologna in 1769. 

ORLANDI, Giovanni, an engraver and pub- 
lisher of prints in Rome between 1590 and 1640. 
He followed the style of Cornelius Cort. The 
number of engravings executed or published by him 
is considerable. Among them are 'The Last Judg- 
iiient,' after Michelangelo, and 'The Transfigura- 
tion,' after Raphael ; also from forty to fifty portraits, 
and a plan and view of Genoa, dated 1637. 

ORLANDI, OooARDO, an obscure Bolognese 
painter, and pupil of Pasinelli. He was born in 
1660, and died in 1736. 

ORLANDI, Stefano, was the son of Odoardo 
Orlandi. Stefano was born in 1681, and studied 
under Pompeo Aldrovandini, with whom he went 
to Rome. In 1684, in conjunction with Giuseppe 
Orsoni, he painted in many theatres in Italy, in the 
Saloon of the Palazzo Ranuzzi, and, with Francesco 
Monti, for the Martinengo family at Brescia. He 
died in 1760. 

ORLANDINI, GiULlo, painted in Parma in the 
middle of the 17tli century. 

ORLANDO, Bernardo, was appointed court 
painter at Turin in 1617. 

ORLANDO OP PERUGIA, was one of the fol- 
lowers of Perugino. In 1509 he was painting in 
conjunction with Sinibaldo Ibi, at Gubhio, of which 
place he was made a citizen between 1502 ai.d 

ORLEANS, FRANgois d', a French artist, who 
was born at the end of the 15th century, and 
worked at Fontainebleau under II Rosso. 

ORLEY, Van (or Orlay). The important artistic 
family of the Van Orleys flourished in Brussels for 

three centuries. The following pedigree is giret 
by Alphonse Wauters : 

Valentine van Orley. 14B6. d before 1532. 

liOti— li5C. 













Jerome. Tieter, Franz, 

working ICSO-d. after 1708. 
1032. I 




Jlar. Ant. Leyniel'S 
(tapestry woiker). 

Rithard (I.). 

1662 0-1732 (?). 


ORLEY, Bernard van, son of Valentine, born 
in or before 1491. In 1509 he left Brussels and 
went to Rome, where he studied under Raphael, 
becoming a great favourite with his master. He 
returne<l to Brussels while still young. In 1515 
he was settled there, and had already acquired a 
reputation, for in that year the confraternity of the 
Holy Cross at Furnes sent a delegate to ask him 
to furnish a design for an altar-piece for their 
chapel representing 'The Carriage of the Cross,' 
'Christ on the Cross,' and 'The Deposition.' The 
sketch was approved of, and Bernard received the 
commission to [laint the altar-piece for the sum of 
50 1. gr. In 1518 M.argaret of Austria, Regent of 
the Netherlands, appointed him her official painter. 
In 1520 he entertained Diirer, who painted his 
portrait, now in the Museum at Dre.Mien. In 1527 
Bernard and his family, together with many of 
their connections and a number of painters, tapestry- 
weavers, and goldsmiths, were arrested for having 
assisted at clandestine Lutheran meetings held in 
the houses of Valentine and Everard van Orley, 
and were sentenced to pay fines and to assist at a 
certain number of seruKiUS in the church of St. 
Gudula. In 15.30 Bernard was appointe<l official 
painter to Mary of Hungary, Margaret's successor. 
He is said to have superintended the weaving of the 
tapestries from Raphael's cartoons. He himself 
made designs for tapestry, among the most famous 
of which are : ' The Life of Abraham,' at Hampton 
Court, 'The Hunts of Maximilian,' at the Louvre, 
and ' The Battle of Pavia,' at Naples. He also 
made designs for windows. Those in the church 
of St. Gudula at Brussels, in which the portraits of 
Charles V., Louis of Hungary, and Francis I. 
appear, are from his cartoons now in the Museum 
of Art Industries, Brussels. Bernard was twice 
married, first to Agnes Seghers, who bore him 
seven children, and secondly to Katherine Hellincx, 
who bore him two. He died January 6, 1542. 
His earlier pictures often sliow earnest feeling ; in 
the later he combined a superficial resemblance to 
Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci 
with his own native manner. In spite of the cor- 
ruptions of his style and his errors of taste he was 
really a great painter. His portraits are truthful 
and often of great merit. He painted eight of 
Margaret of Austria, but none have as yet been 
identified. The brilliancy of several of his pictures 
is due to their being painted on a gold ground. 
His motto, Elx sijiw. tijt, " Every man his day," 
appears on some of his pictures. 

Antwerp. St. James'. The lAst Juiigment. 

„ Huspital. The Corporal Works of Mercy 

and Last Judgment. 1519- 



Bruges. St. Mai-y's. Triptycl], The Passion (left 

unfinished ; completed by Mark 

Brussels. Museum. Portrait of George van ZcUe, 

doctor. 1519. 
,f „ Triptych. The trials and patience 

of Job, and the story of Dives 

and Lazarus, 1521, 
,, „ Episodes in the lives of SS, 

Thomas and Matthew (shutters 

of a triptych). 
Dresden. Gatlm/. The Holy Family. 
Lubeck, Cathedral. Polyptych. The Adoration of 

the Holy Trinity. 
Turin. Gallery. Panel said to have formed part 

of the altar-piece of Furnes. 
Vienna. Museum. The election of St. Matthew and 

Martyrdom of St, Thomas 

(centre of the altar-piece of the 

Guild of Carpenters of Brussels. 

n „ The Holy Family resting on the 

road to Egypt. w. H. J, W. 
GELEY, Van, School of. A great number of 
pictures referable to the school of Van Orley are 
extant, among them the so-called Leonardo da 
Vinci at Gatton Park, the ' Vierge, au bas-relief,' 
which seems to be a copy from a picture by Cesare 
da Sesto, now in the Brera, which is itself a 
compilation from various sources. Wi A. 

ORLEY, Philip van, son of Valentine, drew in 
1513, for the church of St. Peter at Louvain, the 
cartoon of a tapestry representing the story of 
Herkenbald, now in the Museum of Art Industries 
at Brussels. Another tapestry in the same Museum, 
representing the ' Descent from the Cross,' the 
' Harrowing of Hell,' and the ' Entombment,' was 
probably woven from his design, though some 
critics tliink that Bernard designed the cartoon. 

W. H, J. W. 
ORLEY, (or Orlay,) RiCHARn van, was the 
eldest son of Peter van Orley, of tlie same family 
as Bernard. Peter was a hindscape painter, and 
had two sons — Richard, who died in 1732, and 
Jean, who died in 1735. They were each then 
from twenty to twenty-two years of age. Their 
first master was their father, but lie soon placed 
them under the guidance of his brother, who was 
a monk and artist. Richard painted in the Italian 
style, and engraved a number of plates after 
different masters. The uncle, Richard, painted 
some fine pictures for the church of his order, ' The 
RecoUets,' but Jean was the most able of them all, 
as he painted a number of pictures for churches, 
and made many fine designs for tapestry. They 
are mostly done on blue paper with the pen, and 
shaded with Indian-ink. Those by Richard are 
miniatures or designs for book-illustrations in Indian- 
ink, and were nnich admired by Picart le Romain. 
ORLEY, Valentine van, son of John, born at 
Brussels in 1466, removed to Antwerp in 1512 and 
was admitted as free master into the Guild of St. 
Luke ; during the next five years he received 
several apprentices. He returned to Brussels in 
or before 1527, and died there in 1532, leaving four 
sons who were all painters. W, H, J. W. 

ORLOWSKY, Alexander Ossipowitsch, a 
painter, designer, etcher, and lithographer, who 
was bom at Warsaw in 1777. He studied under 
Norblin, and at the Academy of St. Petersburg, 
after which lie travelled in France, Germany, and 
Italy. He distinguished himself at this period 
chiefly bj- his battle-pieces. In 1812 he was named 
court painter to the Czar, Alexander I., an appoint- 
ment which the next Czar, Nicholas, continued. H e 

died at St. Petersburg in 1832. His best pictures 
of battles are in the possession of the Russian 
Emperors, but others, together with sketches from 
Russian popular life, historical pictures, and por- 
traits, are in the collections of the nobility of that 
country. Eight hunting and rural pieces are in 
tlie Hermitage. He also executed a number of 
drawings which either himself or others repro- 
duced in lithography, among them the humorous 
' Cat Court.' Four original lithographs by him 
represent military subjects, and his own portrait. 
An etching of a 'Race-horse and Jockey' w 

ORME, Anton de l'. See De Lorme. 

ORME, Daniel, an engraver and miniature 
painter. He worked about 1800, and exhibited 
many portraits in miniature, and one or two in 
oils at the Royal Academy, between 1797 and 
1801. He engraved in stipple many portraits of 
persons celebrated at the time, some battle-pieces, 
and a picture of 'Alexander and Thais,' from a 
picture painted by himself. There is a water- 
colour drawing of Margate New Pier by him in 
the South Kensington Museum, dated 1799. 

ORMEA, Marc, a painter of Utrecht, who was 
dean of the College of painters from 1621 to 1625. 
He painted sea-pieces. 

ORMEA, WiLLEM, son of Marc, was a painter of 
still-life. In 1638 he presented to the Hospital of 
St. Job (Utrecht) a picture of various kinds of 

ORMIS, L60NARD, an obscure Burgundian, who 
painted at in the 16th century. 

ORO, II Monaco del' Isola d', a painter, poet, 
and historian, was born in Genoa about 1346. He 
became a monk in the monastery of the Isola 
d'Oro (Stecati), and subsequently librarian there. 
He wrote several books which he embellished with 
miniatures, and presented to the Queen of Aragon. 
He died in 1408. 

OROZCO, Marcos de, a Spanish priest and 
engraver, who resided at Madrid in the 17th 
century, and executed many title-pages to books 
printed in his time. The title-page to Ortiz de 
Zuniga's ' Annals of Seville,' published in 1677, 
is probably the best work from Orozco's burin. 
There are many devotional prints by his hand. 
Among them portraits of St. Francis de Sales ; of 
the Bishop Crespi di Borja, executed in 1664; in 
1680 the title-page bearing the royal arms, and 
a curious folding plan for the authorized history 
of the great auto-da-fe at Madrid ; in 1682, a 
' Crucifix and angels bearing shields charged with 
episcopal devices,' designed by Ximenez Donoso, 
and prefixed to an official account of the synod 
held at Toledo that year ; in 1696, a title-page 
containing efligies of the seven first canonized 
bishops of Spain, for Don Pedro Juarez's ' History 
of the united sees of Guadix and Baza ; ' and in 
1597, an ' Our Lady of the Forsaken,' and the arms 
of the Archbishop Rocaberti of Valencia, for Don 
Felipe Firniin's treatise on minor benefices. 

ORRENTE, Pkdho, was a Spanish painter, born 
at Montealegre, in Murcia, about the year 1560. 
He was probably a scholar of II Greco's, at Toledo, 
but he subsequently visited Italy, where he became 
a follower of the Venetian school, and an imitator 
of Titian, Giorgione, and Bassano. He was favoured 
with the protection of the Duke of Olivarez, who 
employed him in painting several pictures for the 
palace of the Buen Retiro at Madrid. Soon after 
1611 he nainted for the Vizconde de Huesca, in 


Murcia, eight pictures on ' The History of the Crea- 
tion ;' and in 1616 he produced a ' St. Sebastian,' for 
the cathedral at Valencia, where also he established 
a school in which Pontons and March were among 
his pupils. He nest proceeded to Cuenga, wliere 
he founded another school, in wliich he had Sal- 
meron for a scholar. Many (if his works are in the 
churches and convents at Valencia and Cordova. 
In the cathedral at Toledo, over the door of tlie 
sacristy, is a fine picture representing ' Santa Leo- 
cadia coming out of the sepulchre, before St. Ilde- 
fonso ; ' and in the Keyes Nuevos, in the same 
clmrch, was a ' Nativity ' painted by him, which 
has been since removed into the royal collection. 
Another picture by this master representing 'Or- 
pheus playing to the brute Creation ' hangs in the 
Royal Palace. There are also in tlie king's posses- 
sion four landscapes, wliilst the Madrid Gallery 
has eight of his paintings, including ' The Ador- 
ation of the Shepherds,' and 'The Repose of Lot's 
Family.' A 'St. Jolm in the Wilderness' was 
in the Suermondt Collection at Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
other works of his are at Dresden, Paris, and St. 
Petersburg. Being especially successful with 
animals and landscapes, he made choice of such 
Biblical subjects as permitted the introduction of 
these. His last years were spent at Seville and 
at Toledo, where he died in 164-1, and was buried 
in the same church as II Greco. 

ORSAY, CoMTE d', the son of General d'Orsay, 
an officer of the French Republic and Empire, was 
born in Paris at the beginning of the present 
century. When about twenty j-ears of age he 
entered the French military service, and whilst 
with his regiment at Valence, became acquainted 
with the Earl of Blessington and his Countess. 
After that he threw up his commission and 
travelled with them on a tour in Italy, eventually 
marrying Lord Blessington's daughter by his first 
wife. He was appointed Superintendent of the 
Fine Arts by Louis Napoleon, but shortly after- 
wards (1852) he died of disease of the lungs. There 
is a half-length by him of the Duke of Wellington 
in the National Portrait Gallery, and the South 
Kensington Museum possesses some of his pencil 
caricatures. D'Orsay also practised sculpture. 

ORSEL, Victor, a French historical painter, 
born at Lyons in 1795. He went to Rome, where, 
about 1825, he came under the influence of Over- 
beck, but he also studied from the antique, and was 
a close observer of nature ; his object being, as he 
said, ' to baptize Greek art.' In Paris he was one 
of the artists employed in the chapel of the Virgin 
in the church of Notre Dame de Lorette. Orsel 
died in 1850. Among his other works are: 

La Charit(5. 1823. (Lyons Hospital.) 
Adam and Eve with the body of Abel. 1S24. 
Moses, when a child, presented to Pharaoh. 

{Exhihiied in the Capitol at Home.) 
Good and EvU. 1833. {Engraved by Vihert.) 


ORSI, Benedetto, was a native of Pescia, and 
flourished about the year 1660. Lanzi numbers 
this artist among the disciples of Baldassare Fran- 
ceschini, and mentions in favourable terras a 
picture by him in the church of San Stefano, at 
Pescia, representing 'St. John the Evangelist.' 
He also painted the ' Seven Works of Mercy,' for 
La Compagnia dei Nobili, and a large lunette at 
Pistoja, in S. Maria del Letto, which was long 
attributed to Volterrano. He died about 1680. 

ORSI, Lelio, called Lklio da Novellara, was 

a painter, designer, and architect, and was born 
at Reggio in 1511. Having been banished from 
his native city, for some unknown reason, he first 
proceeded to Rome, and subsequently established 
himself at Novellara, whence his common appella- 
tion. From the similarity of his style to that of 
Cnrreggio, he has been supposed to have been a 
disciple of that master, with whom he was 
certainly on terms of friendship. That he studied 
Correggio's works attentively is evident, from 
his having occasionally copied his pictures, of 
wliich one of the most remarkable is a fine copy 
of the famous ' Notte,' in the Casa Gazzola, at 
Verona. Others have stated him to have been a 
scholar of Michelangelo ; but this tradition is 
suspected, although Tiraboschi asserts that he 
resided at Rome in the time when that artist was 
painting some pictures for the churches. There 
were many of his fresco works in the churches at 
Reggio and Novellara, which are now nearly all 
perislied. Orsi died in 1587. Italian writers say 
he was "in pittura grande, in architetturu ottimo, 
e in disegno massimo " (in painting great, in 
architecture best, and in drawing greatest). 

ORSI, Prospero, was born at Rome, apparently 
about 1560. He lived during the pontificate of 
Sixtus v., who employed him in the palace of S. 
Giovanni Laterano, where he painted two of the 
ceilings, one representing ' Moses with the Children 
of Israel passing the Red Sea ; ' the other, ' Jacob 
receiving the Blessing from Isaac' He was the 
particular friend of Giuseppe Cesare d'Arpino, 
whose manner of painting he imitated. He died 
at Rome in 1635. 

ORSI, Tranquillo, was a painter and architect 
of Venice in the present century, who died, in 
1844, while professor of perspective there. He 
produced views of churches, palaces, and public 
buildings, and some of his works are in the Venice 

ORSINI, Antonio, a native of Ferrara, who 
engraved there about 1730. 

ORSOLONI, Carlo, an Italian engraver, was 
born at Venice about the year 1724. He carried 
on a considerable commerce in prints, and was 
employed in engraving some of the plates for the 
' Museo Fiorentino.' Among others, we have the 
following by him : 

St. Jerome in Meditation ; after Ant, Balestra. 

St. Francis de Sales ; after the same. 

The Virgin with several Saints ; after Pietro Riccki. 

ORSONI, Giuseppe, (or Orsini,) a Bolognese 
painter, born 1691, died 1755. He was a pupil of 
Pompeo Aldrovandini, and worked much with Ste- 
fano Orlandi at ornamental painting in tlieatres and 
private houses. 

ORTIGA, Bonant de, painter to the deputies 
of Aragon, was living in 1457. He painted an 
altar-piece with figures of St. Simon and St. Jude 
for the churcli of St. Francis, in Saragossa. 

ORTO, Diego de, was a miniature painter of 
Seville, son of Bernardo de Orto. Between 1540 
and 1576 he decorated a number of choir-books, 
(fee. In some of these his brothers assisted him. 

ORTOLANO, Dell'. See Benvendti, Giov. 

ORVIETANI, Andrea and Bartolommeo, were 
two painters who worked at Orvieto between 1405 
and 1457. 

ORVIETANO, Ugolino, a painter, who wag em- 
ployed in the cathedral of Orvieto about 1321. 

OS, Gregorics jAcoiiUS Johannes van, flower 



paintpr, was llic si'roiid son of J.iii van Os, and 
was born iit tli(^ llaguo in 1782. IIb gained a 
prizn at Auistcidani in 1H09, ami on going to 
Paris ill 1812 he won a gold medal, and was em- 
ployed on designs for Sevres. Here lie spent the 
greater part of tlie nextfifly years, painling flowers 
after the manner of Van Iliiysuiii, and now and 
then cxhihiling hindscajies. Two of his best flower- 
pieces are now in tlio llagiio Museum. Van Os 
died in Paris in 1801. He was a member of the 
Acadi'iny of Amsterdan\. Among his works wo 
may also name : 

AuiNtcrclnm. It. Museum. Flowers. 
Kottecdniii. Museum. Flowers. 

J, „ l''niit and Flower.s. 

J, ,, Jjimdscapc in Gueldcrs. 

OS, Jan van, a painter of friiil, flowers, and 
marine subjects, was born at Middelliarnis, in 
Holland, in 17-14, and was a scholar of Aart 
Sehouman, at the Hague. His marine-pieces are 
only fair, but liiB fruit and flowers an^ In great 
request, and approach those of Jan van Huysum. 
He died at the Hagui^ in 1H08. A good ' Vaso of 
Flowers' by hini is in the possession of Orenier of 
Kottordani. Jan van Os was also a poet. Among 
his works may bo included : 

Frankfurt. St(tilcl (lal. A Sea-piece. 

Loiulou. Xdt.Gal. Flowers, Fruit, and Dead Birds. 

Paris. Louvre. Flowers and Fruit. 

Petersburg. Ilermititije. Fluwor.s aud Fruit. 

OS, PliCTHK GiciiMiDUS VAN, the eldest son of 
Jan van Os, was born at tlio Hague in 177IJ, and 
was instriieled in (he (dements of art by his father, 
but devoted himself mainly to cattle painting, and 
made the works of I'anl Potter and Karel dii 
Jardin his models. His etchings, consisting of 
cattle, sheep, &c., fjom his own designs, and 
also after Paul Potter, Rercheni, and linisdael, 
are valuable. His prints are sometimes signed 
P. (J. Tan Os fee. et. exc, and sometimes with liis 
initials only, P. G. V. O.f. Ho died at the Hague 
in IH.'ty. There is a good 'Landscape with Cattle' 
by him in tlie iiotterdani Museum. 

"OSIidllNE, John, an English portrait painter, 
wdio practised at Amsterdam in the 17lb century. 
There is a portrait of Frederick Prince of Orange 
by him. 

OSHOKNE, Wat/pkii P., an Englishman who 
settled in Jreland, was an occasional exhibitor 
at the Uoyal Aiademy. Ho was an Acadeiniciaii 
of the Koyal Hibernian Academy, and practised 
portraiture and landscape in oil and in black and 
while. Ho died in PJOIl at the age of forty-three. 
OSEliliO, Gasi'AH, called (JASfAii Aii Aviiurs ClT- 
ADKl.KNSIS, or Gasi'Au Patavinus, or Padovano, 
was an engraver, born at Padua in 15.30. He imi- 
tated llio style of Giorgio Ghisi Mantuano, wdiose 
pupil lie may ))ossibly have been. He lived until 
1585. He has left sixty-six plates of ' Portraits of 
the Archdukes of Austria;' also that of tlio Pliy- 
sician Andreas Mattiolus Sinensis, and a 'Mar- 
riage of the Virgin,' after Paolo Veronese. He 
signed his prints with a nnnogram composed oC 
the letters, C.A.P. 


OSSEN BEl'XK, .Ian (or Josse van), a paiider and 
etcher, was a native of Rotterdam, born about 
1027. After having received some instruction in 
his native city, he wont to Italy, and distinguished 
biniNidf at Rome as a painter of landscapes, with 
animals, fairs, and huntings, in the stylo of Peter 
Tan Laar, whoso works were then greatly admired. 

Thence ho proceeded to Vienna, where he became 
court painter; next to Frankfort; and, lastly, to 
Ratisbon, where ho died in 1678. He usually 
emlxdlished bis pictures with waterfalls, grottoes, 
ruins, and architecture, designed from the remains 
of antiquity in and near Rome. Pictures : 

Cliristiania. PhniderinK of a Caravau. 

Dresden. Galltry. Ormip of Uerdsnien. 

Glasgow. GniU'Vi/. A Hawliing l*arty. 

New York. Jlfitscuin. Altraliam with Sarah aud Hugar 

ill a romantic landscape. 
Vienna. Jtetvcdcye. Jacob's .journey to Mesopotamia. 

We have by this artist sixty-two etchings, exe- 
cuted in a firm and free style, twenty-seven of 
which are from his own designs, and thirty-two 
after other masters. Ho engraved part of the 
plates fur the collection called the 'Gallery of 
Teniers.' Among his plates the following may be 
particularized : 

Twt> landscapes ; nffrr iSalvator linsa. asleep during,' the Storm ; nftfr S. de J'Iir(/e)\ 

Cavalcade of ttie I'Jmjierorl.eepolil in the Fort at Vienna. 

I'roccssioa of llio Emperor Carl VI. to Schottwien. 

'I'lu- Catrarclhi. 

The Cliil'lren of Niobo ; after Palma. 

The Oliililreu of Israel gathering the Manna in the 

Desert ; ajtrr Tintorettu. 
Orplieus playing to the Animals ; after Jiassano. 
The Four Seasons ; after the :same. 
A set of twelve plates of different Animals ; from his 

own desitjns. 
A sot of four of different subjects ; the same. 
Two Views ill and near Kome; the same. 
A Hoar-hunt; after Peter van Laar. 
A grand Festival given at Vienna, with a great number 

of figures on horseback aud on foot ; .'I. Lartucci inv, 

J. Ossenheeck sr. 

OSSENP.EECK, W., a Dutch painter, of whom 
scarcely anything is known. Ho flinirished about 
10H2, and may have been the father of Jan van 
Ossenbeeck. In the Rijks Miiseimi, Amsterdam, 
there is a pictin-e by him of 'Mercury and lo.' It 
is signed W. Oxxenheect, F. 16.'52. 

OSTADE, AimiAEN van, a celebrated and 
prolilie painter and engraver, especially of scenes 
iViuii Dutch peasant life, but also of ]iortraits and 
still-lire. He was baptized (" (iel anft '') at Haar- 
lem on the 10th of December, 1010. His father, 
Jan llcndrik, was probably a weaver, and bad 
retired bcd'ore the religious persecutions from the 
town of Eindhoven. His molher's name is said 
to have been .lamieke Hendriksz, and the chil- 
dren adopted the name of Ostade from a small 
hamlet of that name near Eiiullioveii, which may 
have been the birthplace of their father. Adriaen 
and his younger brother Isack became artists, and 
the former, entering the studio of Fraus Hals, 
came there under the influence of Adriaen 
Rrouwer, who was in 1627 also a pupil of Hals. 
In later years be came under the influence 
of Keuibrandt's cliiaro-oscuro. On leaving Hals, 
Adriaen set up as a painter at Haaileni, and bis 
name as Ostade is first mentioned in 1651), wdien 
be is recorded under it as a member of the 
Scliiitterij or civic guard. In 16,'58 ho married 
Machtc Itgen Pielersen, who died in 1640 ; and his 
f.ilher in the following year. U has been ascer- 
tained that ho married a second time, but the 
name of this wife is not known. We only know 
that she belon.god to an aristocratic family of 
Amsterdam, and this was the reason that Ostade 
since visiti'd sometimes that town. She died in 
loot;, aud Adriaen himself, on the 27lh of April, 
1685, in the Nicuwe Kruysstraet. On the 2ud of 













Woodluoy Co. fIwto\ 


[^Antwerp Gallery 


May he was buried in the Cluirch of St. Bavon, 
where he had previously laid the remains of his 
two wives. The sale-list of liis works of art he 
left included two hundred pictures by his own 
hand, and acolleotion of his ett-hings, drawings, &c. 
Smith's catalogue mentions nearly four hundred 
of Adriaen van Ostade's oil pictures. He executed 
besides an unknown number in water-colours, and 
a vast quantity of pencil drawings and etchings. 
Of the latter Bartsch has enumerated fifty. 
The Teyler Museum at Haarlem contains a line 
collection. Besides his younger brother Isack, 
Adriaen had the following pupils : Cornelis 
Dusart, Cornelis Bega, Micliiel van JMusscher, 
E. Brakenburgli, and Jan de Gruot. These all 
adopted more or less of Adriaen's manner. Jan 
Steen also came under his influence when he 
stayed at Haarlem. We distinguish clearly three 
periods of painting in Ostade's art. The tirst is in 
the style of Brouwer, also in the subjects. The 
tone is greyish, and a little bit cold. In the second 
period the painting is larger and thicker, and the 
chiaro-oscuro proves the influence of Rembrandt's 
works ; the tone becomes more brown and warm, 
and the subjects mure distinfjue's. His last period 
is not so eminent. Though the painting is an 
extraordinarily finished one, and the composition 
made with great care and study, the impression of 
the whole is not so vigourenx and ]ess pittoresque. 
The following are some of Adriaen Ostade's more 
important works : 

Amsterdam. .Museum. A Painter's Studio. A. o. 

„ „ Travellers resting. A. v. ostade, 

„ „ The Charlatau. a. v. ostade, 

„ „ The Baker. 

„ Van dtr Hoop C. Peasauts round a Hearth. A. v. 

OSTADE, 1661. 
„ Six Collection. The Fish- wife. {Dated \(Jli.) 
Antwerp. Museum. The Smoker. A. v. ostade, 

Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of .in Old Woman, a. 

v. OSTADE, 16 — . 
„ „ The Lyre-player before an Ale- 

house. A. v. OSTADE, 1640. 
„ , The Smoker. A. T. OSTABE, 

' 1667. 

Brunswick. Gallery. The Amiunciation. 

,, „ A Peasant smoking. 

Bru.ssels. Gallery. Man eating Herrings. 

Arerwery Coll. Interior of a Tavern. 
Ca86el. Gallery. Peasants in the Arbour of an 

Ale-house. A. V. ostade, 
„ „ Peasants drinking iu an Ale- 

house. A. V. OSTADE. 10 — . 
„ „ Pea.'^ants playing Cards, a. v. 

O^TADE, 1059. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. Peasants dancing. 

Dresden. Gallery. Peasants in an Ale-house. A. 

v. OSTADE, 1639. 

„ „ The Painter's Studio, a. t. 

OSTADE, 1663. 
„ „ Two Peasants eating at a Table. 

A. V. OSTADE, 1653. 

M „ Two Peasants before an Ale- 

house, one lighting a Pipe. 

A. V. OSTADE, 1664. 

„ „ Interior of an Ale-house, with 

Men and Women. A. V. os- 
tade, 1679. 

„ „ Peasants playing Cards, ad. 


Dublin. Ii'at. Gall. Boors carousing. 

Dulwich. Gallery. Boors making merry. A. v. os- 

tade, 164 — . 
„ „ Man and Woman in conversa- 


Dulwich. Gallery. A Man smoking. A. T. ostade. 

„ „ A Woman with a Jug. a. t. 

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Interior of a Butcher's Shop. 
Florence. TJjjxzi. A Man at a Window. 

Frankfort. Stddel. Interior of a Shed. A. V. os- 

tade, 1656. 
Glasgow. Gallery. The strolling Fiddler. 

„ „ The Village School. 

Hague. Gallerti. Peasants in an Inn A. v. os- 

TADK, 1662. 
„ The Fiddler. A. T. ostade, 

1673. (Floos van Amstel 
viade a facsimile enijraving 
from a dran-iiiy by A. ran Os' 
tadc, dated 1673. exactly si7ui- 
lar to this picture.) 
London. A'at. Gall. The Alchymist. a. t. ostade, 

„ Apsley House. A company of Peas.ints. (The 

drawintf for this picture is in 
the Jiriti^h Museum.) 
„ Ashlmrton Coll. Peasants playing and singing. 

(Dated 1661.) 
„ „ A Village Scene. (Dated 1616.) 

„ Bridgewater Ho. Peasants playing Skittles. A. 

V. ostade, 1676. 
„ „ Portrait of an Old Man (jf]'oh- 

ably a lawyer). 1671. 
„ Buckingham Pal. Peasants conversing, a. v. os- 
tade, 1650. 
„ „ An Interior, with Peasants 

smoking, a. v. ostade, 1665. 
„ Bute Coll. Lawyer in his Study. 

„ Northbrook Coll. Four I'ersons playing at Cards. 
(Dated 1648.) 
[And fine examples in the collections of Lord Howe, 
Mr. H. Lonsdale, Mr. Alfred de Kothschild, Lord 
Kothschild, de Eothschild, Mr. George Salting, &c., 
and other private collections.] 
Madrid. Gallery. A Concert. 

„ „ Pea.sants feeding. 

„ „ A Toper. 

Munich. Pinakothek. Interior of a Pe.isant's Cottage. 

A. V. OSTADE. 1647. 

„ „ Peasants quarrelling. A. V. os- 

tade, 1656. 
„ „ Peasants playing and dancing. 

a. t. ostade. 1647. 
„ „ A Toper. A. T. ostade. 

„ „ Peasants carousing. A. V, os- 

1, „ Peasants in an Ale-house. A. 

V. osrADE, 16 — . 
„ „ Peasants iu an Ale-house, with 

a Woman and her Children. 
Oxford. Univ. Gall. A Dutch interior. 

Paris. Louvre. The Family of Adriaeu van 

„ „ The School-master. A. v. os- 

tade, 1662. 
„ „ The Fish-market. 

„ „ Interior of a Cottage. A. v. os- 

tade, 1642. 
„ „ A Man reading in his Cabinet. 

„ „ A Smoker. 

„ „ A Toper, a. v. ostade. 1668. 

Pesth. Gallery. Interior of a Peasant's Cottage. 


„ „ Interior, with Peasants. 

„ „ Peasants drinking. 

„ „ Interior, with Peasants. 

„ „ A Man mending a Pen. 

,, „ Interior, with Peasants. 4. V. 


Petersburg. Hermitaye. A Village Fete. 
„ „ A Peasant Family. 

„ „ The Violin-player. (Signed and 

dated 1648.) 
„ „ An old Woman seated on a 

Window-sill, siurounded by 

a Vine. 
„ „ A Village Minstrel playing a 

„ „ The Baker. (Signed.) 



Petersburg. Utrmitn^c. The Village Concert. 

» « Peasants smoking. 

>. I, Pea-sants, while smoking and 

drinking, listen to a Woman 
who reads a Letter. 

). !> A Peasant Family. 

, „ Peasants in an Ale-house. 

» „ Touch. (Signed.) 

» !. Sight. (Signed and dated 1651. 

I, ., Taste. 

» J, Peasant in a Cottage. 

M ., Landscape. 

Eotterdam. Museum. A Man reading, a. t, ostade. 

» ., A Village Tavern. 

Vienna. Gai/eri/. The Mountebank. 

„ Czernin Coll. Peasants. 

»' ), A Smoker. 

)) _ -1 A Drinker. 

„ Liechtenstein Coll. Four good pictures. n, -,. 

OSTADE, IsACK VAN, the brotlier and scholar' of 
Adriaen van Ostade, born at Haarlem, 2nd of June, 
1621. Little is known of his life. He painted at 
Haarlem, and was buried there 16th of October, 
1649. His earliest pictures were painted in imitation 
of the first style of his brother, they are of a brown- 
ish tone, and are inferior to tlie works of Adriaen ; 
but he afterwards adopted a manner of his own, in 
which he was most successful. This latter is to 
be found in his pictures representing winter scenes 
and frozen canals, with figures amusing themselves 
on the ice. Some of these are faithful and admir- 
able representations of nature, and are deservedly 
held in the highest estimation. They approach to 
the productions of Albert Cuyp, and it may fairly 
be presumed that if Isack had lived longer, he 
would have readied a still higher rank than he 
now enjoys in tlie Dutch school. A large pro- 
portion of his best pictures are in England, where 
he was appreciated long before he met with much 
recognition abroad. 
Amsterdam. Museum. A Village Inn. isack van 


„ „ The Merry Peasant. 

„ „ A Way-side Inn. 

Antwerp. Museum. Winter Landscape. iSACK van 

OSTADE, 1645. 
Berlin. JIuseum. A Halt before an Inn. I. van 


» 7, Interior of a Dutch Peasant's 

Cottage. ISACK van ostade. 

ft „ A Peasaut in a Flap-hat. isack 


Brussels. Museum. Travellers Halting. i. van 

OSTADE, 1660 (sic). [T/iis 

date must he a forgery, for tlie 

paiyiter was dead in 1660.] 

» „ Woman Winding Thread. 


Copenhagen. Gallery. Wict*rLandscape,withFigures. 


Dresden. Gallerij. WinterLandscape,withFigures. 


,, „ Peasants Drinking and Dancing. 


Gla-sgow. Gallery. A Fish Auction. 

H&gae.Steengracht Coil. Peasant with a Pig (swine). 


London. Jfat. Gallery. Village Scene ; a capital ex- 
ample. (J^ngraved hy Dunker.) 

y, „ Frost Scene. ISA-\C van os- 


99 „ A Frozen Kiver. i. v. ostade. 

(A masterpiece.) 

„ Asklrurton Coll. Travellers and Villagers before 

an liin. 

^ Bridgewater House. A Village Street. 

„ Buckingham Pal. Boors Making Merry, isack 

VAN OSTADE, 1646. 

>, n A Village Street, isack van 

OSTADE, 1643. 


London. Dudley House. Selling Fish. isack van os- 
tade, 1649. 
„ Lausdowne House. The Frozen Canal, isack van 


,, Northhrook Coll. AVinter Landscape. 
Madrid. Gallery, Peasants. 

Mimicli. Pinnkotliek. A Rocky Landscape, with a 
Donkey and his Driver. 


,, ,, Peasants Drinking, isack tan 


Paris. Louvre. Travellers halting at an Inn. 


,; ., The Hall. (Enip-aved in 

„ „ A Frozen Canal in Holland 

(No. 378). ISACK OST\DE. 

(Enf/raved iu Landon and 
„ „ A Frozen Canal in Holland 


Petersburg. Hermitage. A Winter Landscape, with 

Figures. (Signed.) 

„ ., A Landscape — Travellers stop- 

I>iug before an Inn. (Sir/ned.) 

., „ A Frozeu Lake in Holland. 

Rotterdam. Museum. A Village Scene. i. van 

OSTADE, 16 — '. 

Vienna. IJehedire. A Peasant having a Tooth 

e.xtracted. ^fl Jf 

OSTENDOEFER, Han«, probably the son' of 
Martin Ostendorfer, prepared a Tilt-book for Duke 
Wi'liam IV. of Bavaria, in conjunction with the 
maitre d'armes, Hans Schenk. It is now in the Library at Munich. 

OSTENDORFER, Maetin, was court painter to 
the Duke William IV., in the first half of the 16th 
century; he belonged to the school of Landshnt. 
He painted the portraits of his master and his wife, 
Maria Jacohaa. Two pictures of his are in the 
Moritz Chapel at Nuremberg, viz.: 

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew. 

The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew. 

OSTENDORFER, Michael, painter, sculptor, and 
wood engraver, flourislied in the first half of the 
16th century, and formed himself mainly ujion A. 
Altdorfer. He worked in Ratisbon from 1.519 to 
1559, and died there in the latter year. Among 
his pictures we may specify : 

Munich. Gallery. A Scene from the Apocalypse 

(signed M. O. iu a mono- 
Kegensburg. An Altar-piece with wings. 

„ A Portrait. 

Schleissheim. Gallery. A Christ on the Cross. 

In the Munich Gallery there is also a small 
' Hilly Landscape,' which was formerly in the 
Wallerstein collection, and is now ascribed to Alt- 
dorfer, but is much more probably the work of 
Ostendorfer. He engraved on wood a genealogical 
tree of tlie Turkish Sultans, with their busts. 

OSTERWALD, Georg, painter and etcher, was 
born at Rinteln in Wesertlial, in 1803. He was 
trained under Gartner in Munich. From 1830 to 
1832 he studied in Paris. He painted history, genre, 
landscape, architectnre, and portraits. Among his 
better works we may name : 

The Cathedral of Bamberg. 

The Cathedral of Siena. 

The Prophecy of Jeremiah (water Kiolour). 

OSTERWIJCK. See Oosterwijck. 

OTELIN, of Valenciennes, the first painter men- 
tioned in the annals of his native city, flourished 
in the 15th century, and executed a picture of 'The 
Valenciennois setting out to pull down the Houses 
of Bniay and Fresnes, April 25th, 1456,' which is 
at Valenciennes. 


Woodhtiy Co. fhoto \ 

[^Natiotial Gallery 



OTHO, Edward Fitz, 1245, painted the Apostles 
and King Henry III. and his Queen in St. Stephen's 
Chapel, Westminster, and the 'Last Judgment' on 
the wall at the west end. 

OTT, JoHANN Georg, was bom at Sohaffhausen 
in 1782, and in 1801, with the assistance of Landolt 
and Breitinger, first devoted himself to art, after 
having been brought up to business pursuits. In 
the following year he went to Vienna, and there 
produced some ' Studies of Horses.' He then 
travelled in Germany, Holland, and France, and 
returned in 1805 to his native place, where he 
devoted himself to the painting of battle-pieces, 
in which he evinced much acquaintance both 
with military matters and with horses. He died 
at Zurich in 1808. Among his works we may 
mention : 
Patrol of Hussars. 
A Horse dragging a dead Chasseur. 
Brother Nikolaus von der Flute at the fatal Meeting at 
Stanz in 1481 {left incomplete at Ott's death). 

OTTAVIANI, Giovanni, an Italian designer 
and engraver, was born at Rome about 1735, and 
died in 1808. He was a pupil of Wagner at 
Venice, and on his return to Rome engraved several 
plates after some of the most distinguished masters. 
The following are among the best of his works : 
St. Jerome with a Crucifix ; after Guercino. 
St. Cecilia ; after tlie same. 
Angelica and Medoro ; after the same. 
Mars and Venus ; after the same. 
Three Women bathing surprised by a young Man ; after 

the same. 
Diana and Actaeon ; after the same. 
Twenty-three plates, from the paintings by Raphael, in 

the loggie of the Yatican. 
Four plates from the pictures by Raphael, in the Far- 
nesina. representing 

Jupiter and Ganymede. 
Juno on her Car. 
Neptune on the Ocean. 
Pluto and Prosperine. 
The Aldobrandini Marriage ; after SmucjUewicz. 

OTTAVIANO DA Faenza. See Faenza. 

OTTENS, Frederik and Jan, two little known 
engravers, who flourished at Delft early in the 
18th century. 

OTTEVAERE, Adgdste, a native of Everghem, 
Flanders, who painted from 1809 to 1856. He 
lived chiefly in Paris, but died at Ghent in the 
latter year mentioned. He was a pupil of E. Ver- 
boeckhoven, and painted similar subjects. 

OTTINI, Felice, called Filicetto di Brandi, 
was one of the best scholars of H. Brandi. In the 
churches of Rome there are but a few pictures by 
him, for he died young in 1697. He also etched 
from his own designs and from the works of 
other Italian masters. He signed his etchings 
F. O.F. 

OTTINI, Pasqdale, (called Pasqualotto,) was 
born at Verona about 1570, and died in the same 
city, of the plague, in 1630. He was a disciple of 
FeUce Ricci, whose manner he imitated so happily 
that he was employed, after that artist's death, in 
conjunction with Turchi, to complete several pic- 
tures which Kicci had left unfinished. A study of 
the works of Raphael added much to the improve- 
ment of his talent. A good example of his work- 
manship is ' The Slaughter of the Innocents,' in 
San Stefano; and he appears to still more advan- 
tage at San Giorgio in the picture of St. Nicholas, 
with St. Bernard and several fathers of the Church. 
A single etching is known by him ; it is an ' En- 
tombment,' and is signed Pasg: Otii: Ver'. inv. 


OTTLEY, William Young, an English writer, 
and artist, was born near Thatcham (Berks.), in 
1771. He was of a good family, and cultivated 
art as an amateur. Having studied under Cuitt, 
and in the schools of the Academy, he went, in 
1791, to Italy, where he remained ten years, study- 
ing and collecting works of art. He is mainly 
known as an author, but he illustrated many of 
his books himself. In 1833 he was appointed 
Keeper of the Prints in the British Museum. He 
died in London in 1836. His chief works are : 

Inquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engrav- 
ing.' 1816. 

' The Stafiford Gallery.' 1818. 

' The Italian School of Design ' (loith etchinqs bu him- 
self.) 1823. 

'A series -of plates after the early Florentine School.' 

'Fac-similes (by himself) of Prints of early Italian, 
German, and Flemish Schools.' 1826. 

' Fac-similes {by himself) of rare Etchings after Italian,. 
Flemish, and Dutch Schools.' 1828. 

' Notices of Engravers and theu: Works.' 1831. 

' An Inquiry into the Invention of Printing.' 1863. 

In 1823 Ottley exhibited a spirited design at the 
Royal Academy, of ' The Battle of the Angels.' 

OTTMER, Karl Theodor, an architect and 
painter, was born at Brunswick in 1800, and 
after having attended the Carolinum there during 
1816-19, lie in 1822 went to Berlin, seven years 
later to Paris, and thence to Italy, where he first 
devoted himself to painting, although through- 
out his life he was more engaged in building. 
He died at Berlin in 1843. He was a member of 
the Architectural Union of Great Britain, and an 
honorary member of the Berlin Academy. 

OTTO, Carl, German painter ; born August 26, 
1830, at Osterode ; at first was a painter of porce- 
lain at Klausthal, and subsequently a pupil of 
Piloty's at the Munich Academy ; completed his 
studies by travel in Holland and by residence in 
Paris ; he finally settled in Munich. His works 
are to be found in various Galleries of Germany ; 
they include his ' Battle of Nordlingen,' ' Belshaz- 
zar's Feast,' &c. He also painted frescoes. He 
died at Munich, Oct. 6, 1902. 

OTTO, H. F., an obscure German engraver, said 
to have been a native of Berlin. He resided at 
Frankfort in 1707, and engraved part of the heads 
for a work entiied, ' Nutitia Universitatis Franco- 
fortiansB,' published in that year. His plates con- 
sist chiefly of book ornaments. 

OTTO, Johannes Samuel, was bom at Unruli- 
stadt, in the province of Posen, in 1798. He 
visited the Berlin Academy, where he was much 
occupied in etching after the architectural drawings 
of Schinkel. He also painted several altar-pieces, 
as well as many portraits ; some of his portraits of 
royal personages he reproduced by lithography. 
He also worked in facsimile after Holbein's 'Dance 
of Death.' In 1844 he was named a Royal Pro- 
fessor. He was a great friend of Kiss the sculptor. 
Otto died in Berlin in 1878. There is a portrait of 
Kiss by him in the National Gallery at Berlin. We 
may also name : 

Portrait of the Opera singer, Lehmann. 

„ King Frederick WiUiam IV. (engraved by 


ODDEN-AERD. See Auden-Aerd. 

OUDEN ALLEN. See Allen. 

OUDENDIJK, Adriaen, a landscape painter, 
was born at Haarlem about 1648, and instructed 
by his father. He painted landscapes and views of 



<owns, Boine of which are enriched with figures by 
Dirok Maas, probably when he was young ; but his 
chief skill lay in copying, or rather pillaging, the 
works of Adriaen van de Velde and Thomas Wyck, 
for which he was surnanied ' Rapianus.' The time 
of his death is not known, but he was living in 

OUDENDIJK, Evert, a painter at Haarlem, 
who was admitted into the guild in 1640. He 
was the father of Adriaen Oudendijck. He painted 
landscapes enlivened with stag-hunts and similar 

OUDENROGGE, Johannes Dircksz, a painter 
of whose life few particulars are known, but in 
the Museum at Amsterdam there is a picture, ' The 
Workshop of a Weaver,' signed by him, and dated 
1652. Oudenrogge visited France in 1651 and 
died two years later, in 1653, at Haarlem. 

OUDKY, Jacques Charles, animal painter, was 
the son of Jean Baptiste Oudry, and the pupil of 
his father. He was born in Paris in 1720. He 
was received into the Academy in 1748. He 
travelled much ; he lived for a time at Brussels. 
where he was painter-in-chief to Prince Charles of 
Lorraine : and died at Lausanne in 1778. 

OUDRY, Jean Baptiste, a French painter and 
engraver, born in Paris in 1686. His first art 
instruction was received frcm his father, an artist 
who combined the trade of picture-dealing with 
painting. He also studied in the old ' rnaitrise ' of 
St. Luke, and under de Serre, the king's painter at 
Marseilles, whom he accompanied to that city. 
On his return to Paris he became a pupil of Lar- 
gilliere, under whom he studied five years, and 
Avho bestowed great care on his training, and fully 
recognized the peculiar bent of his genius. In 
1717 he had already risen to such repute, that 
when Peter the Great came to Paris in that year, 
he had his portrait painted by Oudry. He was 
elected a member of the 'maitrise' in 1708, and 
subsequently filled in it the ofiBces of assistant and 
professor. Oudry was received into the Acad^mie 
des Beaux Arts as an historical painter in 1717. 
on his picture of 'Abundance.' For many years 
his practice consisted of portraits and votive pic- 
tures for churches : in fact, whatever came to him. 
Among these works, the most noteworthy were 
the 'Nativity' in the church of St. Leu, and the 
' Adoration of the Magi ' in St. Martin-des-Cliamps. 
At one time he was disposed to seek better fortunes 
in Russia, whither he was invited by the Czar, whose 
portrait he had painted. A commission to paint 
some hunting-scenes for the Duke d'Antin, however, 
turned the scale in favour of his native country, 
and induced him to remain in France. But it was 
not until he was presented to Louis XV. that he was 
enabled to devote himself entirely to the class of 
work on which his reputation rests. He became 
a great favourite with the king, and was assigned 
apartments in the Louvre. His brush was in con- 
stant requisition to portray the royal dogs and 
hunts, as well as any additions to the king's col- 
lection of wild animals. Basking in the sunshine 
of court patronage, there was now no lack of com- 
missions to paint his favourite subjects. One of 
his chief patrons was Fagon, the finance minister, 
for whom he executed many decorative works. By 
him he was appointed, in 1734, to the superintend- 
ence of the manufactory at Beauvais, and his 
success in this undertaking obtained him the like 
appointment at the G ohelins. In producing designs 
for execution at these establishments, he worked 

assiduously, and for some time single-handed, until 
he summoned Boucher and Natoire to his aid. 
Notwithstanding these labours he found time to 
paint a great number of pictures. Moreover, his 
appreciation of La Fontaine led him to produce 
illustrations for the fine edition of that poet's 
fables which was published in 1755. In the same 
year he was struck with apoplexy. He removed to 
Beauvais, in the hopes of obtaining benefit from 
the change ; and there he died on the 30th April, 
1755. The following is a list of his better works : 
Amiens. Museum. Dog and Game. 

Arras. „ Fo.\-hunt. 

BesancoD. „ Dog guarding Game. 

Caen. „ Wild Boar Hunt. 1748. 

Cherbourg. „ Eagle and Hare. 

Dijon. Prefecture. Fish, Eel, and Ducks. 

Lille. Museum. Pug-dog. 1730. 

Montpellier. „ Game, Dog, Flowers, and Fruit. 

Nantes. „ Rustic scene. 

„ „ Dog seizing a Duck. 

„ Wolf-hunt. 1748. 

„ „ Spauiel. 

Narbonne. „ Bitch and Puppies. 

Orleans. „ Poultry. 

„ ., Dog and Pheasant. 

Paris. Louvre. Wolt-hunt. 1746. 

„ „ Cock-flght. 1749. 

„ Dog and Game. 1747. 

„ „ The Farm. 1750. 

„ Three pictures of Dogs of Louis 

Pau. Museum. Stag-hunt. 

Eouen. ,. Stag-hunt. 1725. 

Stockholm. Nat. Oallery. Water-spaniel and Heron. 
„ „ Tiger at the Menagerie, Ver- 

sailles. 1739. 
„ „ Stag-hunt. 

„ „ The Lion and the Spider. 

., „ Flowers and Fruit. 1721. 

„ „ .Spauiel and Partridge. 1742. 

„ „ Six still-life pictures. 

Toulouse. Museum. Portrait of himself. 

„ „ Louis XV. hunting the Stag. 

Tours. „ Bear-bunt. 

Versailles. GramZlp,^^ 

Trianon. J ^ 

„ „ The Harvest. 

„ „ Vintage. 

Some of Oudry's drawings of birds in black and 
white chalk on blue paper are peculiarly fine. 

OUDRY, P., an unknown French painter, whose 
name is appended to a portrait of Mary Queen of 
Scots in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire 
at Hardwick Hall, and probably painted at Sheffield 
for the Countess of Shrewsbury. 
OURS, J. S. SAINT. See Saint Odrs. 
OUSEY, BnciaEY, painter of landscape and 
figure subjects, was born at Stalybridge about 
1851. Originally a weaver, he acquired by industry 
a sound knowledge of drawing and painting. 
Little is known of his early life. As a boy be 
painted portraits at five shillings each, and used to 
tell a story of one old woman who, on receiving 
her portrait, asked, "Now, Mr. Ousey, is this a 
real ile paiuting, will it waash ? " In or before 
1884 he removed to the Conway valley. In that 
year he was resident at Roe-Wen, and sent to the 
Liverpool Autumn Exhibition ' Salmon Fishers on 
the Conway,' £30,and' A Wood Nymph,'15 guineas. 
During the short remainder of his life Ousey sent 
every year to this Exhibition. The most important 
of three pictures in 1885 was 'Fishing-boats ofl; 
Puffin Island," 50 guineas. In 1885-7 he studied 
for a year and a half at Antwerp under Verlat, 






[Berlin Gallery 



the requisite funds being advanced by a brother 
artist. In 1887 he had removed to Conway, and 
sent a large drawing, 'Gipsy Hawkers,' £65. In 
1888 he made his only appearance at the Royal 
Academy with an oil, ' Lone Margin of the Sea,' 
which was afterwards at the Liveqiool Exhibition. 
He died in 1889, leaving a widow and several 
children. He was a member of the Royal Cambrian 
Academy. Early in 1890 a memorial exhibition 
of his works was held iu Stalybridge ; and in 
connection with it his remaining works, with a 
large number contributed by brother artists, were 
disposed of by an Art Union for the benefit of his 
family. Ousey was a singularly versatile painter, 
with much facility of invention. His cleverness 
is well shown by a large number of small decorative 
])aDcls which he executed for the Bellevue Hotel, 
Trefriw. These are now in the Gogarth Abbey 
Hotel, Llandudno. Those that illustrate Welsli 
scenery show acute observation and a fine percep- 
tion of choice colour. Others, which represent 
Shakespearean characters and romantic imaginary 
scenes, are the work of a man of considerable 
reading and fertile invention. There can be little 
doubt that Ousey, but for his premature death, 
■would have sunnounted the drawbacks of his early 
career and made a considerable reputation in art. 

E. R.D. 
OUTKIN. See Utkin. 
OUVILLY. See Gebbieb. 
OUVRIE, Pierre Jcstin, painter and litho- 
grapher, was born in Paris in 1806. He was a 
pupil of Abel de Pujol and of Chatillon. He visited 
Italy, Flanders, and England. His landscapes are 
remarkable for the skill with which the buildings 
in them are treated. Ouvrie died in 1879. Among 
his best works we may name : 

Shelley's Funeral. 

The Grand Canal, Venice. 

St. Laurence, Nuremberg. 

San Pietro, Genoa. 

"Windsor Castle. 

TVurzhurg Cathedral. {Water-Colour.) 

View of Rouen. {The same.) 

Market in Nuremberg. {The same.) 

Somerset House. {The same.) 

OUVRIER, .Jean, a French engraver, was bom 
in Paris in 1725, and died in 1754. We have by 
bira a variety of vignettes, landscapes, and other 
subjects, of which tlie following are considered 
the best : 
The Villagers of the Apennines ; after Pierre. 
A View in the Alps ; after Vemet. 
A View in the Apennines ; after the satri 
The Magic Lantern ; after Schenau. 
The Flemish School ; after Eisen the elder. 
The Dutch School ; after the same. 
The Genius of Design, an emblematical subject ; after 
' OUWATER, Albert van, a Haarlem painter 
who flourished 1430-1460. He acquired a reputa- 
tion for skill in tlie treatment of landscape and in 
the painting of hands and feet. Cardinal Grimani 
is said by the 'Anonimo' to have possessed some 
landscapes by him, and Van Mander informs us 
that he executed an altar-piece for the church of 
St. Bavo at Haarlem representing SS. Peter and 
Paul hfe-eizc, with, on the predella, pilgrims on 
the way to Rome, in a finely-painted landscape. 
These are now lost, and the only picture proved 
to be by him is the ' Raising of Lazarus ' de- 
scribed by Van Mander, and now in the Berlin 
Museum. W.H.J: W. 

E 2 

OUWATER, Gheerardt tan. See David. 

OUWATER, IsAAK, an artist, born in 1747, at 
Amsterdam. He painted there, at Utrecht, and at 
Haarlem. His subjects were views of or in towns, 
into which he introduced figures and animals. He 
died at Amsterdam in 1793. Six pictures by him 
were sold, in 1814, at the sale of J. C. van Hall ; 
and there are in the Museum at Amsterdam, two 
views of that city by him. 

OUWATER, Jakob, was a Dutch painter of 
fruit, flowers, insects, birds, &c., of whom little is 
known. He lived long, however, at the Hague, 
where he was inscribed, in 1754, on the registers of 
the ' Pictura ' brotherhood. He afterwards worked 
for a time at Middelburg. 

OU WERKERK, Jan Van, an unimportant Dutch 
painter, was established at Middelburg in 1774, 
where he painted marine views. He was a pupil 
of Marinus Piepers. 

OVENS, Jdriaen, a Dutch painter and etcher, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1623. He has been 
supposed to have been brought up in the school 
of Rembrandt. Whether this be correct or not, 
he certainly excelled in painting night-pieces and 
subjects by torch-light ; he was also eminent as 
a portrait painter. There are some of his works 
in the Stadt-house at Amsterdam, representing sub- 
jects from Dutch history. In 1675 he was invited 
to Friedrichstadt, to the court of the Duke of 
Holstein, in whose service he remained till his 
death, which occurred on the 7th December, 1678. 
There has been some confusion as to the dates of 
Juriaen Ovens, in consequence of a mistaken 
assertion, supported by Nagler, that on a portrait 
of himself, painted by him in 1666, the words 
anno atatis 66, were to be read. Pictures of 
his are to be found as under : 

Amstenlam. Town Hall. The Conspiracy of Claudius 
„ Huisittenhnis, Portrait. 
„ Museum. Portrait of Mr. Jan Earend 

„ „ Portrait group of seven regents, 

half life size. 
Copenhagen. Museum. The Concert. 

„ ., Portrait. 

Nantfs. Museum. The Departure of Tobit. 1651. 

Vienna. Count Harrach^s. Girl with a Fowl. 

„ „ Girl with a Bunch of Grapes. 

Among his etchings there are : 
The Whale. 1659. 

Inauguration of Kiel University. 1666. 
Portrait of Chancellor Kiehnann. 

lus,' a painter, engraver, and author ; was born 
in 1660 at Amsterdam. He was probably a pupil 
of Gerard Lairesse, and went three times to Rome, 
many of the antiquities of which city he drew and 
engraved. He painted there also a picture for the 
Bentvogel Society, which was engraved by Van 
Pool. Schenk engraved his ' Mars and Apollo,' 
and C. Vermeulen his portrait by C. le Blon. He 
died in 1706. After his death, liis work, ' Reliquiae 
antiquae urbis Romae,' was published in 1708, and 
remarks upon it, by P. Rolli, in 1739. 

OVERBECK, JoHANN Friedrich, the leader of 
the modem religious movement in German art, 
was born at Lubeck on the 4th of July, 1789. His 
ancestors for three generations were Protestant 
ministers ; his father was doctor of laws, a poet, 
and Burgomaster of his native city. After a 
general education conducted mostly at home. Over- 
beck was sent, in 1806. to prosecute his art studies 



at Vienna, in the Academy. The method there in 
force soon awakened strong opposition in his 
peculiar temperament, which led to his expulsion 
with several of his sympathizers. In 1810 he went 
to Rome, where, with his friend Cornelius, he 
founded the school of German pre-Raphaelites ; the 
home of the brotherhood being the disused monas- 
tery of Sant' Isidore, on the Pincian. The first 
important commission Overbeck received was one 
from Queen Caroline of Bavaria for an ' Adoration 
of the Kings.' This was in 1811 ; two years later 
he renounced the Lutheran heresy, and was re- 
ceived into the Catholic Church. This change, 
which can hardly have failed to distress his parents 
at home, must no doubt be taken as the explanation 
of Overbeck's deliberate avoidance of his native 
place on his several visits to Germany. After his 
parting with them in 1806, he never again saw his 
mother and father, although they did not die until 
1820 and 1821 respectively. In 1819, an exhibition 
of German pictures, painted in Rome, was held in 
the Palazzo Cafarelli, and the chief interest centred 
in the works of Overbeck, Cornelius, Veit, and 
Schadow. One of Overbeck's contributions was a 
' Madonna ' which showed an almost slavish defer- 
ence to Raphael. The other was a ' Flight into 
Egypt,' in which little of his own ascetic bent 
could be perceived. In 1819 Overbeck married a 
lady, a native of Vienna, whose Christian name 
was Nina, and who, we are told, had no right to a 
surname, for she was the illegitimate daughter of 
a Viennese noble, from whom she received a 
dowry. By her he had two children, a girl who 
died young, and a boy, Alfons Maria, who only 
lived long enough to give promise of considerable 
powers. In 1831 Overbeck paid a visit to Germany. 
In 1833 he was present at the opening of Raphael's 
tomb in the Pantheon. In 1840 occurred the death 
of his son, which was followed thirteen years later 
bj' that of his wife. In 1856 he visited Germany 
for the last time. Two years later he was honoured 
by a visit in his studio from Pius IX., on the 7th 
of February, and on the 12th November, 1869, he 
died at the age of eighty. The following list 
includes most of his important works : 

^'"'AmelT 1 ^'^'™ "^ ^^- ^■■•■»°<='s- (Fresco.) 


Gallerii. The Cliristian Parnassus. {Car- 

Cologne. Cathedral. Assumption of the Madonna. 
Basle. Museum. The Finding of Moses. {CaHoon.) 

„ „ Israelites gathering Manna. {The 

„ „ Translation of Elijah. (The sa}}ie.) 

„ ,, Death of St. Joseph. {The same.) 

Berlin. i\'a(. Gallery. The Seven Sacraments. Seven 
,, „ Portrait of an old Monk. 

„ „ Jerusalem delivered. 

„ Raczynski Coll. Marriage of the Virgin. 
A Sibyl. 

Eiebrich. Vtlla Ger- ) ^, • . . , 

\- Christ condemned. 

Dusseldorf. .Academy. Kaising of Lazarus. 
Frankfort. Stddel Gal. Joseph sold by his Brethren. 
Hamburg. ^Jircat | ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Heidelberg. ,^tift Ken- \ ^^^ Entombment. 
berg Loii. ) 
„ „ Portrait of Cornelius. 

Lubeck. Town Library. Meeting of Ulysses and Tele- 
„ „ A Pieta. 

„ Marien Kirche. Christ entering Jerusalem. 

Munich. ^''^^Ji^^"- 1 Holy Family, with St. John. 


Munich. New Pina- } Italia and Germania, as two 
cothek. j female figures in a laud^ape. 
„ „ Confirmation. 

„ „ Portrait of Vittoria Caldoni. 

Eome. Cara Bartholdi. History of Joseph. (Frescoes.) 
,, J'illa Massimo. Jerusalem delivered, (/^rfscoes.) 
Weihem (near Lotz- \ ' Cyclus ' from the Gospels. 
Munich), beck Coll. f {Forty Cartoons.) 

OVERBECK, (or Overbeeck,) Leendeet, a 
Dutch landscape painter and engraver, born at 
Haarlem in 1750. He was a pupil of H. Meyer, 
and at first designed tapestry and ornaments, but 
afterwards turned his attention to drawing and 
etching, in which latter he became very skilful. 
In the year 1775 he was Moderator in the Academy 
at Haarlem, and gave the following year a dis- 
course which was printed. He worked in Amster- 
dam and at Weesp, and died at Haarlem in 1815. 
He engraved a number of Dutch landscapes with 
figures, among which are views in the neighbour- 
hood of Haarlem, dated 1791-93, and two of Leyden, 
dated 1S07. 

OVERBEKE, Adrian van, entered in the register 
of the Guild of St. Luke in 1495 as an apprentice of 
Quentin Mets^-s, was admitted as free master in 
1508. In 1509-10 he painted an altar-piece for 
the chapel of Our Lady attached to the Hopital 
Comtesse at Lisle, for which he was paid the large 
sum of 438/. In 1510-11 John van Ghent painted 
the shutters for 24?. This altar-piece was one of 
the 354 old pictures sold by auction by order of 
the municipality in 1813. On August 11, 1513, 
the confraternity of St. Anne established in the 
church of Kempen (Rhine Province) made a 
contract with him by the terms of which he bound 
himself to execute a reredos for the high- altar of 
that church for the sum of 300 gold florins. The 
centre of this altar-piece, which still occupies its 
original position, represents the ' Nativity,' 'Adora- 
tion of the i\lagi,' 'Presentation in the Temple,' and 
the 'Tree of Jesse'in richly-polychromed sculpture, 
whilst on the shutters are painted episodes from 
the legend of St. Anne and St. Joachim, with the 
'Last Judgment' on the exterior. In March 1524 
Adrian was found guilty of publicly reading and 
expounding the Scriptures, and was sentenced to 
leave the town before sunset and go on a pilgrim- 
age to Wilsenaken. Van Overbeke is probably 
the m.aster Adrian whose portrait Diirer drew 
when he was at Antwerp in 1520, and to whom he 
gave some of his prints. In 1529 Van Overbeke 
painted another altar-piece for the chapel of St. 
Joseph in the church of Kempen ; this was taken 
away to Kaiserwerth in 1662 and is now lost. 


H. Keussen. ' Der Meister des Schreines am Hauptal- 
tare in der Pfarrkirehe zu Kempen.' Coin, 1873. 

' The Academy,' June 21, 1879, p. 547. 

F. Clemen, 'Die Kun.stdenkmalerdes Kneises Kempea.* 
Diisseldorf, 1S91. W. H. J.W. 

OVEREXD, W. H., was born at Coatham, York- 
.shire, in 1851, and educated at the Charterhouse. 
His boyish drawings showed considerable natural 
powers of observation. Strongly attracted to the 
sea and seafaring life, he started at first as a 
painter of marine subjects, but was soon drawn 
aside to work as an illustrator for the ' Illustrated 
London News,' a connection which lasted till his 
death. He soon acquired a special reputation for 
his intimate knowledge of life at sea, whether on 
merchantman or war vessel, and his numerous 


renderings of Buch scenes are always marked by 
accuracy and spirit. In later years he occasionally 
exhibited at the Eoyal Academy, and he was a 
member of the Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours. 
A portrait-study of tlie Duke of York as command- 
ing officer of a torpedo-boat, and another of Admiral 
Farragut in the battle of Mobile Bay (now in the 
possession of the U.S. Government), are his best 
pictures. His life-work was done, however, in 
black and white, and the bulk of it appeared in the 
pages of the 'Illustrated London News.' He did 
occasional work also as a book-illustrator. His 
death occurred in 1898. 

OVERLAET, Anton, a designer and etcher, 
who lived at Antwerp in the latter half of the 18th 
century, and had at first been a journeyman baker. 
He was admired for his pen-and-ink drawings 
from portraits, historical pictures, landscapes, and 
genre scenes. Among his copies we may name : 

Beggar and his Wife ; after Rembrandt. 1760. 

Dutch Village, with Castle and Canal ; after the same. 

Two drawings of Male and Female Peasants; in A. 

Ostade^s maimer. 
OWEN, The Rev. Edward Puyce, an English 
etcher and painter, born in 1788. He graduated 
at Oxford, took orders in tlie Church of England, 
and cultivated art as an amateur. He published 
some etchings of ancient buildings in Shrewsbury, 
1820-21, and another volume of etchings in 1826. 
He died at Cheltenham in 1863. 

OWEN, Samuel, marine painter in water-colours, 
was bom in 1768. His subjects were generally 
shipping, which he executed in a correct and 
ekilful manner. He exhibited for the first time at 
the Royal Academy in 1794, and again in 1797, 
when his subject was the ' British and Spanish 
Fleets, commanded by Sir John Jarvis.' He was a 
member of the ' Associated Artists in Water- 
Colours,' a defunct society, which was founded in 
1808. For several years before his death (which 
occurred at Sunbury in 1857) he had given up 
painting. He made the eiglity-three drawings 
illustrating Bernard Cooke's ' The Thames.' 

OWEN, William, an eminent painter of por- 
traits and fancy subjects, was born at Ludlow in 
1769, and was educated at the grammar-school of 
that town. It is not known that he received any 
instruction in painting until he reached his seven- 
teenth year, althougli he had as a boy exhibited a 
strong inclination for art. About 1786 he was sent 
to London and placed under Catton, who had been 
a coach-painter, but was then a Royal Academi- 
cian ; and soon afterwards a copy Owen made of 
Reynolds's picture of Perdita, introduced him to 
the notice of the President and to the benefit of his 
instruction. In the year 1792 he made his first 
appearance as an exhibitor at Somerset House, 
with the ' Portrait of a Gentleman,' and a view of 
Ludford Bridge, Ludlow ; each succeeding year 
his practice as a portrait painter increased, till in 
the year 1798 he exhibited no less than ten. This 
may be considered good evidence of his artistic 
skill, for he had no advantage of patronage like 
Reynolds, Beechey, Lawrence, and Hoppner, who 
divided the world of fashion between them. And 
among those who sat to him were some of the most 
distinguished men of the day ; such as William 
Pitt, Lord Grenville, Sir William Scott, Cyril 
Jackson, Vicary Gibbs, Chief Justice Abbot, the 
Marquis of Stafford, the Earl of Bridgewater, John 
Soane the architect, Viscount Exmouth, and many 

others. The ' Blind Beggar's Daughter of Bethnal 
Green,' 'The Sleeping Girl,' 'The Schoolmistress,' 
'The Girl at the Spring,' 'The Road-side,' 'The 
Cottage Door,' ' The Cliildren in the Wood,' are 
among his subject pictures. In 1804 he became 
an Associate, and in 1806 a full member of the 
Royal Academy ; in 1810 he was appointed por- 
trait painter to the Prince of Wales. The Prince 
Regent offered to knight him, an honour which he 
refused. For the last five years of his life he was 
in a state of almost utter helplessness, but his 
sufferings were at last put an end to in 1825 by 
the mistake of a chemist's boy, who sent him a 
bottle of opium instead of a harmless draught. 
Owen died on the 11th of February, 1825. Besides 
the pictures already named the following may be 
noted : 

London. Hot/. Academy. \ Boy and Kitten. 
{Diploma Gall.) \ Cottage Cliildren. 

„ JV'a?. Fort. Gall. John Wilson Crocker. 

„ „ Lord Loughborough. 

„ „ (?) John Philpot Curran. 

OZANNE, Jeanne FRANgoiSE, and Mabib 
Jeanne, were the sisters of Nicolas Ozanne, and 
were instructed in engraving by Aliamet. We 
have by them several prints of sea-ports, &c., 
among which are the following: 

A View of the Port of Dieppe ; J. F. Ozanne ; after 

A View of St. Vallery ; the same. 

Two Views of the Port of Leghorn; .1/. J. Ozanne; 
after Vernct. 

A Calm; the mme ; after the same. 

Two Pastoral subjects; after Fhil. Wouwerman ; JT. J. 

OZANNE, Nicolas, a French engraver, was bom 
in Paris about the year 1724. He engraved from 
his own drawings a number of plates of marines 
and sea-ports, which are esteemed for their neat- 
ness. We have, among others, the following by 
him : 

A set of four Landscapes and Marines ; Ozanne fee. 

Two Views of the Port of Brest. 

OZANNE, Pierre, designer and engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1725, who produced four sets of 
etchings of shipping. He was probably a brother 
of Nicholas. 

PAAPE. See De Pape. 

PAAR, Wenzel, Count ton, executed some 
drawings and etchings. His son Lonis, born at 
Vienna in 1772, and died in 1819, also painted 
several landscapes. 

PAAS, Cornelius, a German engraver, born in 
1740. He settled in London about 1765, and 
became engraver to George III. He died in London 
in 1806. 

PABLO, Pedro, was a Catalonian, who in 1563, 
in conjunction with Pedro Serafin, a Greek, painted 
the doors of the great organ in Tarragona cathe- 
dral. The artists received three hundred Catalonian 
pounds for this performance, and were employed in 
various works by the chapter. 

PABST, Camille Alfred, French painter ; bom 
at Cohnar (Alsace) in 1828 ; became a pupil of 
Charles Comte ; was a regular exhibitor at the 
Paris Salon since 1865 ; his principal works, 
several of which have been engraved, include ; 



« Jeune Mfere,' ' La Toilette,' ' Chez I'Alcliimiste,' 
' Jeu de Quilles,' ' Une Mari^-e en Alsace,' and 
'Alsaciens a Paris'; obtained third-class medal in 
1874 ; died in Paris, September 30, 1898. 

PABST, Paui-, a Dutch gentleman, who was 
Buri,'omaster of Rochlit, Leipsic, in 1490, and 
built the church of St. Peter there. He decorated 
its interior with pictures, and was still li%'ing in 
1524. He was also called Pabst van Ohorn, or 

PACCHIA. See Del Pacchia. 

PACCHIAROTTI, Giacomo, was the son of one 
Bartolommeo di Giovanni Pacohiarotti, a dresser 
of woollen clotli, and Elisabetta his wife. He was 
born at Siena in 1474, and at an early age entered 
the studio of Bernardino Fungai, then considered 
the most distinguished exponent of art in that city. 
So well did he imitate his teacher's mannerisms, 
rigid with the traditions of the earlier Sienese 
School, that the work of the pupil is not in- 
frequently mistaken for that of the master. In 
spite of a stormy life, due to his turbulent and 
excitable disposition, and his fondness for mixing 
himself up in the continuous political strifes and 
revolutions of the period, he seems to have received 
a good deal of employment from public bodies. 
We read of work executed by him in 1503 in paint 
and stucco (heads of the Emperors) in the nave 
of the Duomo, and standards ordered for such State 
occasions as the Elevation to the Pontificate of 
the Sienese Pius III., and the Reception of the 
Legate of Pope Julius II. In 1512 he was com- 
missioned to make the heraldic and other decora- 
tions to be used at the public funeral of Pandolfo 
Petrucci, whilst various religious confraternities 
entrusted their processional banners to him. In 
1507 the sons of Andrea Piccolomini, a brother of 
Pius III., employed him to complete tlie adornment 
of a chapel .at San Francesco, commenced in 1504, 
under the direction of their father, by Pinturicchio. 
This woi'k, however, owing to the artist's idleness, 
was not finished until 1514, and was totally 
destroyed by fire in 1655. In 1518 he was engaged 
by the Signoria to restore the face of the clock on 
the Torre del Mangia. In 1525, and again in 153G, 
he received commissions from the Guild of Notaries ; 
the latter one being a triumphal arch on the occa- 
sion of the visit to Siena of the Emperor Charles V. 
The two best-known works of his, still existing in 
his native city, are two ' Ascensions ' ; one in the 
Church) of the Carmine, and the other painted for 
the Convent of the Osservanza, but now in the 
Academia delle Belle Arti. Although holding 
the positions of Gonfalonier and Captain of the 
Company of Stallorcggi, in which quarter of the 
city he resided, his political activity — largely, how- 
ever, braggadocio — led to his getting more than 
once into trouble, for which he was imprisoned and 
banished to his property outside the town. His 
worst scrajie, which forms the subject of one of 
Fortini's Novelle, occurred during a serious famine 
in 1533, when the Society of the Bardoiti,oi which 
body he was a prominent member, raised a civil 
tumult. The authorities, however, succeeded in 
forcibly quelling the disturbances, and the terrified 
Pacchiarotti took refuge in the vaults of a church 
(variously indicated as S. Giovanni Battista della 
Morte, the Baptistery, or the Church of the Osser- 
vanza, to which latter place he ultimately fled) : 
even passing two days at close quarters with a 
newly-buried corpse. He escaped punishment for 
some time for this escapade, but on November 17, 

15.'')9, for the good of the State, he was sent into 
lifelong exile, and his life declared forfeit. Never- 
theless this harsh sentence was, at the petition 
of his wife, repealed on August 17th, in the follow- 
ing year, and he returned to his country house, 
where he shortly afterwards died. Owing to 
the similarity of their names and the fact that 
both were involved in political difficulties, constant 
confusion has arisen in the minds of both historians 
and students of art between Pacchiarotti and a 
very different artistic per.sonnlity — Girolamo del 
Pacchia. He married in 1505 Girolama, daughter 
of Ser Alcssandro di Francesco, by whom he had 
three daughters, Gabriella, Virginia and Lucrezia. 
The following pictures are the best-known examples 
of his work — 
Buoncon- Church of) 

vento. 5& Pietro e V Madonna and four Saints. E. 
Pa oh. J 
Florence. Aca(femij^ 81. Visitation. 
London. Mr. C Butler. Four small panels: Nativity; 
Baptism ; Kesurrectiou ; 

„ Mr. Muir \ Moses, Davitl, and other 

Macl^enzie. j Prophets. 
Rome. T>on Murcello ) ^ .^ . 

Ma,.are«ti. \ Crucifixion. 
Scotland-Zorrf Kinnaird i -, . . ., 

Siena. Sala IX. Zy. Five Saints. 

„ „ A'. 14. Madonna and Saints (in lun- 

ette);Christ with SS. Jerome 
and Francis. 

„ „ „ 23. Predella. E. 

,. „ „ 24. Altar-piece ; Ascension. E. 

,, „ ,, 31. Visitation, E. 

„ Palazzo Palm,>ri.l^<'^y *:^™"y ! Madonna with 

" Aiitt 1 Jerome and a female 

') Saint. 

„ Chvreh of the Car- 1 »,„„^-;._ 
mine, ith Altar. R. j Asi^ension. 

E; H. H. C. 

PACE da Faenza, painter, flourished at that town 
in the 14th century. His works were of a grotesque 

PACE, Domenico di. See Beccafomi. 

PACE, Michelangelo, called Di CAiiriDOGLio, a 
painter of fruit and flowers, was born at Rome in 
1610. He was a scholar of Fioravanti, and was 
called ' Di Campidoglio' from an office he held in 
the Campidoglio, or Capitol, at Rome. There 
was a fine picture by him in the collection of the 
Duke of Marlborough at Blenheim, and many others 
are to be found in England. He died in 1670. 

PACECCO. See Rosa, Francisco pi. 

PACELLI, Matteo, a native of tlie Basilicata, 
and a pupil of Luca Giordano, whom he followed 
into Spain. He died in 1731. 

PACHECO, Cristobal, a Spanish portrait and 
history painter, who flourished about 1568. He 
was a proterie of the Duke of Alva, for whom he 
painted many pictures, including several portraits. 

PACHECt), FitANciPCO, a painter, was born at 
Seville in 1571. He was a pupil of Luis Fernandez, 
and his first recorded works were the Standards of 
the Fleets which sailed in 1594. In 1598 he exe- 
cuted the paintings for the Monument erected for 
the funeral honours of Pliilip II. In 1600 he 
painted for the Convent of Mercy some scenes from 
the life of St. Raymond, and in 1603 the fable of 
' Daedalus and Icarus ' for the Duke of Alcala. In 
1611 he visited Madrid, and on his return to Seville 
established a school of painting in his own house. 
In 1612 he painted for the nuns of St. Isabel his 
greatest work, the ' Last Judgment.' In 1618 he 
was appointed inspector of pictures. In 1620 he 


Woodbu?-}' Co. phoio] 

iN at Una I Ctalkjy 



painted ' The Baptism of our Lord,' and ' Hia 
Banquet served by Angels in the Desert,' for the 
high altar of the college of St. Hermengild. In 
1623 he visited Madrid with his son-in-law Velas- 
quez, where he resided till 1625. On his return he 
devoted himself chiefly to the pen, and wrote the 
' Treatise of Painting,' which was published in 
1649. He died at Seville in 1654. The Madrid 
Musf-O possesses the following examples of his 
work : 

St. Ini's. 

St. Catalina. 

St. John the Evangelist. 

St. John the Baptist. 

PACHELBLIN, Amalia, a German flower- 
painter, who was working at Nuremberg between 
1686 and 1723. The details of her life are un- 

PACKER, Michael, a painter who flourished in 
the latter part of the 15th century. He was a 
native of Bruneck in the Tyrol, and his chief work 
is an altar-piece at Wolfgang in Salzkame gut. 
dated 1481. 

PACHMANN. See Bachmann. 

PACICCO. See Rosa, Francisco di. 

PACINI, BiAGio DI Francesco, a Florentine 
painter, who was living in 1525, according to the 
Ruolo de' Pittori. Signer Milaiiesi suggests that 
he was identical with the Biagio, a pupil of Sandro 
Botticelli, of whom Vasari tells an absurd story in 
connection with the sale of a picture by him to a 

PACINI, Santi, an obscure Florentine, who lived 
towards the end of the eighteenth century. He 
made the copy wliieh took the place of Andrea del 
Sarto's ' Deposition ' in the convent of S. Pietro in 
Mugello, when the original picture was removed 
to the Pitti Palace. 

PACK, Christopher, an English portrait painter, 
born at Norwich, in 1750. Brought up to trade, he 
suffered some losses, and then devoted himself to 
art. He came to London, and was introdoced to 
Sir J. Reynolds, whose pictures he copied. Sub- 
sequently be practised as a portrait painter at 
Norwich, Liverpool, Dublin, and London, where 
he is last heard of in 1796. 

PACOT, was a native of France, and flourished 
about the year 1690. He engraved some plates of 
battles and sea-fight.s, which are etched and finished 
with the graver. 

PACUVIUS, the Roman tragic poet, practised 
painting by way of amusement in his old age, and 
executed some much-admired works in the Temple 
of Hercules, about 150 E.c. After his time, Pliny 
tells us, no worthy painter arose among the 
Romans. The art, in fact, fell into disrepute, and 
scarcely any but slaves and foreigners were found 
to practise it at all. 

PADER, HiLAiRE, painter and engraver, flour- 
ished at Toulouse in the middle of the 17tb century. 
He was a pupil of Chalette, and painted several 
views of Toulouse. 

PADERNA, Giovanni, was born at Bologna 
about the year 1600, and was a scholar of Girolamo 
Curti (Dentone), under whom he became an emi- 
nent painter of perspectives and architecture. After 
the death of Dentone he was much emploj-ed, and 
his success was such as to excite the jealousy of 
Agostino Mitelli, one of the ablest artists in that 
branch. Of his numerous works at Bologna, the 
decorationB of the Capella Zagoni, in the church of 

La Madonna della Liberfa, are considered among 
his best performances. He died, according to some, 
in 1640 ; butZani says he was living in 1647. 

PADERNA, Paolo Antonio, was born at Bologna 
in 1649, and for some time studied under Guercino. 
On the death of that master lie entered the school 
of Carlo Cignani. Although be acquired some 
celebrity as an historical painter, he was more 
distinguished for his landscapes, which are in the 
style of his first instructor. He died in 1708. 

PADERNI, Camillo, a Neapolitan painter, who 
flourished in the 18th century. He came to Eng- 
land, where he made several drawings from old 
pictures. He died about 1770. 

PADOVA, Girolamo da. See Sordo. 

PADOVA, GiusTo DA. See Menabuoi. 

PADOVANINO, Francesco, was born at Padua 
in 1561. It is not known by whom he was in- 
structed in the art, but he painted history with 
some success. One of the most esteemed of his 
works is a picture representing a Saint interceding 
for two criminals condemned to death, in the 
church of La Madonna del Carmine, at Venice. 
He also was much employed in painting portraits. 
He died in 1617. 

PADOVANINO, II (Alessandro). See Varo- 

PADOVANINO, II (Ottavio, son of Ludovico). 
See Leoni. 

PADOVANINO, Ottavio, the son of Francesco 
Padovanino, was born at Padua about the year 
1582. After studying some time under his father, 
he was sent to Rome for improvement. He ac- 
quired some celebrity as an historical painter, but 
was chiefly engaged in portrait painting, in which 
he was more successful. He died in 1634. 

PADOVANO, Gasparo. See Ostello. 

PADOVANO, Girolamo. See Sordo. 

PADOVANO, LA0RO. In the ' Venezia Descritta,' 
by Sansovino, this painter is said to have been a 
native of Padua, and a scholar of Francesco Squar- 
cione. He was a successfid imitator of the style 
of Andrea Mantegna, and painted for tlie church 
of La Carith. at Venice some subjects from the life 
of St. John, which rank among the most creditable 
productions of the time. He is stated by the above 
author to have flourished about the year 1420. It 
is expected, however, that he is one with Lauri>, 
or Laura da Padova, who lived to a much later 
period : Zani says he was at work from 1470 to 

PADRO Y PEDRET, Tomas, designer and pamter, 
was born at Barcelona in 1840, aiid died there in 
1877. He was a pupil of the school of art in that 
city,and of the Academy of San Fernando, studying 
under Madrazo and Riviera, and being specially 
distinguished for his caricatures. 

PADTBRUGGE, H. L., was a native of Stock- 
holm, and flourished about the year 1700. Ha 
engraved the greater part of the plates for a work 
entitled 'Suecia Antiqua et Hoiiierna,' published 
in three vols, folio; the first in 1693, the last in 
1714. It contains about three humlred anil fifty 
plates, consisting of bird's eye views and maps. 

PAELINCK, Joseph, an historical painter, was 
born at Oostacker, near Ghent, in 1781. He com- 
menced his artistic studies under Verhaeu'cn, the 
professor of painting at the Academy of (Jhent ; 
after this he went to P.aris, and enrolled himself 
among the scholars of David. In 1804 he obtained 
a prize offered by the Academy at Ghent, with his 
picture of ' The Judgment of Paris,' and was also 



named Professor of Design to the Academy. He 
shortly after vacated this appointment, and went 
to Italy in order to study the works of the great 
masters. Here he corrected much of the academic 
manner which he had hnbibed in the school of 
David, and produced what is considered his best 
picture, ' The Finding of tlie Cross,' which is now 
in the church of St. Michel at Ghent. He remained 
at Rome for about five years, and during that time 
he painted a large picture for the palace of the 
Pope at Monte-Cavallo, representing the embellish- 
ments of Rome by Augustus. In 1815 he became 
court painter to the queen, and a member of the 
Netherlands Institute. In 1820 he obtained the 
great prize at Ghent for his ' Anthia.' Finally he 
became professor at tlie Academy of Brussels. He 
died in that city in 1839. His principal pictures, 
in addition to the above, are : 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. {Convent of La 

Trappe, near Jnttcerp.) 
The Flight iuto Egypt. (Jt Malines.) 
The Dt-partiire of Tobit. ((. phraekei, near OudenarJe.i 
The Return of Tobit. {For Maria Oudenhove.) 
The Assumption of the Virgin. (For Muysen, near 

Malines, ) 
The Disciples at Emniaus. (Church at Everqhem, near 

Calvary. ( Villafje of Oostaeker.) 
The Toilette of Psyche. (Hague Museum.) 
The Dance of thf Muses. 
The Judgment of Midas. 
The Abdication of Charles V. 

PAESI, 1l Giovane de. See Mdziano. 

PAEST, Henuy. a portrait painter and copyist, 
who practised in England in the latter half of the 
17tli century. He worked under Henry Stone and 
Francis Barlow. There was a copy by him of 
Lnca Giordano's ' Cyclops ' at St. James's Palace. 
He died in 1697. 

PAGANELLI, Niccolo, a painter of Faenza 
born in 1538. He worked chiefly at Rome, but 
executed a famous picture of ' St. Martin ' for the 
cathedral of Faenza, which has been ascribed to 
Luca Longhi. He died in 1620. Paganelli signed 
his pictures N + P. 

PAGANI, Francesco, was born, according to 
Baldinucci, at Florence in 1531. After learning the 
first rudiments of art in his native city he went to 
Rome, wliere he studied the works of Polidoro da 
Caravaggio and Maturino. He returned to Florence 
at the age of twenty-one, and died young at 
Castelfiorentino in 1561. 

PAGANI, Gregokio, the son of Francesco 
Pagani, was born in 1568. His father dying when 
he was an infant, he was placed as a disciple of 
Santo di Titi, and afterwards improved his style by 
the instruction of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli. 
In imitation of tlie style of that master, he painted 
a picture of 'The Finding of the Cross,' for the 
church of the Carmelites, of wliich a print by 
Cecchi is the only record. The church was de- 
stroyed by fire. Some of his fresco works remain 
in the cloister of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 
including a ' Nativity.' His own portrait by him- 
self is in the Riccardi Gallery of the same city, 
and in the Uffizi there is a ' Faniily of Tobit' by 
him. Baldinucci dates his death in 1605. 

PAGANI, Paolo, was bom at Valsolda, in the 
Milanese state, in 1661. He formed his manner 
by studying, at Venice, the works of the best 
masters, and, according to Zanetti, established 
there an academy, where he introduced a style of 
designing the nude, which, though occasionally 


surcharged and extravagant, is bold and effective. 
After a residence of some years at Venice, where 
he painted several pictures for the churches, he 
returned to Milan, and was much employed for the 
public edifices and for private collections. One of 
his best works is in the Dresden Gallery. He died 
in 1716. 

PAGANINI, GuGLiELMO Capodoeo, was born, 
according to Orlandi, at Mantua in 1670, and was 
a scholar of Antonio Calza. His genius led him to 
paint battles and encampments, but having seen 
some of the pictures of Borgognone at Florence, 
he attached himself to the study and imitation 
of that artist's works. No particulars as to his 
individual works annear to be recorded. 

PAGE, William, American painter; bornJanuary 
28, 1811, at Albany (New York) ; became a pupil 
of Herring and of S. Morse. Lived at Florence 
and Rome from 1849 to 1860; in 1874 visited 
Kesselstadt to make a drawing of the Shakespeare 
Death Mask. His ' Holy Family ' is in the Boston 
Athenseum. He occasionally painted portraits. 
He died at Tottenville, Staten Island (New York), 
September 30, 1885. 

PAGGI, Giovanni Battista, (or Pagi,) was 
born at Genoa in 1554 or 1556. He was first a 
scholar of Luca Cambiaso, and improved himself 
in design by studying antique statues and bas- 
reliefs. He had acquired some reputation as a 
painter of history, when he unhappily killed an 
antagonist in a qunrrel, which obliged him to take 
refuge at Florence, where he resided twenty years. 
His first productions were rather distinguished by 
grace than energy, as his ' Holy Family ' in the 
church Degli Angeli, at Florence, proves. He 
afterwards adopted a manner more robust and 
masculine ; and his large work of the ' Tranfigura- 
tion,' in the church of San Marco, is painted with 
such vigour and effect, that it does not appear to 
be by the same liand. Another of his earlier works 
is his ' St. Catherine of Siena,' in Santa Maria 
Novella of the same city. Lanzi mentions as his 
finest works, three subjects from the Passion of 
our Saviour, at the Certosa at Pavia. His best 
performances at Genoa are two pictures in the 
church of St. Bartolommeo, and 'The Murder of 
the Innocents,' in the Palazzo Doria, painted in 
1606, in competition with Rubens. He died in 
1627. He was also a sculptor, architect, and 
writer on art. 

PAGHOLO. See Bautolojimeo di Paoholo. 

PAGLIA, Antonio, a native of Brescia, bom in 
1680, was a sou and pupil of Francesco Paglia. 
He died in 1747. His brother Angelo was born 
in 1681, and died in 1763. Antonio was in the 
habit of painting from groups of little clay figures 
modelled by himself, by which means he obtained 
a piquant chiaroscuro. In colour he was akin to 
the second-rate Venetians. 

PAGLIA, Francesco, was born at Brescia in 
1636, and was brought up in the school of Guer- 
cino. He painted some pictures for the public 
edifices at Brescia, of which the most distinguished 
is an altar-piece, iu the church of La CaritS. 
His best productions are his portraits. According 
to Zani he died in 1713. 

PAGLIARI, Giovanni Ba'itista, a painter of 
Cremona, was born in 1641. He died in 1717. 

PAGNEST, Amable Louis Cladde, French 
painter, born June 9, 1790, in Paris, and became 
a pupil of David. He painted rather over-elabor- 
ately-finished portraits ; as, for instance, those of 


Nanteiiil Lanorville (in the Louvre) and of General 
de Salle (also in the Louvre). His 'Mort de 
Lucr^ce ' is in the AngerB Museum. He died in 
Paris, May 25, 1819. 

PAGNI, Bejjedetto, was a native of Pescia, and 
was brought up at Rome in the school of Giulio 
Romano. He followed that master to Mantua, 
where he distinguished himself as a painter of 
history. In the church of Sant' Andrea is an altar- 
piece by him of the Martyrdom of St. Lorenzo ; 
and at the Collegiati, a picture of the Marriage of 
Cana. Zani says he was at work from 1525 to 

PAIGEOLINE (or Paigeloine). The name of 
this engraver is affixed to a slight etching from 
a picture by Paolo Veronese, representing the 
' Mother of Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter.' 
PAILLET, Antoine, a pupil of Bourdon, was 
born in Paris in 1659, and died in 1739. He was 
a portrait and historical painter, and professor of 
the Koyal Academy of Paris. In 1659 he was 
rector of that institution. 

PAINE, James, a water-colour draughtsman, was 
ason of James 1 aine, the architect. He exhibited at 
the Spring Gardens Exhibitions in 1761-64-70, and 
was a member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy. 
PAIOT,^, was a French engraver of little note, 
who appears to have been chiefly employed by the 
booksellers. Among others, there is a print by 
him of ' David,' a half-length figure, after Vignon. 
He lived about 1627. 

PAJOU, Adguste Desire, was the son of Jacques 
Augustin Pajou. He was born in 1800, and studied 
under his father and Baron Gros. His best work 
is ' Las Casas and his Guides attacked by a Tiger.' 
PAJOU, Jacqdes Augustin, historical painter, 
was born in Paris in 1766. His father was the 
famous sculptor, Augustin Pajou. He was in- 
structed in painting by Vincent. At first he painted 
portraits, among which were those of the Emperor 
Napoleon and several of his Marshals. He after- 
wards took to historical scenes, among which an 
'CEdipus and Polynices,' at Fontainebleau, may be 

PALACIOS, Francisco, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Madrid about 1640. He entered the school 
of Velasquez, and early gave indications of a talent 
for portraiture, but the death of his master in 1660 
appears to have put a limit to his progress. Jean 
Bermudez notices his picture of ' St. Onophrius,' 
in the church of the female penitentiary. He died 
in 1676. 

PALADINI, Abcangela, was born at Pisa in 
1599. Siie was the daughter of Filippo Paladini, 
a portrait painter, by whom she was instructed in 
the rudiments of tlie art. Her talents were not 
confined to painting, for she excelled in music, 
and above all in embroidery. Her portrait, painted 
by herself, was placed in the gallery of artists at 
Florence. She died in 1622. 

PALADINI, LiTTERio. In the 'Memorie de' 
Messinesi Pittore,' by Hackert, this painter is said 
to have been born at Messina in 1691. He worked 
at Rome, in the school of Sebastiano Conca, but 
studied largely from the antique. On his return 
to Messina, he was engaged in several considerable 
works in fresco, of which the most esteemed is the 
ceiling of the church of Monte Vergine. He died 
of the plague in 1743. 

PALADINO, Filippo, a native of Florence, was 
bom in 1544. He was a pupil of Allori. He lived 
in Rome and Milan, but chiefly in Sicily, where 

most of his works are to bo found. He died at 
Mazzarino in 1614. 

PALAGI, Pelagic, historical painter, was born 
at Bologna in 1775, and was a pupil of Appiani. 
In tlie time of Napoleon he was director of the 
Academy at Rome, and later on a professor in tljat 
at Milan, and member of that of San Luca. He 
died at Turin in 1860. 

PALAIS. See Pelais. 

PALAMEDES. See Stievens. 

PALAVICINI, GiACOMO, called II Giannolo, 
was born at Caspen in the Veltlin, in 1640. Altar- 
pieces by this artist are found at Cremona, Verona, 
and Milan. He also painted a few portraits. He 
died in 1729. 

PALCKO, Franz Karl, son of Anton Palcko 
(who died at Presburg in 1754), was born at 
Breslau in 1724. He was first a pupil of his elder 
brother, Franz Anton, at Presburg, and then at- 
tended the Vienna Academy and travelled in Italy. 
In 1752 he became court painter at Dresden, and 
in 1764 at Munich. He died in 1767, apparently 
at Prague. Among his paintings are : 

•Tudith and Holofernes. 

Dfliverauce of Captives. {Tritntarians^ Pt'eshufy.) 

St. John. (Dresden Court t'hupd.) 

Two etchings by him are known : 

Christ and the Samaritan "Woman. 
Adam and Eve hiding themselves in Fear. 

His brother, Franz Anton Palcko, was a pupil 
of his father, and became court painter to Prince 
Esterhazy. He has left altar-pieces in the cathedral 
and in the Salvatorskirche, at Vienna. 

PALING. See Paulyn. 

P.\L1SSY, Bernard, was born about 1510, at La 
Chapelle Biron, a village in Perigord. He was 
brought up to his father's trade of a glazier, but 
having a taste for drawing, design, and decoration, 
lie turned it to account in painting glass for churches 
in the district. At the age of twenty-one he set 
out on his travels. He first went info the country 
of the Pyrenees, and after settling for a time at 
Tarbes, he went through France, Switzerland, and 
Southern Germany to Belgium and Flanders. He 
returned to France in 1539, and settled atSaintonge 
in the south-west, where he married, and pursued 
his manifold callings of portrait painting, glass 
painting, and land-measuring. Wiiile thus en- 
gaged he was seized with the desire to produce 
enamelled faience, and his ardour in prosecuting 
his researches is well known. His fame as a potter 
spread, and he soon attracted the notice of the 
Duke of Montmorency, Constable of France, who 
by using his influence with Catharine de' Medicis, 
saved Palissy from being burnt as a Huguenot. 
After his release from iniprisoument he removed 
from SaiTitonge to tlie Tuileries at Paris, where he 
long continued to carry on the manufacture of his 
famous pottery. At the age of seventy-six he was 
again arrested as a heretic and imprisoned in the 
Bastile, where he died after about a year's imprison- 
ment, in the year 1588. 

PALIZZI, Filippo, Italian painter ; born at 
Vasto in 1818; originally intended for the law, 
but studied art at the Naples Art School with 
Bonolis, and also at Paris ; excelled in Iand8cai)e 
and as a painter of animals. He presented hie 
best paintings to the National Gallery of Rome, 
where there is a special Sala Palizzi. His last 
work was an 'Agnus Dei,' which he presented to 
his native town. He obtained many decorations 



and was a member of various Academies. He died 
at Naples in September 1899. 

PALLADINO, Adriano, according to Orlandi, 
was born at Cortona in 1610, and was a scholar of 
Berrettini (Pietro de Cortona). He painted history 
in the style of his muster, and executed several 
works for the public edifices of his native city 
He died in 1680. 

PALLAVICINI, Leo, appears to have resided at 
Milan in the early part of the 17th century. He is 
said to have published some prints marked with 
the initials Z. P. f. 

PALLIERE, Armand Julien, a painter of Bor- 
deaux, was born in 1783. He was a brother of 
Louis Pallifere, and was also instructed by Vincent. 
He painted mythological and historical pictures, 
such as ' The Death of Epaminondas,' ' Love,' and 

PALLIERE, Lonis-VlNCENT-L^ON, a French his- 
torical painter, was born at Bordeaux in 1787. He 
was a scholar first of his father, who was an en- 
graver and draughtsman, and then of Vincent, and 
gave early promise of arriving at excellence in the 
art._ In 1809 he obtained a second prize for his 
' Priam kneeling before Achilles,' and in 1812 the 
Prix de Rome for his ' Ulysses slaying the Suitors 
of Penelope.' At Rome, "where he remained five 
years, he painted ' Argus slain by Mercury ; ' 
'Prometheus tormented by the Vulture;' 'The 
Flagellation of Christ' (for which Louis XVIIL 
awarded him a gold medal: it was painted for 
tlie church of the Trinita de' Monti) ; and ' Juno 
borrowing the Girdle of Venus.' In 1819 he ex- 
hibited at the Musee ' St. Peter curing the Lame 
Man'; ' Tobit restoring Sight to his Father' 
(now in the Bordeaux Museum); 'A Shepherd in 
Eepose'; 'A Nymph coming from tlic Bath'- 
' Preaching at Rome during the Night' ; and other 
subjects. He died in 1820. 

PALM, Gnsi AV Willem, Swedish painter ; born 
March 14, 1810, at Christianstad ; was a pupil at 
the Stockholm Academy ; after travel in Scandi- 
navia he spent sixteen years in Italy, and sub- 
sequently visited France and England ; made his 
name as a landscape painter ; his 'Canal Grande' 
is in the Stockholm National Museum ; was a 
member of the Stockholm and Venice Academies. 
In 1867 obtained the Gustavus Vasa Order. He 
died at Stockholm, September 20, 1890. 

PALMA, Jacopo, later on called Palma il 
VECcmo,to distinguish him from his'grand-nephew, 
was born at Serinalta, in the Valle Brembana, near 
Bergamo. Of his life little is known ; to begin 
with, the exact year of his birth. The date 1480, 
usually given, is quite uncertain and based only 
on Vasari's statement, that Palnui died forty-eight 
years old — an event which took place in 1528. 
Anyhow it may be the ajjproximate date when 
he was born. The very few indisputable facts 
of his life and artistic career are now collected 
and discussed in an article by Dr. G. Ludwig in 
'Beiheft •/.. Jahrbuch d. K. Preuss. Kunst-sanmd. 
ISO."}.' His family name was Negretti ; ''laconio 
de Antonio de Negreto " he signs himself in 
earlier documents. When he first came to Venice, 
and who was his master, we do not know. For 
only two of his paintings we possess the dates. 
In 1520 he undertook to paint an altar-piece for 
the church of Sant' Antonio in Venice, on the 
order of Marin Querini ; of this picture, which 
represented the marriage of the Virgin, only a 
fragment, the central part, is preserved (Polazzo 


Giovanelli, Venice). In 1525 he signed a contract 
with a lady of the Malipero family to paint for her 
an altar-piece, representing the ' Adoration of the 
Magi,' which was to be put on the high altar of 
the church of S. Elena at Venice, and is now in 
the Brera at Milan. On July 28, 1528, he made his 
will, and died two days later. On August 8 an 
inventory of his goods was made which gives us 
the list of about forty-six pictures which remained 
in his studio in very different states of accomplish- 
ment, many of which, finished by his pupils, are 
still preserved in various collections. Palma was 
never married. The famous Violante, who is said 
to have been Raima's daughter and Titian's mis- 
tress, is a pure invention of a later time. He left 
his fortune to two nephews and a niece, children 
of his brother Bartolomeo. His nephew Antonio 
became too a painter ; a signed picture of his, re- 
presenting the 'Resurrection of Christ,' is in the 
Stuttgart Gallery. The son of this Antonio, Jacopo, 
was afterwards highly renowned as "Palma il 

Palma never signed or dated a picture. (Tlie 
much-discussed signature on the ' Holy Conversa- 
tion' in the Chantilly Collection is now generally 
accepted as a forgery.) This fact, together with 
the very few dates, and even these only of his 
later years, known from documents, makes the 
difficulty of tracing his artistic development easy 
to be understood, the more so as the character of 
his painting has undergone only slight variations 
during the various decades of his life. As it was 
with all painters born in the Bergamask province, 
his art preserved for ever a strong character of 
provincialism which distinguished him at once 
from the inborn Venetians. He must have had 
his first instruction with one of the Quattrocentist 
masters who did follow more the older traditions. 
One may guess it from the fact that he painted 
many pictures of the Virgin with Saints and 
Donors in half-figures, like one of the generation 
of later Quattrocento, Bissolo, Catena or Cima, and 
that some of his altar-pieces, among which his 
most famous, have the form of a polyptych, which 
occurs quite exceptionally in the 16th century. 
But this Quattrocentistic element is to be dis- 
covered only on the outside of his art ; his treat- 
ment of the form, his sense of colouring, his 
understanding of nature, give him his position 
with themasters of the Cinquecento, with Giorgione, 
Titian, and Sebastiano. So he has in Venice a 
position not unlike Fra Bartolommeo in Florence, 
as an artist who invested the composition of a pre- 
vious period with the form of the classic style in 
Italian art. But it is not only this to give him a 
quite distinct position in the history of Venetian 
art. He has perhaps not introduced, but surely 
developed more than any one of his contemporary 
artists, the theme generally characterized as' Holy 
Conversation ' ; this means the reunion of various 
Saints roimd the Holy Family sitting on the 
meadow, with the background of some dark trees 
and a large view of the landscape, up to the blue 
mountains. Again and again he repeated this 
theme, which became more popular afterwards 
through his pupil Bonifazio. Besides tliis, Venetian 
art is indebted to Palma for certain pictures of 
beautiful women in half-length figure, not por- 
traits, but figures of highly ideal forms, looking 
out to the spectator with a somewhat sensual 
expression. The Vienna Gallery is especially rich 
in that genre of paintings by Palma, but specimens 








° w 

"^ > 













of it are to be found in the more important art 
collections of Europe, some of them bearing still 
the names of more famous artists, e.g. tlie so-called 
' Sohiava di Tiziano ' in the Barbe'rini Palace, or 
the ' Bella,' also ascribed to Titian, when it be- 
longed to the Sciarra Collection. The finest 
picture of this group is the picture of tlie 'Three 
Sisters' (1525) in the house of Taddeo Contarini, 
and now preserved at Dresden. Like all artists of 
his generation, he painted mythological subjects, 
but the most of them are lost, and only two 
pictures of 'Venus,' i.e. of a nude recumbent 
figure, are preserved (Cambridge Gallery and 
Dresden). Almost in a mythological sense ho 
painted the very beautiful picture of ' Adam and 
Eve,' once in the house of Francesco Zio, now at 
Brunswick, and like a genre-scene the meeting of 
Jacob and Rachel, in the midst of a glorious land- 
scape scenery (Dresden). The number of his 
altar-pieces is not very large, but among thera is 
the polyptych with the St. Barbara in the centre, 
in Sta. Maria Formosa at Venice, painted for the 
Venetian Bombardier.^, by far the best and doubt- 
less Palma's masterpiece ; another very beautiful 
painting is the Virgin enthroned,with various Saints, 
and an Angel playing an instrument at her feet, in S. 
Stefano at Vicenza ; others are to be found in the 
Venetian Academy, at Zerman, at Serinalta (this 
is said to be of a hasty execution), in the Brera 
(by a pupil in part), and other places near Bergamo. 
As a portrait painter Palma did not excel, because 
he seems not to have been gifted with tlie sense 
for the individual. Fine portraits of his are a 
gentleman and a lady (unfinished) of the Querini 
family, still preserved in the family palace (now 
Querini-Stampalia Gallery), both described in the 
inventory of Palma's goods, but nevertheless given 
by modern critics to Giorgione. His finest por- 
trait, and almost to be called an ideal creation, is 
the once-called ' Ariosto ' in the National Gallery, 
erroneously ascribed sometimes to Giorgione. A 
word is to be said on a famous picture which 
Vasari was the first to give to Palma Vecchio, but 
after having ascribed the self-same picture in the 
first edition of his lives to Giorgione. This is tlie 
' Storm,' painted for the Scuola di San Marco (of 
which, by the way, Palma from 1513 on has been 
a member), and now in the Academy at Venice. 
This picture is by some modern writers still 
attributed to Pnhna, but it is impossible to believe 
that a painting full of movement ami poetical 
fancy like this should have had its offspring in 
such quiet temperament like Palma's, which re- 
mains unaltered through his wliole life. In all 
probability this much-ruined picture was begun 
by Giorgione, it is surely finished by Paris Bordone. 
As colourist Palma Vecchio holds his own position 
among the Venetian masters of his time. Even 
only from a general look it is easy to recognize 
his work. His colour scheme is very brilliant and 
always of a very fair, almost golden general tone ; 
the hair of his women very light and the flesh tone 
fair, and even the colouring of his male Saints is 
often rather pale, where Titian, for instance, puts 
his men in a brownish, dark contrast to his female 
Saints. His handling of the brush is very smooth, 
so that the general impression of his art often is 
somewhat effeminate. In his later j-ears his pic- 
tures are sometimes very pale in colouring ; a 
specimen of this kind is the Madonna in the 
Brignole-Sale Collection at Genoa. Not a few of 
his later pictures are finished by his pupils, 

Bonifazio and others, some of them for the large 
part, which his assistants took in finishing the 
pictures, up to the present time unrecognized 
as Palma's works, as the ' Holy Conversation ' in 
the Querini-Stampalia Gallery at Venice (finished 
by Bonifazio), or the large picture of the Virgin 
with two female Saints and two Donors, in the 
Borghese Gallery, ascribed to Lotto (finished by 
an unknown pupil). G. 0. 


Vienna. Gallery. 134,135,144. John the Baptist. 

,, „ SS. Roch and Sebastian. (For- 

merly a triptiich, in part a 
work by p uj > /7.v . ) 

,» ,, 139. Visitation. (Berenson: 

finUhed by Carmni.) 

,» ,, 140. Holy Conversation with 

four Saints. 

„ „ 133, 137, 138, 141, 142. 143. 

Half-lengtli figuresof women. 
■ among them the so-called 
' Violante.' 

., , 13t). Lucrctia. 

„ „ 329e. Portrait of OUl M.-m. 

{Crowe and Cavalca.-ielle ; 

'* r '. 1 1 t • e Holy Conversation. 

Liecnten^tem. y ■' 

,, „ Holy Family and two female 

Saints. (Bt rtnson ; Vroioe 
and CavaU-aselle : Copy.) 
„ Buda Pesth \ 82. Madonua,with St. Francis. 

Gallery.) {Berenson : Jlnished by Car t- 
British Isles — 
Alnwick. 7)«7i« of ^^ Lady with lute. (1525 in the 

Northumberland. ) hon^e of .Teronimo JMarcello 
at J'enice.) 
Blenheim (formerly). Madonna adored by a warrior 
and a female Saint. {Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle.) 
Cambridge. Fitzml- 1 »t 

Ham Museum. | ^ ™"^- 
Canford, j ,S 

Wimbome „r;^i,J^^; ^Bust of a La.Iy. {Berenson.) 
(Dor.set). J 

Glasgow. Corporation \ 336. Madonna, with SS. Cath- 
Galleries. jj erine, John and Peter. {Be- 
renson: finished by Cariani.) 
Hampton Court. 115. Holy Conversation. 

„ 140. Half-length figure of 

Horsmonden. 3Irs. ) Portrait of a Courtesan. {Be- 

Austen. ) renson.) 
London. National Gall. 636. Portrait of Man. {The 
so-calhd ' Ariosto '). 
„ Mr. Benson. Holy Conversation witli SS. 

Catherine, John and a 
Donor. {Berenson : Jiiiished 
by Cariani.) 
„ Mr. Wirlcham } Holy Conversation with SS. 

J/oM'er. j John, Elizabeth and Cath- 
erine. {Berenson: jinished 
by Cariani.) 
„ 3tr. Mond. Half-length figure of Woman. 

Frakce — 
Chantilly. Gallery. Madonna with two Saints and 

Donor. ( With, a forged, in- 
scription. Berenson : Rocco 
Marcon i. ) 
Paris. Louvre. 1399. Adoration of Shepherds 

with female Donor. 
„ 3Tr. Alphonse de \ Portrait of a Lady. {For- 
Rothscliild. j mer/y in the Sciarra Col- 
Berlin. Gallery. 174. Portrnit of Man. 

„ „ 197a, 197 11 Half-length figures 

of Women . 
Brunswick. Museum. Adam and Eve. (Formerly in 
the h/>use of Francesco Zio 
at J'enice.) 



Dresden. Gallery. 188. Madonna, with SS. Cath- 

erine and John. 
„ „ 189. 'The three Sisters.' 

(1525 in the house of Taddeo 
Contarini in Venice.) 
„ „ 190. Venus. 

„ „ 191. Holy Family, with the 

Infant John and St. Cath- 
192. Jacob and Rachel. 

1107. Portrait of Man (?). 
{Morelli andBerenson: Cart' 

1108. Madonna, with SS.Eoch 
and Mary Magdalen. 

Gallery. 271. Salvator mundi (?). 
Gallery. Archangel with Tobias (?). 

Lochis. 183. Madonna, with SS. John 
and Mary Magdalen. 

JAltarpiece. {Morelli.) 

619. Judith. 

623. Holy Family, with Mary 
Magdalen and the Infant 
Madonna, with SS. Magdalen 

and John. 
172. Adoration of Magi. 
{Formerly Church of ti't. 
Elena^ Venice; only in 
280. SS. Helen, Constantine, 

Eoch and Sebaitian. 
560. Half-length figure of 
) Madonna and Saints. {Be- 
i reason.) 

} 28. Holy Conversation with 
j three Saints and two Donors. 
) Polyptych. (Morelli and Be- 

106. Lucrece. 

157. Madonna, with SS. Bar- 
bara, Cristina and two 
Donors. (Finished by un- 
known hand.) 

163. Madonna, with SS. An- 
tony, Jerome and female 

203. Christ and Adulteress. 
(Formerly in the house of 
Francesco Zio at Venice.) 

'La Schiava di Tizianc' (Mo- 
relli: Copy.) 

22. Madonna, St. Peter and 
) ' La Bella di Tiziano.' (Now 
§ J/r. Alphonsc de Rothschild, 

Madonna, with SS. Helen and 
Jerome. (Crou-e and CavaU 
caselle, Morelli.) 
) Polyptych, with presentation 
j' of the Virgin in the central 
part. (Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
Morelli, Berenson.) 

302. St. Peter enthroned with 
six Saints. (From the Church 
of Fontanelle. ) 

310. Christ and the woman of 

315. Assumption. (Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle : perhaps by 

Madonna with SS. Catherine 
and John. 
) Portrait of Man. (Francesco 
j" Querini.) 

Portrait of a Lady (Paola 
Priuli, wife of Francesco 
Querini). (Unfinished.) 


M&mhurg. Consul Weber. 
Munich. Gallery, 



Dossena (near r<i . i 

T> \ Church. 

Florence. Uffd. 

Genoa. JBrignole Sale. 
Milan. Brera. 

„ Foldi Pezzoli. 

Modena. Marchese 

Lotario Hangoni. 

Naples. Gallery Sola 


Peghera(near ^^ ^ 

Rome. Boryhese. 




Sciarra Colonna 
(now dispersed). 


Serma (near /-,, » 
T, X Church. 


Venice. Academy. 

„ (Recently bought.) 

„ Gall. Querini- 


Venice. Gall. Querini- 

„ Santa Maria 


,, Prince Giovanelli. 

„ Lady Layard. 

Vicenza. S. Stefano. 

Zerman (near Gallery. 

RrssiA — ■ 
St. Peters- Leuchten- 
biu-g. burg Gallery. 

) Holy Conversation with four 
J Saints. (Finished by Boni- 


) Polyptych, with SS. Barbara, 

j Antony and Sebastian ; above 

Pieta, St. John and Dominic. 

Sposalizio. (Fragment of an 

Knight and Lady. (Berenson.) 
Madonna enthroned with SS. 

Lucy and George. 
Madonna enthroned with four 
Saints. (Crowe and Caval- 
ca.'ielle. ) 

\ Holy Conversation. (Formerly 

) in the hall of the Council of 

Six; Crowe and Cavalcaselle.) 

PALMA, Jacopo, called ' II Giovine,' was born 
at Venice in 1544. His father, Antonio, nephew 
of Palma Vecchio, wa.s also his instructor. At 
the age of fifteen he was taken by the Duke of 
Urbino to Rome, where he studied chiefly the 
works of Polydoro Caravaggio. His manner, though 
mechanical, shows much talent, especially in the 
treatment of heads. Some of his best pictures are 
in the palace of the Doge, and in the Academy. 
After the death of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese 
he seems to have displayed less care, as many of 
his later pictures are very inferior. He died in 
1628. A good ' Madonna, with Saints,' is in the 
church of S. Francesco della Vigna ; and a ' St. 
Catharine rescued from the Wheel ' at S. Frari in 
Venice. The following examples of his art may 
also be named : 









The Presentation of Mary. 
St. .Sebastian. 
Crucifi.xion of St. Andrew. 
St. Marg:iret with the palm of 

The Temptation of St.Benedict. 
The Deposition. (Sinned 
Jacobus Palma. F. 1600.) 
The Nativity. 
Ecce Homo. 
The Flagellation. 
Two sceues from the Apoca- 
St. Fr.ancis. 
The Murder of Abel. 
The Daughter of Herodias. 
„ „ Two pictures of the Deposition. 

„ ,, Christ supported on the edge 

of the Tomb by three Angels. 
„ „ Christ's Body watched by 

„ ,, Tile Immaculate Conception. 

,, ,, St. John and the Angel of the 


PAL;MAR0LI, Pietro, was an Italian painter 
and picture restorer, to whom the world is indebted 
for the preservation of the famous ' Descent from 
the Cross,' by Daniele da Volterra, which in 1809 
he transferred from the wall, on which it was 
painted in fresco, to canvas. Tliis was the first 
work of the kind, and he afterwards transferred 
and restored several other pictures in Rome, and, 
in 1826, in Dresden ; among the latter the cele- 
brated 'Madonna di San Sisto,' by Raphael. He 
also freed Raphael's ' Sibyls,' in the church of Santa 
Maria della Pace, from the destructive restorationa 
in oil made by order of Alexander VII. Palraaroli 
died at Rome in 1828. 

PALMAROLI, Vicente, Spanish painter ; bom 
in 1835 at Madrid ; was a pupil at the Academy 
there, and studied with Madrazo ; pursued hia 










art studies in Rome ; became Director of the 
Madrid Gallery in succeBsion to Madrazo ; resident 
for a long while in Paris ; at the Exhibition of 
1867 he obtained a second-class medal ; some of 
his works found appreciation in London ; tie painted 
portraits of various Spanish notabilities, including 
one of the young King Alfonso XII. He died in 
January 1896. 
PALMASANUS (or Palmeggiani). See Pal- 


PALMER, Sir James, was a member of the 
household of Charles I., and was employed by him 
in the purchase of pictures. He made copies of 
several works in the Royal Collection, among them 
Titian's 'Tarquin and Lucretia.' 

PALMER, Samhel, water-colour painter, was 
born in 1805. He early showed a taste for art, 
and at the age of fourteen he exhibited at the 
British Institution, 'Bridge Scene' and 'Land- 
scape,' and at the Royal Academy, ' Cottage Scene, 
Banks of the Thames, Battersea,' ' Landscape with 
Ruins,' and ' A Study.' By the advice of his 
father-in-hiw, John Lirmell, he under%vent a course 
of figure drawing at the British Museum, during 
which time he was introduced to W. Blake. He 
then went to live at Shoreham with his father, 
and we find him exhibiting at the Academy and 
British Institution. In 1839 he married, and for 
his wedding tour spent two years in Italy. He 
then returned to London, and lived in Kensington 
till 1851, when he removed to Furze Hill, near 
Reigate, where he spent the remainder of his life. 
His last appearance at the Academy was in 1842. 
He was elected an Associate Exhibitor of the 
Society of Painters in Water-Colours in 1843, and 
a full member in 1855. He was chosen a member 
of the Etching Club in 1853. A translation of 
Virgil's ' Eclogues' by him was published after his 
death, with plates designed and partly etched by 
himself. The subjects of his finest drawings were 
mostly from Milton. He died at Reigate in 1881. 
The following is a complete list of his etchings : 

The Willow. 1850. His first plate. 

Christmas ; or Foldiug the Last Sheep. 1850. (From 
Bampfiflde^s Sonnet.) 

The Herdsman':) Cottage. 1850. 

The Skylark. 1850. (Published hi the Etching Club.) 

The Vine ; two subjects on one plate. 1852. (Published 
in the ' Songs and Sonnets of Shakespeare.') 

The Sleeping Shepherd. 1857. (Published by the Etch- 
intf Club.) 

The Bisiug Moon. 1857. (Published by the Etching 

The Herdsman. 1867. (Published by the Etching Club.) 

The Early Ploughman. 1868. (Published in ' JEtching 
and Etchers.') 

The Morning ot Life. 1872. (Published by the Etching 

The Bellman ; from II Pensieroso. 1879. 

The Lonely Tower ; from II Pensieroso. 1880. (Pub- 
lished by the Etching Club.) 

Early Morning ; opening the Fold. 1880. 

PALMERUCCJ, GuiDO., was bom at Gubbio in 
1280, and is known to have executed frescoes in 
the church of Santa Maria de' Laici, Gubbio, pre- 
vious to 1337, and to have painted at the Town 
Hall in 1342. In the former of these buildings, on 
an exterior wall, are the remains of a figure of St, 
Anthony ; and in the latter is a colossal ' Enthroned 
Virgin and Child, with Saints and a kneeling 
Gonfaloniere.' His death occurred about 1345. 

PALMEZZANO, Marco (di Antonio), was born 
at Porli, probably about the year 1456, and lived 
up to 1537. He was a pupil of Melozzo da Forli, 

and was in the habit of signing his early produc- 
tions Marcus de Melotivs, a fact which has occa- 
sioned many of his best paintings to be attributed 
to his master. He closely followed Melozzo'a 
teachings, and his frescoes exhibit a sculpturesque 
hardness of style. In a chapel of San Biagio in 
San Girolamo, at Forli, are some frescoes repre- 
senting secular scenes which are signed, Marcus 
Palmezzanus Victor forolimends M. . . ., which, 
according to Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, closely 
resemble, both in style and colour, a fresco repre- 
senting eight of the prophets, painted on the dome 
of the Capella Tesoro in the church of Loretto. In 
1497 Palmezzano executed, by order of the Prior 
of the Company of San Michelino of Faenza, an 
altar-piece representing the Virgin and Child, 
enthroned between SS. Michael and James the 
Less. The church of the Zoccolanti, at Matelica 
near Fabriano, contains an altar-piece, 'An en- 
throned Virgin and Child, with a Pieta and Saints ' 
etc., signed Marcus de Melotins Foroliviensis 
fatiehat, al temj}. de /rate Zorzo Gnardiano del 
MoO.C.C-C.C.I-, with a curious monogram. The 
church of the Carmine at Forli possesses a ' Glory 
of St. Anthony, between SS. John the Baptist and 
Sebastian,' with a similar inscription. The exact 
date of Palmezzano's death is unknown. A por- 
trait of the artist, painted by himself in 1536, is 
now in the Pinacoteca of Forli. Examples of 
Palmezzano are also to be found as below : 

The Resurrection. 1515. 

Virgin and two Saints. 


Enthroned Virgin and Child, 

between SS. John Baptist 

and Lucy. 1508. 
The Crucifixion. 
Subjects from the Life of the 

Apostle James. 1485. 
Virgin surrounded by Saints. 
Communion of the Apostles. 

Christ on the way to Calvary. 
The Nativity. 1530. 
The Entombment. 
Virgin and four Saints. 1493. 
The Nativity. 1492. 
Coronation of the Virgin. 
The Dead Christ. 
Virgin and six Saints. 1537. 
Christ on the way to Calvary. 



Bordeaux. Jiluseum. 

Dublin. Nat. Gallery. 

Florence. I'ffi'i- 

Forli. S, Girolamo. 

Tinac. Comxin. 

Grenoble. Museum. 

London. Nat. Gallery. 
Milan. Brera. 

Paris. Louvre. 

Rome. Lateran. 

„ Spada Palace. 

PALMIERI, GiosEFFo, (or Giuseppe,) was born 
at Genoa in 1674. Although he acquired some 
reputation as a painter of history, he is chiefly cele- 
brated for his pictures of animals. One of the best 
of his historical works is his picture in the church 
of San Domenico, at Genoa, representing the 
' Resurrection.' He died in 1740. 

PALMIERI, PiETEO, painter and engraver, was 
born at Parma in 1740. He learnt the elements of 
art in his own city, and then went to Paris. He 
painted chiefly landscapes and genre subjects. 
After several years' residence in Paris, he was ap- 
pointed a Professor in the Academy at Parma. 
He died at Turin in 1804. 

PALMIERI, PiETRO Jacopo, engraver, was born 
at Bologna in 1720. He engraved landscapes and 
battle scenes, the latter chiefly after Simonetti 

PALMISANUS. See Palmezzano. 

PALOMARES. See Santiago Palomakes. 

PALOMBO, Baktolommeo, was born at Rome 
about the year 1612, and was a scholar of Pietro 
da Cortona. In the church of St. Joseph, at Rome, 
is an altar-piece by him, representing the death of 



painted for tlio brotherhood ' della Morte,' of 
Ferrara. His death occurred before 1513. Many 
of the private and public galleries of his native 
city contain pictures by Panetti ; the Costabili 
Collection alone possesses eiglit. The following 
may also be named : 
Ferrara. Pinacoieca, The Annunciation. 

„ „ The Visitation. 

„ „ St. Paul. {And others.) 

Paris. Louvre. The Nativity. 

PANFI, RoMOLO, was born at Carmignano, near 
Pistqja, in 1632. He was instructed in the art of 
painting by G. Vignali, and at first painted small 
portraits, but afterwards took to landscapes and 
battle-pieces. He died about 1700. 

I'ANFILO. See Novolone. 

PANHUIJS, LnisE Fbiedrike Auguste von, 
was born at Franlifort in 176.S. She was the 
daughter of the designer and painter Helene Elisa- 
beth von Barlthaus-Wiesenhiitten (who lived from 
1736 to 1804), and married van Panliuijs, the 
Dutcli governor-general of Surinam, and resided 
with him at Parainarilio during 1810-16. Sl]e 
visited that place a second time, and on both 
occasions painted landscapes, plants, and butter- 
flies from nature. She was a pupil of Gerard C. H. 
Schiitz;, and painted landscapes after Waterloo, 
Moucheron, and also after her own designs. She 
died at Frankfort in 1844. 


PANICO, Antonio Maria, was, according to 
Bellori, a native of Bologna, and a disciple of 
Annibale Carracci. Ho accompanied tliat master 
to Rome when he was very young, and was taken 
under the protection of Signer Mario Farnese, who 
employed liiin in ornamenting his country-seats of 
Castro and Latera. In the cathedral at Farnese 
he painted a picture of the Mass, in wliich he is 
supposed to have been assisted by Annibale 

PANICO, Ugo da. See Carpi. 

PANINI. See Pannini. 

PANNEELS, Herman, a Fleming, was^ the 
engraver of two plates for a book to vindicate 
Philip IV. 's claim to the title of ' the Great,' pub- 
lished by Don Juan Antonio Sapia y Roleles at 
Madrid in 1638. He also engraved a portrait of 
Pliilip IV. in armour wearing the order of the 
Golden Fleece, inscribed 'A Keligione Magnus,' 
and an excellent head of Olivarez, the minister, 
with the cross of Calatrava, both framed in tasteful 
borders, and taken from pictures by VelaB(|uez. 

PANNEELS, WiLLEM van, a Flemish painter 
and engraver, was born at Antwerp about the year 
16(X). He was a disciple of Rubens, as appears 
from the inscription on one of his prints. He 
worked at Cologne and Fraiikfort-on-the-Maine, 
and one of his plates is dated 1636. Tiie year of 
Iiis death is unknown. Of his work as a painter 
little is known, and from the number of his prints 
he appears to have been chiefly employed in 
etching after Rubens and from his own designs. 
The following are his principal plates : 

The Portrait of Rubens, in an octagon border. 

David cutting off the Head of Goliatli. 

Esther before Ahasuerus. 

The Adoration of tlie Magi. 

Mary washing the Feet of Christ. 

The Asisumption of tlie Virgin. 

The Holy Family, with the Infant Christ and St. Johi\ 

playing with a Lamb. 
St. John baptizing Christ. 


Samson killing the Lion, with a companion, David kill- 
ing the Lion and the Bear. 
St. ScbaKtian. 
Tlie Toilet of Venus. 
Jupiter and Antiope. 
Jupiter and Juno (all after Eubens). 
Holy Family. 
The Fato of Phaijton. 
The Nativity (these three after Annibale Carracci). 

PANNI, an obscure Italian decorative painter. 
He was a relative and pupil of Gio. Bat. Zaist. 

PANNICCIATI, JACoro, according to Baruff- 
aldi, was born at Ferrara about the year 1510. 
He was a disciple of Dosso Dossi, and painted 
history much in the style of that master. He died 
young, in 1.540. 

PANNIER, Jacques Etienne, French painter 
and engraver ; born in Paris in 1802, and became 
a pupil of Abel de Pujol. He mostly did portraits 
in pastel, his engravings being after works by 
Van der Meulen, Winterlialter, De Mirbel, Sandof, 
&c., for the Versailles Galleries ; he also engraved 
many portraits by well-known artists. In 1849 
lie obtained a third-class medal. He died November 
14, 1869. 

PANNINI, Cavaliere Giovanni Paolo, or Giam- 
POLO, (or Panini,) was born at Piacenza in 1691, 
or 1695. He went early to Rome, where he became 
a scliolar of Andrea Locatelli and Benedetto Luti. 
He also partly adopted the style of Salvator Rosa. 
He applied himself to designing the remaining 
monuments of ancient architecture in the Roman 
vicinity. His merit, however, is not confined to 
architecture ; he decorated his pictures with figures, 
gracefully designed, and grouped with taste. 
Although he usually confined himself to pictures 
of an easel size, he was not incapable of succeed- 
ing in works on a larger scale ; and Lanzi speaks 
in very favourable terms of a ' Christ clearing the 
Temple,' with life-size figures, in the church of the 
Signori della Missione, at Piacenza. Works of 
Pannini are to be found in most large collections 
in England, and several decorate the palaces of 
Rome. Two of the finest are in the gallery of 
the royal palace of Monte Cavallo. Pannini died 
in 1764. He was a member of the Academies of 
San Luca, at Rome, and of Paris. Many of his 
pictures have been engraved by Lempereur, Le 
Bas, J. S. Miiller, Vivares, Benazech, Bartolozzi, 
and other eminent engravers. The following are 
among those that remain : 

Florence. Uffizi. Ruins. (A similar subject at 

London. Nat. Gallcrj/. The Pyramid of Cestius. 
Madrid. Escorial. A Cardinal visiting a Picture 

„ „ Vestibule of St. Peter's at 

Montpellier. Museum. Monuments of Rome. 
Paris. Louvre. A Banquet (two copies). 

„ A Concert. 

„ „ Architectural Ruins (three sub- 

,, „ Interior of St. Peter's at Rome 

(■Signed 1. P. Panini. Rom.k. 


„ „ Concert given at Rome on the 

Birth of the Dauphiu in 1729. 
,, „ Preparations for the Fi^te on 

the same occasion. 
Rome. Corsini Palace. The Porch of Octavia. 
„ „ The Temple of Vesta. 

„ „ The Pantheon. 

Turin. Gallery. Three Views in Rome. 

PANNINI, Giuseppe, painter, was born at Rome 


aDout 1745. He was instructed by his father, 
Giovanni Paolo Pannini. He painted chiefly land- 
scape and marine pictures, and travelled in Italy, 
France, and England. He died about 1812. 

PANCENDS, a distinguished painter of ancient 
Greece, was the nephew of the great sculptor, 
Phidias, and probably some years younger than 
Polygnotus and Micon. He exercised his talents 
in conjunction with his uncle, in adorning the 
temple of the Olympian .Jupiter, where he painted 
'Atlas supporting the World,' and 'Hercules, ac- 
companied by Tlieseus and Peiritlioiis, preparing 
to relieve him of his burden.' He also painted 
' Hercules combating the Nemean Lion ; ' ' Hippo- 
damia, the daughter of .^Inomaiis, with her mother ;' 
' Prometheus chained to the Rock, whom Hercules 
is about to deliver ; ' and ' Penthesilea killed by 
Achilles.' But the work which most contributed 
to the establishment of his fame, was the ' Battle 
of Marathon,' with which, assisted by Micon, he 
decorated the Poecile at Athens. 

PANTALEO, a Byzantine miniaturist of the 
10th century, by whom several of the miniatures 
in a missal sent to Luigi Sforza, Duke of Milan, 
by the Emperor Basilius Porphyrogenitus, were 

PANTOJA DE LA CRUZ, Juan, was bom at 
Madrid in 1551, and was a scholar of Alfonso 
Sanchez Coello, in whose school he so greatly dis- 
tinguished himself that Philip II. named him one 
of his painters and valets-de-chambre. He became 
very eminent both as an historical and portrait 
painter. Palomino possessed the original designs 
by him for the beautiful tombs of Cliarles V. 
and Philip II. in the Escorial, which he painted in 
oil, together with two escutcheons of the Arms of 
Austria, en grisaille, which were used at the 
funeral ceremony of the great Emperor. He painte/1 
a great number of portraits of the family of Philip 
II., of which many exist at the Escorial, the Retiro, 
and in the tower of the Paradas. Several were 
destroyed at the burning of the Prado. At the 
death of Philip, he continued in favour with his 
successor, Philip III., who commanded him to 
paint his portrait on horseback, as a model for the 
famous sculptor, Giovanni de Bologna, then at 
Florence, to fonn the equestrian group in bronze 
placed in the garden of La Casa del Campo ; Tacca 
also executed a statue from it. He painted also 
two magnificent portraits of Philip III. and his 
Queen, which are dated 1606, and are still pre- 
served in the palace of the Dukes d'Uceda at 
Montalvan. Bermudez lays particular stress upon 
the portrait of the councillor Ruiz Perez de Ribera, 
which is in the monastery of Santa Maria de Naxera. 
It is dated in 1596. Mention is further made of 
a picture of the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' 
in which the portraits of Philip II. and his 
family are introduced. Among the other notable 
persons whom he portrayed, we find the Empress 
Maria and the Princess Juana in the Descalzas 
Realee, and the same Empress with the Princess 
Margarita of Austria and Isabel de Valois in the 
Madrid Gallery. He was also a successful painter 
of animals. After a laborious life he died at 
Madrid in 1609. The Spanish parallel to the story 
of Zeuxis is attached to a work by this master. 
It is related that a superb eagle having been cap- 
tured near the Prado, the king gave orders to Pan- 
toja to paint its likeness ; which he did with so 
much truth, that the royal bird on seeing it mistook 
it for a real eagle, and notwithstanding all their 

efforts to control it, attacked the picture with 
impetuosity and tore it to pieces. The Madrid 
Museo possesses the following examples of his work : 

Portrait of Donna Maria, daughter of Philip II., and 
wife of the Emperor Maximilian II. 

Portrait of Isabel of Valois, third wife of PliLlip II. 
iJitto. ditto. 

Portrait of Margaret of Austria, wife of Philip III. 

Portrait of the Emperor Charles V. 

Portrait of the Infanta Juana, daughter of Philip II. 

Portrait of Philip II. 

The Birth of the Virgin. 

The Birth of Jesus Christ. 

Two female portraits. 

One male portrait. 

PANTOT. A French painter of this name, 
a native of Lyons, was the intimate friend of 
Thomas Blanchet during the latter's stay in Rome, 
about the middle of the 17th century. 

PANVINUS, Onulph, is stated to have been 
a native of Antwerp. He flourished in the latter 
part of the 16th century. He engraved and pub- 
lished a set of twenty-seven portraits from his own 
designs, entitled ' Elogiae et Imagines Pont. Max. 
ad. viv. delin.' 1568. Zarii mentions an Onofbio 
Panvinus, a designer and engraver of Verona, 
who was at work about the same period. 

PANZA, Fbederigo, was bom at Milan between 
1633 and 1643. He was a pupil of Nuvolone, and 
went to Venice to coj y the works of Titian and 
Paolo Veronese. On his return he settled at Milan, 
where he executed several pictures, and was 
knighted by the Duke of Savoy. He died in 1703. 

PANZACCHI, Maria Helena, (Panzachia, Pan- 
ZDCCHi,) was born, according to Orlandi, at Bologna 
in 1688. She was instructed in design by Emilio 
Tarufii, and became a reputable painter of land- 
scapes, embellished with figures. Some of her 
works are to be found in the private collections at 
Bologna. Zani says she died in 1737. 

PAOLETTI,ANTONlOD'EEJiOLAS,paint''r, worked 
at Venice, decorating the court of the Casa Luna 
with frescoes and oil pictures in the style of Louis 
XVI., and producing scenes from the fashionable 
life of Venice in the 18th century. 

PAOLEITI, Paolo, was a native of Padua, and 
flour shed in the first half of the 18th century. He 
exc-lled in painting fruit, fisli, and dead game. 
His pictures are held in considerable estimation 
throughout Friuli. He died at Udine in 17.35. 

PAOLI, Francesco da. Florent le Comte men- 
tions this artist as the engraver of a View of the 
City of Rome. He lived about 1640. 

PAOLI, Jacobus, was an inferior artist, living 
at the beginning of the 15th century, who was the 
painter of an 'Annunciation' with a kneeling 
patron, in the Archivio of the Podesta's Palace at 
Bologna, and also part author of an altar-piece in 
the chapel of San Croce, in San Giacomo Maggiore. 

PAOLI, MicHELE, a pupil of Crespi, who practised 
at Pistoja as a historical painter at the beginning 
of the 18th century. 

PAOLILLO, a Neapolitan, and the best pupil 
of Sabbatini, to whom his works used invariably 
to be ascribed. Paolillo died young. 

PAOLINI, Giacomo. See Paulini. 

PAOLINI, PiETRO, or LncA Pieteo, (or Paulini,) 
was born at Lucca in 1603, and was sent early in 
his life to Rome, where he entered the school of 
Angelo Caroselli, and where he remained thirty 
years. After returning to Lucca he established an 
academy there. His death occurred in 1681 or 
1682. He painted a fine picture of the Martyrdom 



of St. Andrew, for the church of San Miohele at 
Lucca ; and his large work in the library of San 
Frediano, representing Pope Gregory entertaining 
the Pilgrims, is in the style of Paolo Veronese. 
He invented an instrument for taking perspective 
views, and designing them in their due proportions : 
perhaps the Camera Itidda. 

PAOLINI, Pio (or Fabio), was a native of 
Udine, but studied at Rome under Pietro da Cor- 
tona. He painted historical subjects, and was re- 
ceived into the Academy at Rome in 1678. There 
are several of his frescoes in the Roman churches ; 
a ceiling of one of the chapels in San Carlo al 
Corso is particularly good. 

PAOLINO, Fra. See Del Signoraccio. 

living in the middle of the 14th century, and a 
pupil and follower of the Lorenzetti. His name 
first appears on the roll of the Sienese Guild of 
Painters in 1355. He is the author of a series of 
chiaroscuro frescoes in the cloisters of the convent 
of Lecceto, representing Heaven and Hell, the 
Works of Mercy, incidents from the lives of certain 
Augustine Hermits, and other subjects both sacred 
and profane, which were finished in 1343. 



PAOLO VENEZIANO, (or Maestro Paolo,) a 
north Italian painter, who was at work at Vicenza 
in 1340. His two sons, Giovanni and Jacopo, 
helped him in his work. In the Hopenzollern 
collection, at Sigmaringen, there is a 'Coronation 
of the Virgin ' with the following inscription : 
begina celi letarb aleluia quen meruisti 
CHRISTAM portare aleluia ; and under the throne 
the signature: MCCCLVIII johaninus eiv(s) 


PAOLOTTO.Il Frate. See Ghislandi, Vittore. 

PAON. See Le Paon. 

PAOUL, Jean. An artist of this name was 
painter-in-ordinary to the court of Lorraine in 
1575. Portraits by him are still extant in Nancy 
and the neighbourhood. 

PAF'A, SiMONE, "il Giovine," born at Naples in 
1506, was the son of a goldsmith. He was placed 
under the instruction of Giovan' Antonio d'Amato, 
the elder, and becinie a painter of history. In the 
church of Santa Maria la Nuova, at Naples, are 
two frescoes by this master, in one of which he 
has represented the Assumption of the Virgin, and 
in the other the Annunciation. Another of his 
frescoes is in the choir of Monte Oliveto, in the 
same city. He died at Naples in 1567. 

PAPA, SiMONE, " il Vecchio," was born at Naples 
about the year 1430 ; his death occurred in 1488. 
He was the scholar of Antonio Solario, surnamed 
" lo Zingaro." In the church of San Niccol6 alia 
Dogana, Naples, there is a picture of the Annun- 
ciation by Papa ; and the church of San Lorenzo 
in the same city possesses his altar-piece of the 
Virgin and Child, with Saints. 

PAPARELLO, ToMMASO, (or Papacello,) painter, 
■n-as a native of Cortona. In 1651 he was employed 
as assistant by Giulio Romano. He was still alive 
in 1653. 

PAPE, A. DE. See De Pape. 

PAPE, JiksiDiDS Simon (de), a native of Oude- 
narde, who flourished from 1685 to 1636. He 
epent his life in his native town, where he enjoyed 
a considerable reputation as painter, goldsmith, and 
architect. His son JossE was also a painter, and 
en the death of his father, migrated to Rome. 


Another son, Simon, lived and worked at Oudenarde, 
where, and at Ghent, some of his works are to be 
found. This Simon died in 1677. His son Gillis 
practised as an historical painter in Oudenarde, 
where he died in 17051 

PAPE, F. de, a Flemish miniaturist and painter 
in water-colours. He was born in 1814, and died 
at Bruges in 1863. 

PAPE, Martin Didier, was an enamel painter, 
who lived at Limoges from 1574 to 1609, and was 
about the former date superintendent of the enamel 
factory there. 

PAPELEU, Victor de, French painter ; born 
February 10, 1810, at Ghent ; he became a pupil 
of A. Benouville and Jules Dupre ; afterwards 
travelled in Europe and the East. Painted French, 
Italian, and Dutch landscapes, as, for instance, 
' Fenne dans les Landes,' ' lie de Capri, prfes de 
Naples,' and ' Abecoude ; environs d' Amsterdam.' 
He died at Ghent in 1885. 

PAPERMANN, Ernst Moritz, German painter ; 
born October 28, 1830, at Fischergasse, near 
Meissen ; became a pupil of Bendemann and of 
the Dresden Academy. Painted on porcelain; 
also portraits and genre pictures, such as his 
' Sandalenkinder.' He died at his birthplace, 
April 2, 1893. 

PAPETY, Dominique Louis Fer^ol, a French 
painter, born at Marseilles in 1815. He was a. 
pupil of L. Cogniet, and carried off the Grand Prix 
in 1836. In Rome he painted 'Moses in the 
bulrushes ; ' a copy of the ' Council of the Gods,' 
after a fresco of Raphael's ; and ' Dream of Hap- 
piness.' He travelled in Greece and the East, and 
made many drawings ; on his last voyage he laid 
the seeds of a fever wliich carried him off in 1849. 
PAPI, Cristofano di, called Dell' Altissimo, 
was a Florentine painter of the middle or latter 
half of the 16th century. He was a pupil of Bron- 
zino and Pontormo, and in his youth produced 
several important pictures, chiefly portraits, for 
Cosmo I. Duke of Tuscany ; also a large number 
of those portraits of distinguished persons which 
hang in the corridor of the Uffizi at Florence. 
Neither the year of his birth nor that of his death 
has been ascertained, but he was still living in 

PAPILLON, Jean, ' the elder,' a French engraver 
on wood, was born at Rouen in 1639. He was 
instructed by Du Bellay, but his design was not 
equal to his engraving. He died in Paris in 1710. 
PAPILLON, Jean Baptists, ' the younger,' the 
son of Jean Papillon, was bom at St. Quentin in 
1661. After receiving some instruction in drawing 
from his father, he was sent to Paris, where he was 
placed under the tuition of Noel Cochin. His first 
pursuit was drawing with a pen. He afterwards 
turned his attention to engraving on wood, and his 
cuts possess considerable merit. He executed a 
great variety of vignettes and book ornaments, 
and is said to have been the inventor, about the 
year 1688, of'paper-hangings for rooms. He died 
in Paris in 1723. Among his cuts were the por- 
traits of Popes Paul III., Julius III., and Pius IV., 
also of King James II. of England. His most 
famous work was a ' Mass-book ' in chiaroscuro 
after Leclerc. 

PAPILLON, Jean Baptiste Michel, the son of 
Jean Baptiste Papillon, was bom in Paris in 1698, 
and was instructed by his father in the art of 
engraving on wood, which he practised with great 
success. Among his best performances are the 


cuts he executed in conjunction with N. le Sueur, 
from the designs of J. J. Bachelier, for the fine 
edition of 'Les Fables de la Fontaine,' in four 
volumes ffilio. He also furnished 217 plates to 
the Amsterdam Historical Bible. He published a 
history of the art of engraving on wood, in two 
volumes, entitled, ' Traite Historique et Pratique 
de la Gravure en Bois,' in which, however, he was 
guilty of many mistakes, while the appearance of 
more recent works on the subject has destroyed 
its value. He died in Paris in 1776. 

PAPILLON, Jean Nicolas, wood engraver, was 
bom at St. Quentin in 1663. He was the son of 
Jean Papillon ' the elder.' He executed several 
unimportant works. He died in 1714. 

PAPIN, J. A., a French painter, and native of 
Bordeaux, was bom in 1800. He never rose above 
mediocrity, and died in 1880. His best work is a 
' Dream of St. Joseph.' 

PAPINI, GiDSEPPE, (or Giuseppe Benedetti de 
Papini,) an Italian engraver, who, according to 
Zani, was born in 1707, and died in 1782. He 
executed several plates of ceilings, and other 
decorations for the ' Museo Etrusco,' by Gori ; the 
' Museum Capitolinum ;' and other works published 
between 17.87 and 1750. 

PAPPANELLI, Niccol6, a native of Faenza, 
was born in 1537. He was a knight, and an 
amateur in art, which, however, he studied with 
enthusiasm under the influence, at least, of Baroccio. 
His best work is a ' St. Martin' in Faenza cathe- 
dral. Pappanelli died in 1620, aged 83. 

PAPPERITZ, Gdstav Friedrich, landscape and 
genre painter and etcher, was born at Dresden in 
1813. He studied at the Academy there under 
Clausen-Dahl, and, after 1836, at Munich. He 
travelled in Italy and Spain. His death occurred 
at Dresden in 1861. In 1836 he brought out twelve 
etchings of Italian views. Among his paintings 
there are : 

The Valley of Elche, in Spain. (Dresden Museum.) 

Ruins of Petersberg, near Halle. 

Sicilian Pilgrim scene. 

PAPPINO della PIEVE, an Italian painter of 
the 16th century. He was a pupil of Niccol6 Soggi, 
but died in liis first youth. 

PAPWORTH, Edgar George. For his clever 
drawings, and especially for his sketches for a 
panoramic view of Rome, this talented sculptor 
finds mention in this volume. He was born in 
1809, resided at Rome in the time of his youth, 
having won a travelling scholarship at the Royal 
Academy, and died at Highgate in 1866. 

PAPWORTH, George, an architect, the uncle 
of E. G. Papworth, and a man of unusual skill as 
a draughtsman and colourist. He was responsible 
for many important buildings in Ireland, but especi- 
ally deserves notice on account of the intrinsic 
beauty of his architectural designs, the originality 
of his drawing, and the refinement of his schemes 
of colour. He was born in 1781 and died in 

PAPWORTH, John Buonarotti, another mem- 
ber of this talented family, son of John Papworth, 
born 1775, and died in Huntingdonshire in 1847. 
He was not only an architect, but also " a designer 
of decorations, furniture, and accessories," and 
remarkable as an artist in water-colour. He was 
an honorary member of the Old Water-Colour 
Society, and a frequent exhibitor in its Galleries. 
He was appointed Director of the Government 
School of Design in 1836, and was the author of 

F 2 

many important works on decoration, architecture, 
and ornamental gardening. 

PAPWORTH, John Woody, born 1820, died 
unmarried in 1870, the elder son of J. B. Pap- 
worth, and the brother of W. A. V. S. Papworth. 
He was, like other members of his family, an 
architect, but he was also a very clever heraldic 
painter, and an admirable designer for "glass, 
pottery, terra cotta, paperhangings, and carpets." 
He was the author of numerous works on art and 
arch itecture 

PAPWORTH, W. A. V. S., the younger son of 
J. B. Papworth, and the editor of the ' Dictionary 
of Architecture.' He was born in 1822, became 
curator in 1893 of the Soane Museum, and died 
therein 1894. He was a most skilful draughtsman 
and desigTier, intimately connected with many 
architectural and artistic societies, the author of 
many treatises and books on art, and a very 
diligent student of archaeology. His designs were 
of great merit and beauty, and all students of 
architecture are indebted to him for the results of 
his diligent and persevering study. 

PAQUEST, AiMABLE Louis Claude, a pupU of 
David, born in 1790, and died in 1819. Though 
well endowed by nature, his early death and his 
laborious finish curtailed his productiveness ; a 
portrait of M. de Nanteuil-Lanorville, exhibited in 
1817, with three or four other portraits and a few 
studies, complete the list of his pictures. 

PARADISI, NiccoLO, a Venetian painter of the 
15th century, whose name is preserved by the 
signature on a ' Crucifixion,' which runs thus : 
Nicholaus Paradixi Miles de Venetiis pinxit, 
1404. The picture belongs to the Agostiniani 
family at Verucchio. 

PARANT, — , a painter referred to in the will of 
Pierre Mignard. Probably a journeyman who 
'forwarded ' that master's pictures and completed 
the accessories. 

PARANT, Louis Bertin, a famous painter on 
ivory and porcelain, was born in 1767. He was 
distinguished by Napoleon when First Consul ; for 
him he executed several works. Parant died in 

PARASACCHI, DoMENico, an Italian designer 
and engraver, resided at Rome about the year 1630. 
In conjunction with Giovanni Maggi, he engraved 
a set of plates of the Fountains at Rome, published 
in 1618, and again, with additions, in 1636. 

PARASOLE, Bernardino, was the son of Leo- 
nardo Parasole, and studied painting in the school 
of Giuseppe Cesari. He was a native of Norcia. 
He had begun to distinguish himself as an his- 
torical painter, when lie died, in the bloom of life. 
He executed a few engravings on wood, from his 
own designs. 

PARASOLE, Geronima, was a sister of Isabella 
Parasole. We have by her some engravings on 
wood ; and, among others, the ' Battle of the Cen- 
taurs,' after Terapesta ; and a series of scenes from 
the Life of St. Anthony. 

PARASOLE, Isabella, was the wife of Leonardo 
Parasole, who assumed her family name. She 
executed several cuts of plants for an herbal, pub- 
lished under the direction of Prince Cesi, of Aqua- 
sparta. She published a book on the methods of 
working lace and embroidery, with ornamental 
cuts, which she engraved from her own designs. 
She was working at Rome about 1600, and died 
there in her 50th year. 

PARASOLE, Leonardo, born Noesini (or Ncr- 



CINO), an Italian eugraver on wood, was born at 
Rome about the year 1570. He chiefly distinguislied 
himself by his cuts in the Herbal of Castor Durante, 
physician to Pope Sixtus V., which were engraved 
by order of that pontiff. He also engraved the 
wood-cuts to a 'Testamentum novum, arabice et 
latine,' and several prints from the designs of 
Antonio Tempesta, including an ' Annunciation.' 
He married Isabella Parasole, and thenceforth 
went by her name. 

PARCELLES, Jan, (Parcellis, Percelles, Por- 
CELLIS, &c.,) painter and etcher, was born at 
Ghent about the year 1597, and was a scholar of 
Hendrik Cornells de Vroom. He lived at Haarlem 
from 1622 to 1680, and died there in or subsequent 
to the latter year. He excelled in painting marines, 
particularly tempests, thunderstorms, and shij)- 
wrecks. His pictures of calms have also con.siderable 
merit ; tliey usually represent views of the 
coast of Holland, with fishing-boats, and groups 
of figures on the strand. Among his etchings are 
the following : 

A set of twelve large and eight small Sea-pieces. 
A set of twelve plates of the differeut Shipping used iu 
Holland, with a Latin inscription. 1627. 

PARCELLES, Julius, the son and scholar of 
Jan Parcelles, was born at Leyerdorp in 1628. 
He painted similar subjects to those of his father, 
whose style he imitated with some success. His 
productions cannot always be distinguished from 
those of the elder Parcelles, as they both marked 
their pictures with the initials J. P. Good ex- 
amples of their work are to be seen in the galleries 
of Berlin, Frankfort, and Vienna. 

PAKEDES, Juan de, was a Spanish painter, 
who studied under Miguel Menendez at Madrid, 
and afterwards with Evaristo Munoz at Valencia. 
According to Cean Bermudez his drawing and 
colouring excelled many of his contemporaries. 
His best works are in the convent of the Shod 
Trinitarians and in the College of Augustines, at 

PAREJA, Juan de, known as the Slave of 
Velasquez, was born at Seville in 1606. He 
accompanied Velasquez to Madrid in 1623, and re- 
mained in his service till he died. Being employed 
in the menial work of the studio he took every 
opportunity to perfect himself as an artist, but 
kept his ambition studiously concealed from his 
master. At length he painted a picture which he 
placed in his master's studio in such a position as 
to attract the attention of Philip IV. The king 
was so pleased with the work that he asked for 
^he author, whereupon Pareja owned that it was 
himself, and in return received his liberty. Velas- 
quez promoted him to the rank of a pupil, but he 
remained in his master's service till the latter died, 
aud afterwards served his daughter till his own 
death in 1670. The Madrid Gallery possesses a 
single work of Pareja, ' The Calling of St. Matthew,' 
and tlie Gallery of St. Petersburg the portrait of a 
Provincial of some religious order. He excelled 
in portraiture. 

PARENTANI, Antonio, an obscure Italian 
painter, who was at work in Turin in 1550. He 
painted a ' Paradise,' with many angels, in the 
Chapter House of the Consolata. 

PARENTING, Bernardino, who lived iu the 
15th and 16tli centuries, is thought to have belonged 
to the Benedictine Order, to liave taken the name 
of Lorenzo, and to have died at Vicenza in 1531. 
He was an imitator of Squarcione, and his earliest 


production is a Religious Allegory in the Gallery 
of Modena, representing the Saviour carrying His 
Cross, St. Jerome penitent before a crucifix, and 
a kneeling bishop in a landscape. The Doria 
Gallery, in Rome, possesses three panels by him, 
with scenes from the life of St. Anthony, which 
show a Mantegnesque feeling. His latest work 
consists of some unfinished frescoes of scenes from 
the life of St- Benedict, in the cloisters of San 
Giustina, Padua. 

PARET T ALCAZAR, Luls, painter, designer, 
and etcher, was born at Madrid in 1747. He 
received a liberal education, and becoming a scholar 
of Antonio Gonzalez Velasquez, he obtained in 
1760-6 prizes at the Academy of St. Ferdinand. 
Having finished his artistic education, he applied 
himself to studying oriental and other languages 
and history. Returning to Madrid he became a 
member of the Academy, and was employed by 
Charles III. to paint views of the various harbours 
of Spain on the Atlantic coast. He held the post 
of vice-secretary to the Academy, and secretary 
to a board of architecture for the purpose of exam- 
ining works to be constructed at the state expense. 
He died at Madrid in 1799. He painted a large 
picture representing the ' Estates of the kingdom 
taking the oath of allegiance to the Prince of 
Asturias, afterwards Charles IV.' According to 
Cean Bermudez, his best work was a series of 
drawings made by request of Don Gabriel Sancha, 
to illustrate ' Don Quixote : ' unfortunately they were 
never engraved. He left several etchings and a 
few frontispieces for books. 

PARIA. See Pereier, FRANgois. 

PARIGI, GiULlo, a Florentine architect, en- 
gineer, and designer, was the son of the architect 
Alfonso Parigi. There are three etchings ascribed 
to Giulio by Bartsch and Nagler: 'The Garden of 
Calypso,' ' The Temple of Peace,' and a Landscape 
after R. Canta-Gallina, who was his scholar. Giulio 
died in 1635. His son, Aleokso Paeigi, ' the 
younger,' etched some plates of opera scenes in the 
manner of Canta-Gallina ; also some other theatrical 
decorations, one of which represents a ' Dance of 
Cavaliers and Ladies.' He was at one time military 
engineer, and afterwards architect to the Duke of 
Tuscany. He died at Florence in 1656. 

PAKILLA, Miguel, a painter, was born at 
Malaga about 1620. He was at first only a village 
painter, but he afterwards rose to considerable 
distinction. He died about 1683. 

PARIS, Camille, French painter ; born in Paris, 
March 22, 1834 ; was a pupil of Ary Scheffer and 
of Picot ; devoted himself to landscape art. His work exhibited at the Salon in 1864 was 
' Roche dflla Fata' ; this was followed by various 
Italian Ian scapes; his 'Taureau,' shown at the 
Uuiversal Exh bi ion of 1878, is now in the Luxem- 
bourg. He o'ltained a third-class medal in 1874, 
a second-class medal in 1889, and also a bronze 
medal, receivint;- the Legion of Honour in 1895, 
and a medal at the Universal Exhibition in 1900. 
He died suddenly at Barbizon, August 19, 1901. 

PARIS, Di. See Alfani. 

PARIS, Jkan de. See Perreal. 

PARIS, Jerome, engraver, was born at Versailles 
in 1744. He was instructed by Longueil, and 
engraved several landscapes and views, among 
which were : 

Views of Provence ; after Hackert, 
Views of Besan^on ; after Zingy, 
Views of Dresden ; after the same. 


Views of Blois, Nantes, Noyon, etc. ; aftir Desfriehts. 
Landscape ; after Van dcr Meet. 
Landscapes ; after Ter Heinpel. 

He died about 1810. 

PARIS, Pierre Adrien, an architect and archi- 
tectural designer, was born at Besanqon, in 1747, 
and died in 1819. His architectural designs appear 
in ' Le Voyage e Naples,' by Saint Non ; in ' Les 
Tableaux de la Suisse,' by Delaborde ; and in workB 
published by himself: such as ' Recueil de desseins 
et etudes d'Architecture,' nine vols, in folio ; ' Exa- 
men des Ediiices de Rome,' in folio ; ' Restoration 
du Colysse,' forty-five plates ; and other pub- 

PARISE, Francesco, a painter of Calabria, was 
called Cabresello. He studied at Naples under 
P. de Matteis, and afterwards went to Rome to 
study under Maratti. He painted pictures for 
churches, landscapes, and sea-pieces. He died 
about 1743. 

PARISET, D. P., a French engraver, was born 
at Lyons in 1740. He is supposed to have been a 
pupil of Deinarteau, under whom he learned the 
art of engraving in the chalk style. In 1769 he 
came to England, where he was for some time 
employed by Ryland, and engraved some plates 
for the collection of prints from the drawings of the 
great masters, published by Rogers. He also 
worked for Bartolozzi. The date of his death is 
unknown. We have also by him several portraits 
after Falconet and others, among them the follow- 

Sir Joshua Reynolds ; P. Falconet del. 1 768. 

Benjamin We-st, with his family ; after West. 

Francis Cotes. 

"William Kyland. 

Paul Sandby. 

Ozias Humphrey. 

J. Meyer. 

Oliver Cromwell ; after Cooper. 

The Death of Admiral de Coligny. 

The Death of the Dulie of Guise. 

PARISINUS, AuGUSTisus, is supposed to have 
been a native of France, and to have flourished 
about the year 1640. He engraved several plates 
of book ornaments, which are executed with the 
graver ; also, in conjunction with J. B. Coriolano 
and Olivier Gatti, a book of emblems by Paul 
Macchi, publi,shed at Bologna in 1628. There are 
also a few landscapes with his mark, a large A. 
with a P. beneath it. 

PARIZEAU, Philip Lodis, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1740 or 1748, and died in 
1801. We have by him several etchings after 
Salvator Rosa and other masters, among them 
the following : 

An Assembly of Eomau Soldiers ; after Salv. Rosa. 

Marius seated on the Ruins of Carthage ; after the same. 

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after Deshayes. 

The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew ; after the same. 

Psyche refusing the Honours of Divinity ; after Boucher. 

PARK, Thomas, an English engraver, horn in 
1760. His works are in mezzotint, and were pro- 
duced in the early part of his career. After 1797 
he devoted himself to literature and to antiquarian 
pursuits. Amongst his plates are : 

Hon. Lincoln Stanhope ; after jSir J. Reynolds. 1788. 

Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Rochester ; after the same. 1788. 

Miss Penelope Boothby ; after the same. 1789. 

Holman and Miss Brunton as Romeo and Juliet ; after 

Mrs. Jordan as the Comic Muse ; after Hoppner. 1786. 

Lord Henry Fitzgerald ; after the same. 

PARKER, Frederick, an English wood en- 
graver of much promise, who died young in 

PARKER, Henry Perlee, a portrait painter 
from the west of England, son of the teacher of 
marine drawing at Plymouth. He was born in 
1795, and resided in his native town till 1816, 
when he moved to the north and settled at New- 
castle, and was there ultimately associated with 
the foundation of the Northumberland Institution 
of Fine Arts. During his residence on the Tyneside 
he became very popular by reason of his selection 
of local incidents as the subjects for his pictures. 
He was a Wesleyan, and was appointed in about 
1840 to the position of drawing-master at Wesley's 
College in Sheffield. In that town he resided for 
some four years, and then moved to London, where 
he died in 1873. He exhibited very constantly at 
the Royal Academy. 

PARKER, James, an engraver, was born in 
1750, and was a pupil of Basire. He was one of 
the engravers employed by Boydell in his ' Shake- 
speare : ' eleven of the plates are by him. He also 
engraved ' The Revolution of 1688 ; ' ' The Novel ; ' 
and ' Yorick feeling the Lady's Pulse,' after North- 
cote ; ' The Commemorations of the 14th of Feb- 
ruary and the 11th of October, 1797,' afterSrairke : 
several of the plates for Flaxman's illustrations of 
Homer's Iliad ; for the ' Vicar of Wakefield ' (1792), 
after Stothard ; and for Falconer's ' Shipwreck ' 
(1795). He was one of the founders, and a 
governor, of the Society of Engravers. He died 
in 1805. 

PARKER, John, was an historical and portrait 
painter, and was born in England about 1730. He 
resided several years in Rome, where he displayed 
sufficient ability to be employed to paint an altar- 
piece for the church of San Gregorio, on Monte 
Celio, representing St. Silvia. He returned to 
England about the year 1762, and was an exhibitor 
at the Society's Rooms, in the Strand, in 1763, 
where he had two pictures. The subject of one 
was ' The Assassination of David Rizzio ; ' the 
other, his own portrait. He did not long survive 
his return to England, but died at Paddington 
about the year 1765. 

PARKER, John, landscape painter, was for 
Borne time a student in the Duke of Richmond's 
Gallery, and received some instruction from the 
Smiths of Chichester. He was at Rome about 
1768, but had returned to England by 1770. He 
exhibited at the Academy in 1771, and again and 
for the last time in 1776. 

PARKES, David, an English draughtsman, born 
at Hales Owen in 1763. He was a schoohnaster, 
and made sketches of antiquarian interest, some 
of which appeared in the 'Gentleman's Magazine.' 
He died at Shrewsbury in 1833. 

PARKES, English draughtsman, the son 
of D. Parkes, was born in 1794. He taught draw- 
ing at Shrewsbury. Twelve etchings of antiquities 
in Shrewsbury by him were published in the year 
after his death, which took place in 1828. 

PARKINSON, Thomas, an English portrait and 
subject painter, in the second half of the 18th 
century. He had considerable practice in theatrical 
subjects, and exhibited at the Academy from 1775 
to 1789. Amongst his works are: 

Scene from ' She Stoops to Conquer.' 1775. 
Scene from • Cymon.' 1775. 
Scane from ' The Duenna.' 1776. 
Garrick as Macbeth. 




Mrs. Bradshaw as Dorcas. Garrick dub, London. 
Palmer and Keddish in ' Cymbcline.' 

Some of his pictures have been engraved. 

PARMA, Battista Pensieri da. See Pab- 


PARMA, Cbistoiiofo da. See Caselli. 

PARMA, Daniele da. See Poem. 

PARMA, Fab. Akdrea da. See Parmigiano. 

PARMANTIO, Jacques. A painter of this name, 
of French extraction, lived at the end of the 17th 
century at the Hague, where he painted some 
ceilings in the Binnenhof. 

PARME, JcLiEN DE. See Julien, Simon. 

PARMEGIANO (or Parmegianino). See Maz- 
zuoLA, Francesco. 

PARMENSIS, Battista Pensieri, (or da 
Parma,) an Italian engraver, was born at Parma 
in the former part of the 16th century, and worked 
from 1538 to 1601. He chiefly resided at Rome, 
where he engraved several plates after various 
masters, and from bis own designs. He was 
patronized by Pietro Aretino, and praised by him 
in some of liis letters. His prints are executed 
with the graver, in a style resembliBg that of 
Cornelis Cort. Among others, we have the follow- 
ing by him : 

The Portrait of Philip II., King of Spain. 1589. 

The Virgin and Infant appearing to St. John; after 

Baroccio. Baptista fnrmciisis fee. 1588. 
The Baptism of Christ. Bnpf. Farmensis del. 
The Chastity of Joseph. 1592. 
The Crucifixion, in two .sheets ; Bapt. Farmensis for- 

mis. 1584. 

PARMENSIS. Jacobus. See Caragho. 

PARMENTIER, Jacques, called James, was 
born in France in 1658. He was a nephew of 
Sebastian Bourdon, by whom he was instructed 
in art. On the death of Bourdon, he came to 
England in 1676, and was for some time employed 
by Charles de la Fosse, to assist him in the works 
upon which he was engaged at Montague House. 
King William sent Parmentier to Holland, to 
ornament his palace at Loo, but he quarrelled with 
Marot, the superintendent of the works, and 
returned to London. Not finding much employ- 
ment on his arrival, lie went into Yorkshire, and 
was engaged in several historical subjects as well 
as portraits. He painted an altar-piece for the 
principal church at Hull, and a picture of 'Moses 
receiving the Law,' for St. Peter's church in Leeds. 
His best performance was the staircase at Work- 
sop. He gave a picture of Diana and Endymion' 
to Painters' Hall. On the death of Laguerre, in 
1721, he returned to London, where he died in 

PARMENTIER, L., engraved a title for the 
' Works of Philips Wouwerman,' with the portrait 
of the painter at the bottom, from a design by 
J. de la Jore. 

PARMIGIANINO. See Rocca, Michele. 

PARMIGIANO. (or Parmioianino). See Maz- 
zuoLA, Francesco. 

PARMIGIANO (or Parmigiakino). See Scaglia. 

PARMIGIANO, GiULlo, a battle painter of 
Venice, called Ca Grimani, was educated in the 
school of F. Monti. He accompanied General 
Grimani to the Morea, to make drawings of battles, 
which he painted for the Palazzo Grimani at Venice, 
He died in 1734. 

PARMIGIANO, Fabrizio Andrea, (or da 
Parma,) was born about 1555, and flourished at 
Rome as a landscape painter in the pontificate of 


Clement VII. In the church of Santa Cecilia in 
Trastevere, are eight large pictures by him, painted 
in fresco, in which, like some of the landscapes by 
the Carracci, there is more fancj' than truth. He 
died in 1600. 

PAROCEL. See Parrocel. 

PARODI, Domenico, (or Parrodi,) was born at 
Genoa in 1668. He was the son of Giacomo 
Filippo Parodi, an eminent sculptor, who bestowed 
on him an excellent education. He acquired the 
first elements of design under his father, and for 
some time applied himself to the pursuit of 
sculpture ; but a partiality for painting prevailed, 
and he was sent to Venice, where he entered the 
school of Bombelli, and became an excellent 
colourist by studying the works of Tintoretto 
and Paolo Veronese. He also visited Rome, where 
he attached himself to the manner of Carlo 
Maratti. His ' S. Francesco di Sales,' in the 
church of San Filippo Neri at Genoa, is in the 
style of that master. He further painted ' The 
Holy Trinity, with SS. Stephen and Leonard,' in 
Santa Vergine delle Vigne, and representations of 
the deeds of the Negroni family in their palace in 
the same city. He died in 1740. 

PARODI, Ottavio, was born at Pavia in 1659, 
and was a scholar of Andrea Lanzano. He after- 
wards visited Rome, where he studied some years. 
On his return to Pavia he executed several works 
for the public places in that city, which established 
his reputation as a painter of history. He was 
still living in 1718. 

PARODI, Pellegro, a portrait painter, was the 
son of Domenico Parodi. He went to Portugal, 
and in Lisbon painted portraits of many leading 
men. Capinetti engraved after him the portrait 
of the Marquis Pombal, and Gregori that of the 
Doge Spinola. He died about 1769. 

PAROLINI, Giacomo (or Giacomo Filippo), was 
born at Ferrara in 1663. His father dying when 
he was only five years of age, he was taken under 
the protection of a maternal uncle, who perceiving 
his disposition forart, placed him with the Cavaliere 
Peruzzini at Turin, with whom he remained until 
lie was sixteen, when he visited Bologna, and 
entered the school of Carlo Cignani. He returned 
to Ferrara in 1699, and finished some pictures 
left imperfect by M. Aurelio Scannavini, who had 
been his fellow-student under Cignani. He was 
successful in the design of his female figures and 
children, and his bacchanals and festive dances 
remind us of Albani. His pictures of those 
subjects are to be found in almost every collection 
in Ferrara. Of his historical works the most 
considerable are, the 'Last Supper,' in the cathedral 
at Ferrara; and a fresco representing 'St. Sebastian 
with a glorj' of angels,' in the church dedicated to 
that Saint at Verona. He was the last eminent 
painter of his country, and " with him," says 
Lanzi, " was buried the glorj' of the Ferrarese 
school." He died at Ferrara in 1733. 

PAROLINI, Pio, was, according to Titi, a 
native of Udine, though he chiefly resided at 
Rome, where he was received into the Academy in 
1678. He painted an allegorical subject on the 
ceiling of one of the chapels in San Carlo al Corso. 

PARONE, Francesco, was born, according to 
Baglione, at Milan, near the end of the 16th 
century. He was the son of an obscure artist ; 
but at an early age be visited Rome, where he 
had the good fortune to be taken under the 
protection of the Marquis of Giustiniani, who 


enabled him to study the works of art in his own 
collection and elsewhere. In the church of the 
monastery of San Romualdo, is an altar-piece by 
him, representing the ' Martyrdom of a Saint.' 
Parone died at Rome in the prime of life, in 
the year 1634. 

PAROY, Jacques de, glass painter, was born at 
Saint Pourcain sur AUier, Auvergne, towards the 
end of the 16th century. He studied in Rome 
under Donienichino. He painted the choir windows 
in St. Mery, Paris ; he designed the story of 
Susanna for another set of windows in the same 
church, and also tlie four ' Fathers of the Church.' 
Paroy died at the end of the 17th century, aged 102. 
PAROY, Jean Philippe Guy, a French painter 
and engraver, was born in Brittany in 1760. In 
his youth he showed great talent for art, in spite 
of the opposition of his father. In 1800 he 
produced his engraving of the 'Modern Antigone,' 
which had great success. He wrote a history 
of the Royal Academj- of Painting, and other 
works. He died in 1822. 

PARR, Remi, (or Remigius,) an architectural 
designer and engraver, was born at Rochester 
in 1723, and in 1737 published a View of London 
from Westminster Bridge, with other plates of a 
similar kind. He was, however, chiefly employed 
by the booksellers in portraits, book-plates, and 
humorous subjects. He was still living in 1750. 
Among others, we have the following engraved 
portraits by him : 
Maria Louisa, daughter of Charles II. 
John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester. 
WiUiam Becket, prefixed to his Chirurgical Observations. 

PARRASIO, Angelo, a Sienese painter, who was 
employed at the court of the Marquis Leonello 
d'Este, in the middle of the 15th century. 

PARRASIO, MioHELE, a painter of the 16th cen- 
tury, was a pupil of Titian and of Paolo Veronese. 
He was a man of wealth, and continued through 
life in intimate correspondence with Titian. There 
remain by him : 

Madrid. Escorial. The Marys at the Sepulchre. 

„ „ Adoration of the Kings. 

„ Museum. The Dead Christ adored by 

Pius V. 
Venice. Academy. Deposition from the Cross. 

^ „ Male Portrait. 

PARRE, Mathieu, a Dutch painter of the present 
century, who was at work in Amsterdam from 1811 
to 1849. He was a pupil of J. Van der Stok. 

PARREU, Jos^, was born at Rusafa, Valencia, 
in 1694. He was a pupil of D. Vidal, and executed 
several works for the churches in Valencia. He 
died in 1766. 

PARRHASIUS, the younger contemporary and 
rival of Zeuxis, was a native of Ephesus, and a 
disciple of Euenor. He was in the fulness of his 
reputation about 400 B.C. According to Pliny, he 
W!is the first who arrived at perfect symmetry in 
the proportion of his figures, and Quintiliau terms 
him " the legislator of art," from the canon which 
he established on this point having been accepted 
by succeeding artists. He gave to his forms more 
relief and roundness, more life and motion, than 
were known before his time. He was also par- 
ticularly successful in the treatment of the hair, 
and in the expression of his female figures. This 
characteristic he carried so far as to impart to his 
pictures some of the soft and sensuous quality of 
the Asiatic school, and this not to the female 
figures only, for Euphranor remarked that the 

'Theseus' of Parrhasius had been fed on roses, 
while his own was fed upon beef. The painter, 
moreover, was voluptuous in his own habits, and 
used to add to his signature the epithet, djSpoiiairoc, 
' the luxurious.' Parrhasius was remarkable, too, 
for vanity and arrogance. He styled himself the 
prince of painters, and asserted that he had carried 
the art to the highest possible perfection. He 
was always clothed in sumptuous attire, and 
claimed to be descended from Apollo. He pre- 
tended to have painted Hercules from a revelation 
of his form in a vision ; and when defeated by 
Timanthes in a contest for a picture upon the 
' Strife of Ajax and Ulysses,' he declared that 
Ajax %vas a second time overcome by an unworthy 
rival. The story versified by the American poet 
Willis, of his putting a slave to the rack in order 
to himself with a model for the expression 
of intense agony, whether it be founded upon fact 
or not, is too much in accordance with his nature : 
" I'd rack thee though a thousand lives were thine ; 
What were ten thousand to a fame like mine ! " 
Notwithstanding these serious personal defects, 
Parrhasius cannot be denied the glory of having 
been one of the most accomplished painters of 
Greece. The well-known story of Pliny in refer- 
ence to the contest between him and Zeuxis is 
related in the article upon the latter artist. One 
of his principal works, representing a ' High Priest 
of the goddess Cybele,' was afterwards purchased 
by the Emperor Tiberius, for sixty thousand 
sesterces. Pliny highly commends two pictures 
by Parrhasius, one representing a warrior rushing 
to the combat, the other a soldier taking off his 
armour. His celebrated picture of ' Theseus ' was 
in that historian's time preserved in the Capitol at 
Rome ; and another representing Melenger, Her- 
cules, and Perseus, in one group, was formerly at 
Rhodes. Yet another of his most notable produc- 
tions was his picture of ' The Athenian People,' in 
which he appears to have caught imd expressed 
all the varying modes and passions of the populace. 
Some of his subjects were lascivious. 

PARRIS, EdmundThomas, was born in the parish 
of Marylebone on June 3, 1793, and served an 
apprenticeship with Ray and Montague, the 
jewellers, where he learnt enamel-painting and 
metal-chasing ; he studied mechanics in his spare 
time. In 1816 he was admitted as a student 
in the schools of the Royal Academy ; in this 
year two of his pictures were hung at the Royal 
Academy. 'The Butterfly,' and a view of West- 
minster Abbey, "with old houses as they appeared 
in 1816." Between 1816 and 1874 eighty-six of 
his works were exhibited in London, including 
twenty-six at the Royal Academy ; thirty-six at 
the British Institution ; and eighteen at Suffolk 
Street ((iraves, 'Dictionary of Artists'). From 
1824 to Nov. 1829 Parris chiefly engaged in 
painting Horner's Colosseum, erected near Regent's 
Park (in 1845 he repainted it) ; and from 1853 to 
1856 he so completely "restored" Sir J. Thoru- 
hill's paintings in the cupola of St. Paul's Cathedral 
as to leave practically nothing of the original 
work. Between these two undertakings he as- 
sisted W. Daniell, R.A., in painting a panorama 
of Madras, the building,' of which was also from 
his design. His exhibits were chiefly fancy sub- 
jects, and probably the most popular of these 
was 'The Bridesmaid' (inspired by Haines Bailey's 
'Lay of the Minstrel'), exhibited at the British 



Institution in 1830, and of which the engraving 
by J. Bromley had a great success ; the picture, 
thirty inches by twenty-two inches, was bought 
by Sir Robert Peel, and at the sale of the Peel 
heirlooms, ilay 11, 1900, it realized only eleven 
guineas. To the three sets of plates from his 
drawings, ' Flowers of Loveliness,' ' Gems of 
Beauty,' and 'The Passions' (1836-38), Lady 
Blessington wrote the accompanying verses, and 
he illustrated her ' Confessions of an Elderly 
Gentleman,' 1836, and ' Confessions of an Elderly 
Lady,' 1838. He had for many years a consider- 
able vogue as a fashionable portrait painter, his 
sitters including Queen Adelaide; this was lent 
to the Guelph Exhibition in 1891 by Mr. John 
Cleland ; in 1832 he was appointed historical 
painter to Queen Adelaide. He made a sketch of 
Queen Victoria on her visit to Drury Lane in 
Nov. 1837, and this was engraved by Wagstaffe, 
who also engraved (in 1842) his picture of the same 
Queen's coronation ; the Queen gave him sittings ; 
the original drawings in pencil and crayon were 
sold at Sotheby's on July 10, 1899, and several of 
these are now the property of the present writer. 
An early picture, ' Christ Blessing Little Children,' 
is in St. George's Church, Sheffield ; his cartoon of 
' Joseph of Arimath^a converting the Britons ' 
won a prize of £100 at the Westminster Hall 
competition in 1843 ; and he designed a model 
for a piece of tapestry forty feet long for the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867, and " was much employed 
in decorating the mansions of the nobility." A 
number of his historical costume plates were 
reproduced in the fourth and fifth volumes of 'The 
Connoisseur.' Parris was a man of untiring and 
extraordinary industry, but he is now perhaps 
best remembered by the many pretty, sentimental 
plates which he designed for the ' Keepsakes ' and 
* Annuals' of the earlier years of the 19th century; 
he was not in any sense a great artist, but he was 
a conscientious and painstaking workman, and it is 
a matter of regret that he is not represented in any 
public Gallery. He died on Nov. 27, 1873. W.R. 

PARROCEL, Charles, the son of Joseph Parro- 
<:el, was born in Paris in 1688, and was first in- 
structed by his father, who dying when he was 
only sixteen years of age, he was placed under the 
tuition of Charles de la Fosse, and on leaving that 
master, travelled to Italy, where he studied some 
years in Rome. On his return to France he ac- 
quired considerable reputation as a painter of 
battle-pieces, and though these and his hunting- 
pieces are inferior to those of his father, they 
possessed sufficient merit to procure his reception 
into the Academy at Paris, of which in 1745 he 
further became professor. He was in the same 
year appointed to accompany the king to Flanders, 
to depict his victories. Among his best pamtmgs 
are those of 'The Turkish Ambassador before and 
after his audience in the Tuileries,' now at the 
Gobelins. Parrocel has left thirty-seven etchings, 
from his own designs, representing horse and foot 
soldiers, among them six in the style of Salvator 
Rosa. He died in Paris in 1752. 

PARROCEL, Etienne, was the son of Pierre 
Parrocel. He was born in Paris about the year 
1720, and is stated to have been a painter, perhaps 
also an engraver. . 

PARROCEL, Barthelemy, a native of Bng- 
noUes, father and first instructor of Joseph Parrocel. 
He was of no repute as an artist, and died about 


PARROCEL, Ignace, the nephew of Joseph 
Parrocel, was born in Paris in 1668. He was 
apparently the scholar of his uncle, as he painted 
similar subjects, battles and huntings, and in a 
closely similar style. He died in Paris in 1722. 
A ' Turkish Battle ' and a ' Field Encampment ' by 
him are in the Belvedere of Vienna. 

PARROCEL, Joseph, an eminent painter of 
battles, was born at Brignolles, in Provence, in 1648. 
He was the son of Barthelemy Parrocel, a painter 
of little note, who, together with his elder son 
Louis, instructed Joseph in the first elements of the 
art. Without the help of any other teaching, the 
latter went to Paris, where he obtained the notice of 
some distinguished artists, who recommended him 
to visit Italy. On his arrival at Rome, he found 
the works of Borgognone in the highest estimation ; 
and he entered the school of that artist. After a 
residence of some years at Rome, he visited Venice, 
where he rapidly improved his colour by study- 
ing the works of the best Venetian masters. The 
encouragement he experienced in Venice led him 
to think of establishing himself there, when one 
evening he was assailed on the Rialto by several 
assassins, posted, it was believed, by persons jealous 
of his success, and it was only by his courage and 
personal vigour that he escaped. In 1676 he re- 
turned to Paris, and immediately met with public 
favour. He was made a member of the Academy 
the following year, on which occasion he painted 
the ' Siege of Maestricht ' for his reception picture. 
He was commissioned by the Marquis de Louvois, 
to decorate one of the four refectories of the In- 
valides, with the conquests of Louis XIV., and after 
this he was employed on some of the works at 
Versailles and Marly. He became one of the 
favourite painters of Louis XIV., in whose service 
he remained until his death, which occurred in 
Paris in 1704. He painted several historical sub- 
jects for the Hotel de Toulouse, and an admirable 
picture of ' St. John in the Wilderness,' for the 
church of Notre Dame de Paris. The Museum of 
Lyons possesses a ' Horsemen Resting ' by him. 
We have ninety etchings by Parrocel from his own 
designs : among which are the following : 
The Four Parts of the Day ; J. Parrocel inv. et.fec. 
Four Battles ; t/ie same insci-iption. 
A. set of forty-eight prints from the Life of Christ. 

PARROCEL, Louis, a painter, the eldest son of 
Barthelemy Parrocel, was born at Avignon in 1640. 
He was instructed by his father, and painted chiefly 
historical pictures. 

PARROCEL, Pierre, nephew of Joseph and son 
of Louis Parrocel, was born at Avignon in 1664, 
and died in Paris in 1739. He was first instructed 
by his uncle, and afterwards entered the school of 
Carlo Maratti at Koine, and in 1730 became a 
member of the Academy there. His principal work, 
as a painter, was in the gallery of the Hotel de 
Noailles, at St. Gerraain-en-Laye, where he repre- 
sented the history of Tobit in thirteen pictures ; 
but the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' in the church 
of St. Mary at Marseilles, is considered his chef- 
d'oeuvre. He also etched and engraved. His 
etchings are executed with dexterity and spirit, in 
a style analogous to that of A. Rivalz; but he was 
not equally successful with the graver. Of the 
fourteen etchings left by him, 'The Triumph of 
Amphitrite ' is perhaps the most noteworthy. 

PARROCEL, Pierre Ignace, was born at Avig- 
non in 1702, and was at Rome in 1739-40. He 
was afterwards director of the school of art there. 


He etched thirty-six plates, comprising among 
them a series of Bernini's statues. 

PARRODI. See Parodi. 

PARROTT, William, the son of a farmer at 
Aveley in Essex, was horn in October 1813. 
Coming to London, he was apprenticed to John 
Pye the engraver, but soon forsook the bnrin for 
the brush. In 1840 he published a series of twelve 
lithograph views of 'Loudon from the Thames,' 
and in 1843 his residence in Paris is marked by a 
similar set of Paris views. During the years 1844 
and 1845 he travelled in Italy, and on his return 
settled in Warren Street, Fitzroy Square, which 
neighbourhood he never left till his death. In 
1851 he visited Germany, and afterwards spent 
much time in Normandy and Brittany. From 
1836 to 1857 he was a regular exhibitor at the 
Eoyal Academy, showing twenty-five pictures in 
all. From 1835 to 1869 he also exhibited twenty- 
five pictures at Suffolk Street, and nineteen at the 
British Institution. His work consists mainly of 
landscapes, but he occasionally produced figure 
subjects full of life and vivacity, such as ' The 
Monk preaching in the Colosseum,' ' Catering for 
the Convent,' &c. One of his best-known works is 
his caricature portrait of Turner, painted in 1842, 
and now in the Ruskin Museum. To his last years 
belong the 'Part of St. Malo' (1864); 'Margate 
Jetty ' (1865) ; ' Sea View, Isle of Wight ' (1866) ; 
'Across the Thames at Henley' (1867); 'The 
Romantic Fair of Quhnperle, Brittany,' and 
'Vesuvius in Eruption '(1868). His last exhibit 
was in 1869, and it may be presumed that he died 
in that year, or shortly after. 

PARRY, Charles James, a younger son of D. 
E. Parry, and a clever amateur artist. He was 
born in 1824, educated at Manchester, where he 
was afterwards engaged in commercial pursuits, 
and died in London in 1894. Two of his sons 
were also artists. 

PARRY, David Henry, junior, a painter of mili- 
tary subjects, and a writer, son of Charles Parry. 

PARRY, David Henry, a son of Joseph Parry, 
born in 1793, whose success in the world as a 
portrait painter caused him to remove to London, 
where he died in 1826. He painted both in oil 
and in water-colour, and some notable portrait 
■drawings were executed by him in pastels. 

PARRY, James, a son of Joseph Parry, and an 
engraver. His work is well represented in Corry's 
' History of Lancashire,' and he both drew and 
engraved many views of buildings in that county. 
He died in 1871. 

PARRY, Joseph, a Liverpool artist, the son of 
a master pilot, who was apprenticed to a ship 
painter, but who speedily proved his capacity for 
artistic work. He painted a great many pictures 
dealing with the curious by-streets and quaint 
buildings of Manchester and Liverpool, and he 
also had considerable practice as a portrait painter 
in those towns. He etclied a very clever portrait 
of himself which is exceedingly rare. He died at 
Manchester in 1826, and two of his sons practised 
•as artists. 

PARRY, Thomas Gambier, a well-to-do amateur 
artist, born in 1816, whose chief title to fame rests 
upon his discovery of the " spirit fresco " process, 
which was adopted both by Ford Madox Brown an(i 
Lord Leighton in their most notable works. He 
decorated a church which he built at Highnara, the 
roof of the nave at Ely Cathedral, and some im- 
portant portions of Gloucester Cathedral, and 

Tewkesbury Abbey at his own cost with fresco 
work, and attained to a very eminent position 
thereby, being considered the greatest living 
authority on internal decorative work. He was 
a great collector of fine old Italian paintings, 
many of which were described in the ' Burlington 
Magazine ' for July 1903. He died suddenly in 

PARRY, William, was bom in London in 1742. 
He was the son of Parry, the celebrated blind per- 
former on the Welsh harp, and received his first 
instructions in design in Shipley's drawing-school. 
He afterwards studied from the plaster-casts in 
the Duke of Richmond's gallery, and became a 
pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; about which time he 
also entered the academy in St. Martin's Lane. He 
was considered at that time a very promising artist, 
and obtained several premiums from the Society 
of Arts, and in 1766 he became a member of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists. On leaving Sir 
Joshua he was favoured with the patronage of Sir 
Watkin Williams Wj'nn, by whose liberality he 
was enabled, in 1770, to visit Italy, where he 
remained four years, and among other things he 
painted for his protector a copy of Raphael's 
' Transfiguration,' at that time in the church of 
San Pietro in Montorio. He returned to London 
in 1775, and in 1776 was chosen an Associate of 
the Royal Academy ; he then exhibited some por- 
traits, as he did again in 1778, 1779, and 1788. 
Not meeting with the employment he expected, he 
removed to Wales, and on the death of his wife, 
in 1788, revisited Rome, where he found sufficient 
encouragement to induce him, with the help of a 
small fortune acquired through his wife, to remain 
several years. His ill state of health obliged him 
to return to bis native country at the commence- 
ment of the year 1791 ; hut he only survived his 
arrival a few days, and died on February 13th. 
There is a small etching by Parry, prepared as a 
ticket for a benefit concert on behalf of his father, 
whom it represents plaj'ing on the harp. 

PARS, Henry', an English draughtsman, born in 
1734. He was the elder brother of W. Pars, 
A. R. A., and was brought up as a chaser. His 
chief claim to remembrance is in connection with 
the St. Martin's Lane School, of which lie was 
master so long that it became known by his name. 
He died in 1806. 

PARS, William, was born in London in 1742, 
and was educated in the rudiments of art in Ship- 
ley's drawing-school. He afterwards frequented 
the St. Martin's Lane school, and the Duke of 
Richmond's Gallery. He exhibited at the Society 
of Arts in 1761, and in 1764 obtained from them 
the third premium of twenty guineas, for historic 
painting. Shortly afterwards he went as draughts- 
man with the expedition sent into Ionia by the Dilet- 
tanti Society, with Dr. Chandler and W. Revett 
as his colleagues. On this expedition he was ab- 
sent over two years, and some time after his return 
he was engaged by the second Lord Palmerston, 
to accompany him in a tour through Switzerland 
and Italy, to make drawings of the most remark- 
able views and antiquities. In 1770 he was elected 
an Associate of the Royal Academy ; and in 1774 
the Dilettanti Society having determined to send 
an artist to Rome, for a certain number of years, 
upon a pension, to complete his studies as a painter, 
Pars was made choice of, and arrived at Rome in 
1775. He continued his studies in Italy until the 
autumn of the year 1782, when he died of a fever. 



He had exhibited at the Royal Academy constantly 
from its establishment until 1776, producing both 
small and life-size portraits, as well as drawings 
and stained views of temples in Asia Minor and 
Greece. Several of the views he made iii Greece 
have been engraved by Byrne ; and some of 
those in Switzexland and Italy were reproduced in 
aquatint by Paul Sandby. WooUet also engraved 
five Swiss views after Pars. 

PARSON, William, an amateur architectural, 
landscape, and fruit painter, was born in London 
in 1736. His father was a builder, and at fourteen 
he was apprenticed to an architect. He afterwards 
went on the stage, and became a popular comic 
actor, but never relinquished his art. He died in 

PARSONS, Francis, an English portrait painter, 
in the second half of the 18th century. He was 
taught in the St. Martin's Lane school, and became 
a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists. 
In his later years he became a picture-dealer. 
Works : 

Portrait group of Indian Chiefs who visited London in 
1763. Eiif/raved hy 3TcArdell. 

Portrait of Miss Da\-i's as ' Madge,' in ' Love in a Village.' 

Portrait of Brindley, the Engineer. Engraved by Dun- 

PARTRIDGE, John, a portrait painter was born 
in 1790. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 
1815 to 1846. In 1843 he exhibited portraits of 
the Queen and Prince Albert, which were engraved 
and became very popular. Two years later he 
was appointed portrait painter extraordinary to the 
Queen. For thirty years he held a good position 
in the second rank as a portrait painter, exhibiting 
for the last time in 1846. On two occasions only, 
in 1830 and 1836, did he send a subject picture to 
the Academy ; these were respectively, ' Titania, 
Puck, and Bottom,' and ' A Sketching Society, the 
Critical Moment.' Partridge died November 25, 
1872. The National Portrait Gallery possesses a 
large picture by him of a meeting of the Fine Arts 
Commission of 1841 at Gwydyr House, Whitehall; 
and the National (iallery of Ireland a portrait of 
SirT. Wyse, K.C.B. 
PAS, DE (Pass). See Van de Pass. 
PASADOS, Miguel, a Spanish Dominican monk, 
born at Valencia in 1711. He painted historical 
pictures, and died in 1753. 
PASAROT. See Passerotti. 
PASCAL, Antoine, a painter of still-life, and 
pupil of Redoutd. He was at work at Macon in 
the early years of the present century. His wife 
followed the same profession. 

PASCAL, Joseph Andkeas, a miniature painter 
of Munich, who flourished in 1729. He painted 
portraits and other pictures in miuiature for the 
Bavarian court. He died in 1758. 
PASCALINI. See Pasqdalini. 
PASCH, LoRENZ, a painter of Stockholm, was 
born in 1733. He painted the Swedish king and 
the members of his house and court, and decorated 
the royal palace with pictures. He was a professor 
and rector of the Academy, and inspector of the 
Gallery. He died in 1805. Works: 

Stockholm. Galleiy. Portrait of the Engineer Daniel 

Tliunberg. [Pascli jniixit, 
„ Half-length portrait of Gus- 

tavus Adolphus IV. 

His sister, Friederica Ulrica Pasch, who was at 

Stockholm in 1735, and died in 1796, was also 
a portrait painter and member of the Academy. 
PASBNA, RoG. DE. See Van der Weyden. 
PASINELLI, Lorenzo, was born at Bologna in 
1629, and was first a scholar of A. Baroni and 
Simone Cantarini, but afterwards studied under 
Flaminio Torre, whose school he left at an early 
age. He then visited Turin, Mantua, and Rome, 
and spent some time at Venice, where the style_ of 
Paolo Veronese exercised great influence over him. 
On leaving Venice he returned to Bologna, where 
he died in 1700. Among his best paintings are : 
'Christ's Entry into Jerusalem,' and 'The Return 
of Christ from Limbus,' in the Certosa of Bologna ; 
' St. Francis raising a Dead Man to Life,' at San 
Francesco in the same city ; and the ' History of 
Coriolanus,' in the Palazzo Ranuzzi. We have 
the following etchings by Pasinelli from his own 
designs : 

St. John pre.tching in the Wilderness. 
The Slartyrdom of several Saints. 
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Guido Rent. 
PASINI, Alberto, an Italian painter, born 
September 3, 1826, at Busseto (i'arma) ; was a pupil 
of Giceri at the Parma Academy ; then he studied 
in Paris under Isabey and Rousseau ; travelled in 
Turkey,Arabia, and Persia, which served to develop 
and confirm his taste for Oriental subjects, as a 
painter of which he attained excellence. For a 
time he worked in Paris, and afterwards at Mon- 
calieri, near Turin. He also painted Venetian 
scenes, though his Eastern subjects show him at 
his best. He obtained a third-class medal at the 
Salon in 1859 ; a second-class one in 1863 ; a 
medal in 1854 ; a medaille d'lionneur in 1878 ; the 
Legion of Honour in 1868; being nominated Officer 
in 1878. He died at Cavoretto, near Turin, 
December 14, 1899. 

PASINI, BoNiFAZio, of Verona, son of Bartolo- 
meo Pasini, born 1489, traceable as a painter at 
Verona from 1515. In 1523 he became a member 
of the Confraternity of SS. Siro e Libera, and 
appears to have held the oliice of Sacristan to that 
body until his deatli in 1540. This painter was 
formerly designated in the history of Art, Bonifazio 
I. of Verona, and was regarded as the oldest 
member of a family of three, the others being 
styled respectively, Bonifazio Veronese II. and 
Bonifazio HI. Veneziano. The important dis- 
coveries of Dr. Gustav Ludwig in the archives of 
Verona and Venice have, however, proved this to be 
incorrect. In his exhaustive treatment of the sub- 
iect ('Jahrbuch d. K. Preussischen Kunstsamm- 
'lungen,' 1901, Heft II. and III., and 1902, Heft I.) he 
has shown conclusively that the second Bonifazio 
of Verona was named " Di Pitati " (see that painter), 
and was no relation of Bonifazio Pasini, and that 
a tliird painter of the name of Bonifazio never 
existed. No works can be ascribed to Bonifazio 
Pasini witli any certainty. C. J. Ff. 

PASQUALI FiLirro, was a native of Forli, and 
a scholar of Carlo Cignani. He flourished about 
the year 1680, and in conjunction with Marc 
Antonio Francescliini, jiainted several fresco works 
at Bologna and Rimini. There are some of his 
paintings in the portico of the Serviti at Bologna : 
and Laiizi makes honourable mention of his 
pictures in the church of San Vittore, at Ravenna. 
PASQUALINI, Felice, a pupil of Sabbatini ; 
some of Ijis works are still extant at Bologna and 
its neighbourhood. 
PASQUALINI, Giovanni Battista, (or Pasca- 


LiNi,) an Italian painter and engraver, was born 
at Cento, near Bologna, about the year 1600. He 
frequented for some time the school of Giro Ferri ; 
but it does not appear that he arrived at great 
eminence as a painter. We have several etchings 
by him, principally after Guercino, his countryman, 
in which he endeavoured, not very successfully, 
to imitate with the point the masterly pen drawings 
of that master. The earliest is dated 1619, and the 
latest 1630. He frequently signed his plates J. B. 
Centensis. We have, among others, the following 
prints by him : 

St. Felix kneeling before the Virgin and Infant ; after 

L. Carracci, 
St. Diego working a Miracle : irfter Ann. Carracci. 
The Death of St. Cecilia ; after Bomenichi/io. 
The Aurora ; after Guido. 


Christ dictating the Gospel to St. John. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus. 

Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter. 

The Treaclicry of Judas. 

Angels showing Mary Magdalene the Instruments of 

the Passion. 
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus. 
The Incredulity of Thomas. 

The Virgin and Infant, with an Angel presenting Fruit. 
The Virgin and Infant, to whom St. John presents an 

S. Carlo Borromeo. 
St. FeUx resuscitating a Dead Child. 
Tancred and Erminia. 
Tithonus and Aurora. 

PASQUALINO. See Rossi, Pasquale. 

PASQUALINO, an imitator of Bellini and Cima, 
who lived in the latter part of the 15th centurj'. 
In the Correr Museum, Venice, there is a ' Virgin 
and Child, with St. Mary Magdalene,' dated and 
signed by him in 1496. Nothing is known of his 
birth or death. 


PASQUETTI, For.TUNATO, portrait and historical 
painter, was a pupil of N. Cassana. In 1741 he 
was director of the Academy at Venice, and died 
about 1770. 

PASQUIER, Jean Jacques, a French engraver, 
was born in the early part of the 17th century, and 
was a pupil of Laurent Cars. He has engraved 
several plates after French painters, and a variety 
of vignettes and other illustrations for books. We 
may name the following by him : 

Arion upon the Dolphin ; after Houcher. 

Two Pastoral Subjects ; after the same. 

The Graces ; after C. van Loo. 

A set of Twelve Academical Figures ; after X'atoire. 

PASS, DE (or PASsa:ns). See Van de Pass. 

PASSANTE, Bartolommeo, a Neapolitan painter 
of little note, and a pupil of Spagnoletto. 

PASSARl. See Passeri. 

PASSAKOTO (or Passarotti). See Passekotti. 

PASSAVANT, Johann David, a German his- 
torical painter, born at Frankfort in 1787. His art 
studies were carried on under David, Gros, and 
Overbeck. But he chiefly devoted himself to the 
literature and criticism of art, publishing works on 
Raphael (by which he is best known), engraving, 
art in England, &c. He died in 1861. At Frank- 
fort there is a portrait of the Emperor Henry II. 
by him, and a picture of St. Hubert. We give the 
titles and dates of publication of his books : 

' Kunstreise durch England und Belgien.' 1833. 
' Raphael von XJrbino und sein Vater Gioranni Santi.' 

'Die Christliche Kunst in Spanien.' 
' Le Peintre Graveur.' 1860—1864. 


PASSE, De (Pass). See Van de Pass. 

PASSERI, Andrea, was a native of Como, in 
the Milanese. In the year 1505 he painted in the 
cathedral of his native city a picture of the Virgin 
surrounded by the Apostles. 

PASSERI, Bernardino, (Passari, or Passero,) 
an Italian engraver, flourished at Rome about the 
year 1580. He is doubtfully stated to have been 
also a painter, and to have adopted the style of 
Taddeo Zuccaro. Among others we have the 
following prints by him : 

The Holy Family in which the Virgin is attired as a 

A set of plates of the Life of St. Bruno. 

Several Madonnas, and other subjects. 

PASSERI, Giovanni Battista, was bom at 
Rome about the year 1610, and is reported by 
Lanzi to have been a friend of Domenichino, and a 
follower of his style. He was employed by Canini, 
in the Villa Aldobrandiui, in 16.35, and was president 
of the Academy of St. Luke, in 1641, when Domeni- 
chino died. At the close of his life Passeri entered 
into holy orders, and in 1675 obtained a benefice 
in the college of Sta. Maria in Via Lata. He died 
in 1679. In the church of San Giovanni della 
Malva, at Rome, is a picture by him of the Cruci- 
fixion ; but his works are more frequent in jirivate 
collections than in public edifices. He sometimes 
painted pictures of dead game, birds, &c., of which 
there are several in the Palazzo Mattel. In the 
Academy of St. Luke there is a portrait of Domeni- 
chino, painted by him, and placed there at the death 
of his friend, whose funeral oration Passeri pro- 
nounced. Passeri was one of the chief Italian 
\vriters on art. His principal work is entitled 
' Vite de' Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti, che hanuo 
lavorato in Roma, e che son morti dal 1641 al 
1673.' It was published in full for the first time 
in 1772, in Rome. 

PASSERI, Giuseppe, the nephew of Giovanni 
Battista Passeri, was born at Rome in 1654, and, 
according to Pascoli, was a favourite disciple of 
Carlo Maratti, of whose style he was one of the 
most successful followers. His principal works at 
Rome are his picture of the Conception, in the 
church of San Tommaso in Parione ; and one of 
the wings to the picture of the Baptism, by Maratti, 
in the Vatican, in which he has represented St. 
Peter baptizing the Centurion, which was executed 
in mosaic, and the original placed in the church of 
the Conventuali at Urbino. At Pesaro there is 
one of his best works, representing St. Jerome 
meditating on the Last Judgment. Passeri died in 

PASSEROTTI, Bartolommeo, (or Passarotti,) 
was born at Bologna about the year 1520 or 1530. 
He was first a scholar of Giacomo Baroccio da 
Vignola, but afterwards he became the disciple 
and coadjutor of Taddeo Zuccaro. at Rome, where he 
resided in the early part of his life. For the public 
buildings here he painted some pictures of which 
tlie most esteemed is the Martyrdom of St. Paul, in 
the church of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane. On his 
return to Bologna he painted a great number of 
altar-pieces for the churches, of which the most 
celebrated are the Adoration of the Magi, in San 
Pietro ; the Annunciation, in San Martino Mag- 
giore ; and the Virgin on a throne, surrounded by 
St. John the Baptist and other Saints, in San 
Giacomo Maggiore. The last-named was painjed 



in competition with the Carracci, and excited their 
admiration. He died at Bologna the 3rd June, 
1592. Hie works are very unequal, as he frequently 
sacrificed correctness and refinement to his desire 
of gain and to the indulgence of an uncommon 
facility of hand. He was the founder of a respect- 
able academy at Bologna, and counted among his 
disciples, Francesco Vanni, Agostino Carracci, and 
other distinguished artists. He particularly ex- 
celled in portrait painting. Among the personages 
whom he portrayed were Popes Pius V., Gregory 
XIII., and Sixtus V., and Cardinal Guastavillani. 
Bartsch, who speaks highly of his ability as a 
designer with the pen, and of the freedom and 
boldness of his Avork with the burin, mentions the 
first fifteen of the following etchings : 

The Chastity of Joseph ; after Parmiyiano. 

The Visitation ; after F. 6'alvi'ati. 

The Virgin, with the Infant and St. John, m.irked 

A similar subject with the letters S. P. 

The Virgin sitting on the ground, with the Infant 
Jesus on her icnees ; signed i?. Pasarot. 

Jesus Christ holding a banner ; P. Pasarot. This and 
the five following are supposed to be part of a suite 
of thirteen, representing Christ and his Apostles. 

St. Peter, with the letters £. P. 

St. Andrew. B. Pasarot. 

St. John the Evangelist. B. Pasiirot. 

St. Bartholomew. P. Pasarot. 

St. Paul, with the letters £. P. 

Eeligion, represented by a woman seated in the sun ; 
signed P. 

Painting, represented by a young Female with Wings ; 
with the letters £. P. 

A young Woman in Bed. i?. Passarato, written back- 
wards, the letter B. reversed and joined to the P. 

A Sacriiice, in which there are eight figures. The 
letters £. P. on the left at bottom. 

A Charity, mentioned by Goj'i. 

The Marriage of Isaac and Kebecca; after Peniyim ; 

mentioned by Host. 
A Holy Family, doubtful. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison by an Angel, marked 

£. P. ; mentioned by Zani. 

PASSEROTTI, TiBURZio, the eldest son and the 
disciple of Bartolommeo Passerotti, was born at 
Bologna in 1576. He painted history and por- 
traits, in the style of his father. Of his works in 
the public edifices at Bologna, the following are 
the most deserving of notice. In the church of 
Santa Maria Mascarella, a picture of the ' Assump- 
tion ;' in Santa Cecilia, ' St. Francis and St. Jerome 
kneeling before tlie Virgin ; ' in Santa Cristina, the 
' Annunciation ; ' and in San Giacomo Maggiore, the 
' Martyrdom of St. Catharine,' his best performance. 
He died at Bologna, in the prime of life, in 1612. 
Zani calls him an amateur. 

PASSEROTTI, Ventura, the fourth son of Bar- 
tolommeo Passerotti, was born at Bologna about 
1586. He was instructed by his father, and assisted 
by his brother Tiburzio. He, however, chiefly 
delighted in making pen drawings. His practice 
as a professed paiuter was confined to portraiture, 
in whicli he won nmch success. There is no account 
of any public work by him. He died in 1630. 

PASSIGNANO, II. See Cresti. 

PASSINI, JoHANN, engraver and painter, was 
horn at Vienna in 1798 or 1799, and studied at the 
Academy there under Seipp, and afterwards under 
J. G. Mansfeld. He was a member of the Academy 
of Vienna, and professor in the Ober Realschule 
at Gratz. His death occurred at Gratz, on January 
14th, 1874. He painted landscapes in oil and 

aquarelle, but was best known by his engravings, 
many of which are in Pezzel' s ' Sketches of 
Vienna,' and Lichnowsky's 'Memorials of Old Ger- 
man Architecture.' Besides these we may name 
the following : 

* La Notte ' ; after Corregyio. 

The Imperial Family ; after Feiidi. 

The Two Foscaris ; after Hai/ez. 

The Crucifixion ; after Tintoretto. 

The Guardian Angel ; after Kadlik. 

Croatian Peasants ; after Klein. 

Eeturning Home in the Storm ; after Gaiiermann. 

Charles V. ; after Titian. 

The Repose o{ the Holy Family ; after Guido Reni. 

Rio Janeiro, two plates ; after Ender. 

PASSINI, Louis, son of the engraver Jean 
Passini, was born at Vienna in 1832, and educated 
in the same city. He lived much in Italy, chiefly 
at Rome and Venice, and his pictures obtained 
great repute in Germany, where he settled, becom- 
ing Professor in the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts. 
He was awarded a medal at the Salon of 1870, and 
became Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1878. 
His water-colours are notable for their luminous 
quality, and lie also painted genre pictures and 
many portraits. His ' Choristers in Church,' a 
water-colour painted at Rome in 1870, liangs in 
the National Gallery of Berlin. He died at Venice 
in November 1903. 

PASSOT, Gabriel Aristide, miniature painter, 
was born at Nevers about 1798. He was taught 
successively by Madame de Mirbel, Dubufe the elder, 
and Fr6deric Millet. He died in 1875. Among 
his works we may name the following : 

Portrait of Rossini. 
., Lamartine. 

„ Dupin. 

,j Giulia Grisi. 

„ Le Due de Bassano. 

, Prince Napoleon. 

„ Napoleon III. and the Empress Eugenie ; 

aftcj- JVintcrhalter. 
„ Napoleon I. 

Queen Hortense ; after Gerard. 
Lady playing the Harp. 
"Woman bathing. 
After the Bath. 

PASTI, Matteo, (Pawino, Pasto, De Pastib, 
or Db Praxis,) an Italian artist. He was a native 
of Verona, and flourished from 1446. He was 
a wood-engraver, a painter in miniature, a sculptor 
in bronze and marble, a medallist, and a gem 
engraver. Neither the year of his birth nor of his 
death is correctly ascertained. He worked in the 
above year upon the Breviary of the Marchese 
Leonardo da Ferrara, and executed a set of prints 
for a folio volume, entitled ' De Re Militare,' by 
R. Valturius, which was published at Verona in 
1472. In that he signed his work : M D P V 
{Opus Matthai de Fastis Veroiiensis). 

PASTILL, J. DE, was a French engraver, who 
appears to have been chiefly employed in copying 
the prints of other artists. Among other plates 
we have the ' Murder of the Innocents,' from the 
engraving by Louis Audran. after Le Brun. 

PASTORINI, Benedetto, was an Italian en- 
graver, who resided in London in the latter part 
of the 18th century, and was one of the governors 
of the Society of Engravers, founded in 1803. He 
engraved some plates in imitation of the style of' 
Bartolozzi, and with his assistance. We have, 
among others, the following by him • 


t'Allegro; Anyel. Katiffman pinx. B. Pastorini fee. 
II Pensieroso ; the companion. 
A View of Loudon ; from his own design. 
Guntherus and Griselda ; J. F. Higaud pinx. B. Pasto- 
rini fee. 
Griselda returning to her Family ; the companion. 

PASTORINI, J., a miniature painter, born in 
1773. He exhibited at tlie Royal Academy from 
1812 to 1826, and died in London in 1839. 

PASTORINO, Giovanni Michele, a glass painter 
and medallist of Siena, who worked frequently 
from designs furnished by Pierino del Vaga. In 
1549 be painted the ' Last Supper ' on glass in the 
cathedral of Siena. In this art he is said to have 
been taught by Claude of Marseilles. 
PATANAZZI, a painter whose " vigorous brush 
and consummate powers of invention " are extolled 
in the ' Galleria de' Pittori Urbinati.' He was 
probably a pupil of Claudio Ridolfi. 

PATAROL, Lawrence, engraved some book 
illustrations, among which was a frontispiece for a 
book on coins, published at Venice in 1702. 

PATAS, Jean Baptiste, a French designer and 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1744 or 1748, and 
died in 1817. He engraved some of the plates for 
the ' Galleries ' of Florence and Orleans, the ' Musee 
Frangais,' the ' Cabinet Poullain,' and other works 
of the same class ; also several small plates after 
various French painters, and from his own designs ; 
among which are the following : 

The Judgment of Paris ; after Queverdo. 

The dangerous Model ; after the same. 

Henry IV. permitting Provisions to enter Paris wliilst 

he was besieging it ; after Careme. 
An allegorical subject on the Accession of Louis XVI. 

to the Throne of France ; from his own design. 

PATAVINUS. See Osello. 

PATCH, Cozens. At Petworth there is a picture 
by this artist, in the style and of the same period 
as Hogarth. 

PATCH, Thomas, was an English engraver, who 
flourished about 1770. In that year he engraved 
a set of twenty-six plates, from the frescoes in the 
Brancacci Chapel ; a series of caricatures and two 
landscapes after Poussin were published in 1768-70. 
He worked also after Giotto, FrJi Bartolommeo, 
and other old Italian masters. He practised land- 
scape and figure painting to some slight extent, 
and two pictures by him are at Hampton Court, 
a 'View of the Arno, Florence, by Day,' and a 
view of the same place by Night. Patch went to 
Italy with Sir Joshua Reynolds, and probably died 
there after 1772. 

PATEL, the name of two French landscape 
painters, father and son, who flourished in the 17th 
century. But little is known of them. Beyond 
the fact that some of the earlier pictures which are 
assigned to the father are signed ' P. Patel,' and 
that some later works assigned to the son bear 
a monogram before the surname, composed appar- 
ently of the letters A. P. T., their Christian names 
are unknown. 

The elder painter, who is generally known as 
' Patel le pere,' appears to have been born in 
Picardy, shortly before the year 1620. It is sur- 
mised that he, like many of the French artists of 
his time, owed his training to Vouet, and that he 
completed his art education by a visit to Italy. 
The latter surmise is founded on the fact that 
several of his works are evidently inspired by 

scenes in the neighbournood of Rome. It is also 
stated that he painted the landscape backgrounds 
in some of Le Sueur's pictures. With greater 
certainty he is included amongst the illustrious 
band of painters who in 1649 were engaged on the 
decorations of the mansion of the President Lam- 
bert de Thorignj' on the Island of Notre Dame in 
Paris. His brush was also employed in decorating 
the apartments of Anne of Austria in the Louvre. 
He was received into the Guild of Master Painters 
in 1635, and became a director in 1650. In the 
following year he was one of the elders who signed 
the agreement amalgamating the Guild with the 
newly-founded Academy. His death occurred in 
Paris on the 5th August, 1676. The elder Patel 
ranks amongst the most able imitators of Claude 
Lorrain, whose aerial effects he imitates with con- 
siderable success. Like his model he delights in 
the ruins of ancient architecture, which form a 
prominent feature in his compositions. Not many 
pictures have survived under his name. This is 
due to two causes. First, that he probably executed 
but few easel works, owing to his having been 
much emplo3'ed on decorations. Second, thatmany 
of his pictures have doubtless been passed ofE 
under the greater name of Claude. 

Concerning the younger painter, 'Patel le fils,' 
even less is known than concerning his father, 
with whom he is often confounded. He appears 
to have been born shortly before the middle of 
the 17th century, as it is expressly stated that he 
assisted his parent in the decoration of the apart- 
ments of Anne of Austria. He is also said to have 
painted twelve pictures representing the months, 
for the church of St. Louis-la-Culture, in Paris, 
four of which are now in the Louvre. His career 
was prolonged to the beginning of the 18th century, 
as there are two pictures at Marseilles bearing his 
monogram, which are dated 1705. He was killed 
in a duel : hence he is by some writers called 
' Patel le tue,' which cognomen is sometimes wrongly 
applied to his father. Two etchings by him are 
known, described by Dumesnil as ' Architectural 
Ruins ' and ' View of a Forest.' His art is not 
equal to that of his father, whose style he followed 

The following is a list of pictures by the two 
Patels. It is frequently doubtful whether a work 
I should be ascribed to the father or to the son. In 
the eases in which some degree of certainty exists, 
* is placed against the pictures of the elder, and t 
against those of the younger painter. 













The Finding of Moses, t 


Landscapes (2). 



Two Landscapes. 

Landscape: Morning (1705). + 

Landscape : Sunset (1706). t 

Cephalus and Procris. 



Two Landscapes. 

Jochabed exposing Moses 

Moses burying the Egyptiau 

(1660). * 
Two Landscapes. * 
January, Snow scene (1699). t 
April (1699). t 
August, arvest (1699).t 
September, Harvest (1699). t 
Landscape, Harvest (170...). t 



I'ttersburg. Hermitage. Christ and the Oeuturion.* 

,, ,, Two Landscapes.t 

Rennes. Museum. Kuins by the Sea, 

„ „ Two Landscapes. 

Valenciennes. Museut.i. Landscape with Water-mill. 
1, „ Landscape with Castle, 

ana. Archduke'} -r j 

Jlirecht's Gallery, j Landscape. 

A BenoIt Nicolas Patel, a painter of the 18th 
centiiiy, was of the same family, but very little is 
known about him. 

PATENTER. See Patinir. 

PATER, Jean Baptiste Joseph, a French 
painter of fetes galantes, was born at Valenciennes 
on the 29th December, 1695. He early showed 
artistic predilections, and his father, a wood-carver, 
having grounded him in the first principles of art, 
took him, while still young, to continue his studies 
in Paris. Tliere he became a pupil of his fellow- 
townsman Watteau, but the irritable temperament 
of the master caused a separation. When, how- 
ever, Watteau felt his end approaching in 1721, 
he sent for Pater to come to him at Nogent-sur- 
Marne. For a short time the pupil painted daily 
under the eye of the master, receiving his latest 
inspiration. This instruction thoroughly imbued 
him with the spirit of the chief of his school, aud 
lie ever gratefully acknowledged his obligation. 
In 1728 he was received into the Academy as a 
member of the new class of " peintres de sujets 
modernes." There are but few incidents to record 
in the short career of Pater. He did not cultivate 
friendships, and rarely went out of his studio. His 
time was entirely devoted to art : the whole day 
was occupied in painting, and the evening brought 
no relaxation to his labours. This feverish industry 
was caused by an ever-haunting fear of poverty, 
which led him to stint himself to provide for his 
latter days. His health at length gave way under 
such'a strain, and he died in Paris on the 'J5th July, 
1736, before he could enjoy the provision which 
he had laid up. Pater was a good colourist, but 
his drawing is without the precision of Watteau, 
and his touch is wanting in delicacy. He followed 
Watteau not only in choice of subject, but also in 
composition. The following are some of his more 
accessible works ; 



Women Bathing. 



Bal Champetre. 


Alter Schloss. 

Fete a la Champagne. 


Les Pecheurs. 



Le Jeu de Colin-Maillard. 


Neues Palais, 

F^te Champetre. 


Les Comediens Italiens. 


Les Baigneuses. 


Un Paysage. 


Dause en plein air. 


The Suite (14), ' Le Koman 
Comique de Scarron.' 

Brunswick. OrandBucal 

^ Conversation musicale un 


j Guitariste. 


The Guitariste. 
F4te Champetre. 


Koyal Cortege au Pare (1745). 


Danse dans la Foret (1753). 

Edinburgh. Nat. Gal. 

Women Bathing. 

Foutainebleau. Palace, 

Chinese Hunting Scene. 



) Picnic. 

Gallery, | Fete Champ^tre. 


Victoria and 

Alhert Museuvi. 

I Fete Champetre. 


Wallace Coll. 

F6t« Galante. 





Les Baignenses. 




FSte dans un P.arc. 
Le Bain. 


trallace CM. 

Le Boudoir. 

Detachement faisaut halte. 



Conversation Galante (three 



,Le Jeu de Colin-Maillard. 

J La Danse. 



) L'Escarpolette. 
I Fete Champetre. 



Plaisirs pastorals. 



Reunion dans un Jardin. 



FSte Champetre (1728). 

Louvre, Coll. la 

) Reunion des Com^iens 
/ Italiens. 




La Toilette. 


Conversation dans un Pare. 



La Baigneuse. 


Schloss Sans- 

) 1 Soldats en marche. 

j ( Soldats devant un Auberge. 



Bain d.ans la Maison. 

L'Amour en plein air. 



Le Sultan (two compositions). 


Lii Gaiety Villageoise. 
j Danse a la Campagne. 
( Concert en plein air. 



La Boh6mienne Diseuse de 

bonne Aventure. 



Reunion de Musiciens. 
Reunion en plein air. 


Stadt Schloss. 

Le Jeu de Colin-Maillard. 

Stockholm. JVai. Gal 

Young Girls Bathing. 

Valenciennes. Museum. 

Portrait of the Painter's Sister. 



The Nest of Turtle-Doves. 

La Soiree. 


s. Grand 

) The Bath. 
/ Fishing. 


PATICINA. See Adlek, Philip. 

PATIGNY, Jean, a French engraver, flourished 
from 1650 to about 1670. He executed a few 
plates, in which lie appears to have imitated the 
style of Agostino Carracci, but with little success. 
A print of the ' Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. 
John,' after Annibale Carracci, may be named. 

PATIN, Jacques, was painter in ordinary to 
Henry 111. of France, and to his Queen, Louise de 
Lorrain. He was employed by the Queen to 
paint the scenes for a masque, or ballet, given by 
her on the marriage of her sister Marguerite de 
Vaudemont with the Duke de Joyeuse, in 1581, 
on which occasion the king's valet-de-chambre, 
Baltazarini Beaujoyeux, prepared the book. This 
book is illustrated with twenty-seven etchings by 

PATINIR, Joachim D., (or Patinier,) was born 
either at Dinant or at Bouvignes, on the opposite 
bank of the Meuse, about 1490. He became a 
member of the Antwerp Guild of Painters in 1516. 
He contracted a first marriage with Franijoise Buyst, 
and a second, in 1521, with Jeanne Noyts. At this 
secoud marriage Albrecht Diirer was present ; he 
saw Patinir's work with admiration, and he drew 
his portrait. Patinir must have died before the 
5tli October, 1524, because on that date his widow 
and children sold the house he had bought on the 
30th March, 1519. Patinir left a son,_ Heeki 
Patinir, who also devoted himself to painting, but 
with slight success. Patinir has been called the 
inventor of landscape painting so far as the North 
is concerned, but that is an exaggeration. It 
would be truer to say that he was the first Fleming 
to make his landscapes distinctly more important 
tlian the figures with which they are peopled. 
His style may be placed between those of Gerard 
David and of Jerom Bosch. His pictures are not 
numerous, out most of the important galleries have 
good examples to show. Among these we may 
name : 



'{Junes' Bequest, South Kensington 



{Colleilioii oj R. II. Vrietliin, Esq. 







BerliD. Museum. 

Brussels. J?. Museum. 

Darmstadt. Museum. 


Lille. „ 

London. Nat. Gall. 

Antwerp. Museum. The Flight into Egypt {signed 

Opts. Joachim. D. Patiote, 

in a cai-touch). 
{This saitie gallery possesses two 
pictures on which Paiinir is 
said to have collaborated xcith 
Bernard van Orley.) 
A * Kiposo.' 

Conversion of St. Hubert 
{formerly ascribed to Herri de 
A ' Mater Dolorosa ' (the land- 
scape by Patinir; the figures 
perhaps by another hand). 
Virgin and Child in a landscape 
{J'ormetly ascribed to Mostaert 
and to Herri de Bles). 
Glasgow. Corp. Gall. Virgin and Child in a landscape, 
with rich architecture. 
Museum. History of Tobias. 

St. John the Baptist preaching. 
The Crucifixion. 
St. Christopher carrying Christ. 
„ „ St. John on the Island of 

„ „ The Visit of the Virgin to St. 

„ „ The Flight into Egypt. 

ANun(?). , 

Madrid. Museum. A ' Eiposo ' {three versions). 

„ „ Landscape with St. Jerome. 

„ „ The Temptation of St. Anthony 

(a masterpiece). 
„ „ Paradise and Hell. 

„ „ St. Francis of Assisi and another 

monk of the order in the 
Desert (? van Eyck). 
Munich. Gallery. Christ on the Cross (with a 

forged inscription). 
Vienna. Gallery. The Baptism of Christ. 

„ „ Landscape with the Martyrdom 

of St. Catherine 
„ „ The Flight into Egypt (two 

„ „ St. Jerome. 

„ „ The Battle of Pavia. (^s the 

battle was fought the year after 
Patinir died., according to the 
dates we have given, the picture 
must either be wrongly named 
or cannot be his work.) 
„ Liechtenstein Col. Christ on the Cross. 
„ „ St. Jerome in a landscape, with 

his Lion {with the forged sig~ 
nature Ktinten Masts 1513). 

PATON, (or Patton.) David, a Scottish portrait 
and miniature painter, who worked with some 
success about the middle of the 17th century. A 
portrait of General Thomas Dalzell, still in the 
possession of the Dalzell family, is ascribed to him. 
PATON, Sir Joseph Noel. This venerable artist 
was born at Dunfermline in 1821, and was one of 
the oldest survivors of what may be called the pre- 
pre-Raphaelite epoch in art. Paton was ap- 
penticed to his father's craft as a pattern designer, 
but soon relinquished that branch of the profession 
and went to study first at the Edinburgh Academy, 
and then at the Ro3'al Academy schools, London. 
In 1844 he contributed to the Edinburgh Exhibi- 
tion his first work, entitled ' Ruth Gleaning.' In 
1845 he obtained one of the three premiums of 
200J. for a cartoon called ' The Spirit of Religion ' 
for Westminster Hall. Armitage and Sir John 
Tenniel won the other two. At a further com- 
petition in 1847 he won the larger prize, 300!., 
with pictures of ' Christ bearing the Cross ' and 
'The Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania.' 'The 
Quarrel of Oberon and Titania,' by him, was bought 
for 700!. by the Scottish Academy in 1847, and is 

now with its sequel in the Public Gallery at Edin- 
burgh. In 1847 he was made an Associate of the 
Scottish Academy. In 1856 the fuller honours of 
that society fell to him. Ten years later he was 
appointed Her Majesty's Limner for Scotland, and 
accepted knighthood at Windsor. In 1878 the 
University of Edinburgh made him an LL.D. His 
paintings were of a very sentimental and religious 
character, but attained to extraordinary popularity. 
Many of them were engraved, and the reproductions 
commanded a large and important sale, especially 
amongst Nonconformists. Queen Victoria pur- 
chased several of Paton's works, and the patronage 
and approval of Her Majesty assisted very largely 
in making the artist well known. Some of his 
most important paintings were : ' Home from the 
Crimea,' 'The Good Shepherd,' 'Thomas the 
Rhymer and the Queen of Fairyland,' ' Dante 
meditating the Episode of Francesca ' (1852), 
'The Dead Lady,' 'The Pursuit of Pleasure' (1855), 
'Home' (1856), 'In Memoriam' (1858), 'Dawn,' 
' Luther at Erfurt,' ' The Dowie Dens of Yarrow,' 
illustrated in six pictures (1860), ' Mors Janua 
VitiB,' ' Faith and Reason,' ' Caliban listening to 
the Music,' 'Nickes the Soulless,' 'The Bluidy 
Tryste,' 'Oskold and the EUe Maids' (1874), 
'The Entombment,' 'Gethsemane,' 'The Man of 
Sorrows,' ' Thy Will be done ! ' ' In Die Male,' 
' Ezekiel's Vision' (1893), 'Puck," By Still Waters,' 
'Queen Margaret reading the Gospel,' 'Satan 
watching the Sleep of Christ,' and 'The Spirit of 
Twilight.' His paintings were elaborate and full 
of detail, but distinguished by a hardness of 
texture and an over-strained pathos and sentiment 
in their subject. With a certain class of religious 
thought they were the only pictures wliich 
appealed strongly, and in Presbyterian circles 
their vogue was immense. Sir Noel was a most 
courteous, kind-hearted, and sympathetic man, dis- 
tinguished by a considerable amount of religious 
fervour. He was an ardent collector of armour, 
books and medals, an archseologist of no mean 
attainments, and a scholar of polished and refined 
manner. He published two volumes of verses, and 
wrote several archaeological papers. He died at 
Edinburgh in 1902, aged 81. 

PATt)N, Richard, an English painter of marines 
and combats by sea, was born in London in 1717. 
He was found in the streets as a poor boy by 
Admiral Knowles, and by him sent to sea. He 
exhibited largely at the Royal Academy from 1776 
to 1780. He held an appointment in the Excise 
for a great part of his life. He died in London in 
1791. His works were very popular, as he painted 
most of the great sea-fights that occurred during 
his time. Many of them have been engraved by 
Woollet, Fittler, Lerpeniere, and Canot. Among 
his paintings we may name : 

Engagement of the Monmouth and Foudroyant by 

MoonUght {etclied by himseif). 1758. 
Attack upon Gibraltar. 1782. 
The Lord Mayor's Show hy Vf&ter {Guildhall ; figures 

bi] JVheatle//). 
Four pictures" of Dockyards, at Hampton Court. 

We have also a few etchings by him. Among 
others, the following : 
The Victory gained by the English over the French 

21st September, 1757. 
The Engagement of the Monmouth and Foudroyant 

(as above). 
The Engagement between the Buckmgham and the 
Florissant, supported by two Frigates, 3rd Nov. 1758. 



PA TON, Waller Hugh, tlie brother of Sir Noel 
Paton, was born at Dunfermline in 1828. For a 
few years be assisted his father in his work of 
pattern designing, but in 1848 he resolved to 
become a landscape painter, and got lessons from 
John A. Houston, R.S.A. His first exhibited 
picture was a water-colour, 'Antique Room, Wooers' 
Alley, by firelight.' He had a landscape, ' Glen 
Massen,' in the Koyal Scottish Academy Exhibition 
of 1861, and afterwards was a regular exhibitor. 
His pictures became popular, and in 1857 he was 
elected Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
becoming an Academician in 1868. In 1858 be 
collaborated with his brother Sir Noel in illustrat- 
ing Aytoun's 'Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers' 
(published five years later). He settled at Edin- 
burgh in 1859, occasionally going abroad, and to 
tours made in 1861 and 1868 drawings of French, 
Swiss, Gorman and Italian scenery are due. In 
1862 he first exhibited at the Royal Academy of 
London, and in that year received a royal com- 
mission for a drawing of Holyrood. For the last 
ten years of his life he had poor health, and in 
1895 he died. He was a Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, an honorary member of 
the Liverpool Society of Water-Colour Painters, 
and a member of the Scottish Water-Colour Society. 
He was an industrious painter, both in oil and 
water-colour, the Highlands of Perthshire and 
Aberdeenshire, Arran, Wales and the Lake c»untry 
fumisliing the subjects of most of his landscapes. 
'The Mouth of the Wild Waters, Inveruglas,' won 
the warm commendation of Mr. Ruskin, and all 
were characterized by the loving accuracy with 
which he rendered natural detail. His diploma 
picture, ' Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran,' hangs in the 
Scottish National Gallery. At one time he made 
a careful study of Turner's water-colours at South 
Kensin-ton. He kept a careful catalogue, with 
dates and miniature sketches, of all his important 
pictures. He is said to have been the first Scot- 
tish artist who painted a picture entirely out of 
doors, and his landscapes, with their carefully- 
finished detail, were for long exceedingly popular 
and widely known in chromo-lithographic repro- 
ductions. He specially loved to depict the glowing 
colours of sunset, purple hills and safl^ron sky, anil 
repeated the theme so often as to become mannered 
and monotonous. 

PATOUR, Jean Adgustin, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris about the year 1730, and 
flourished till 1784. He was a pupil of Halle and 
Flipart, and has engraved several plates in a neat 
style, among which are the following : 

The L ttle Lyar ; nftfy Alhrecht Diirer. 
Le doux S mmeil ; after Halle. 
Le doTix Kepos ; after the same. 
Hercules a d Omphale ; after the same. 
Two Views of La Rochelle ; after Lallemand. 

PATROIS, Isidore, French painter ; bom in 
1815 at Noyers (dep. Yonne) ; became a pupil of 
L'Enfant and of Monvoisin. At first he chose to 
paint scenes of Russian national life, then he dealt 
with historical subjects, and finally genre. The 
Luxembourg possesses his ' Procession des Saintes 
images aux environs de St. Petersbourg,' and the 
Dijon Museum has his ' Frangois I. et Rosso.' He 
occasionally used water-colour most effectively. 
In 1861 he obtained a third-class medal, and a 
rappel in 1863, another medal in 1864, and the 
Legion of Honour in 1872. He died in Paris in 


PATTE, Pierre, a French architect and en- 
graver, was born in Paris in 1723. He is stated by 
Basan to have engraved several plates of architec- 
tural ornaments. He also engraved some of the 
plates for Blondel's ' Architecture Frangaise ; ' ' Per- 
spective Views,' after Piranesi ; and the ' Temple 
of Venus,' after Claude. He died in 1812, at 

PATTEN, George, an English portrait and 
historical painter, born in 1801. His first instruc- 
tion in art was received from his father, a minia- 
ture painter. In 1816, he entered the schools of 
the Academy, where be first exhibited in 1819. 
Up to 1830, he practised miniature painting, after 
which he devoted himself to oil portraiture. He 
made a tour in Italy in 1837, to study its art 
treasures, and in the same year was elected an Asso- 
ciate of tlie Academy. The Prince Consort, whose 
portrait he painted in Germany in 1840, appointed 
liim his portrait painter, and he obtained a large 
practice in presentation portraits. His art, how- 
ever, did not fulfil its early promise, and he never 
reached the front rauk. In the latter part of his 
life he lived at Ross, Herefordshire. He died in 
London in 1865. 

PATTON. See Paton. 

PATZIG, Otto, German painter; born near 
Wtirzburg in 1822, and studied at the Dresden 
Academy under E. Bendemann. For a time he 
worked at Wtirzburg, where he held a post^ as 
Professor; he painted portraits and historical 
subjects in which prominence was given to costiune- 
details. He died at Klingenberg-am-Main in 1885. 

PAU DE SAINT MARTIN, Alexandre, a 
French landscape painter, born at Mortagne in the 
second half of the 18th century. He studied under 
Le Prince and Vernet, and exhibited (chiefly views 
in Normandy) at the Salmi from 1791 to 1838. 

PAD DE SAINT MARTIN, Pierre Alexandre, 
a French landscape painter and son of the above, 
was born in Paris towards the close of the 18th 
century. He studied under bis father, and ex- 
hibited at the Salon from 1810 to 1834. His 
' Entrance of the Elys6e ' was awarded a gold medal 
in 1824. 

PADDITZ, Christoph, (Pahdiss, PnDiss, Pait- 
dies, &c.,) was born in Lower Saxony about 
he year 1582. After receiving some mstruction 
in design from an obscure German painter, he 
visited Amsterdam, where be entered the school of 
Rembrandt. On his return to Germany he was 
taken under the protection of Albert Sigisraund, 
Duke of Bavaria, in whose employment he re- 
mained several years. He was also favoured with 
the patronage of the Duke of Ratisbon, and dis- 
tinguished himself as a painter of history and 
portraits. Sandrart reports that his death was 
hastened by his failure in a contest he had ac- 
cepted with a contemporary artist, who had chal- 
lenged him to paint a picture in competition. 
Although the production of Pauditz was greatly 
superior to that of his rival, the decision was 
against him, and he did not long survive it. This 
occurred at Freising in 1666. Among his best 
works may be mentioned : 
Augsburg. Gallery. Diogenes and the Drunken Old 

Dresden. Gallery. Lady Conversing with a Gen- 

tleman engaged in writiug. 
Freising. Cathedral. Christ clearing tlie Temple. 

Munich. Finakothek. Wolf Tearing a Lamb. 

Nuremberg. J^f"^ X a Male Portrait. 
Brotherhood. } 



Gallery, St. Jerome. 
Gsell Coll. Still-life subject. 

PAUELSEN, Erik, painter and engraver, was 
born at Bygom, near Viborg, in 1749, and studied 
in tbe Copenhagen Academy, where in 1777 hg 
won the large gold medal with a 'Judgment of 
Solomon.' In 1780-83 he visited France and Italy, 
and after his return was received into the Academy 
with an ' Allegory of the Union of the three North- 
em Kingdoms ' (1784). After this he travelled in 
Norway, and painted views, some of which were 
preserved at Frederiksborg Castle. His death 
occurred at Copenhagen in 1790, by his throwing 
himself from a window in a fit of melancholy. He 
painted a few good portraits, some of which he 
engraved, together with a few vignettes ; he also 
etched ' Canute's Reproof to his Courtiers.' The 
following historical pictures were executed by him 
in grisaille : 

Harder of Canute the Holy in St. Alban's Church 
{St. Knu(Vs Church, Odense). 

The Priest Madsen bringing news of the Enemy to 
Kantzau (engraved by J. G. Fi'eisler). 

Anne Colbjomsen in the Parsonage Court of Norder- 
hong {engraved by M. Haas). 

Eolf Krage {engraved by the sajne). 

The Royal Gallery of Copenhagen possesses two 
genre pictures by Pauelsen. 

PAUL, Andriaan, (or De Paulis,) a Dutch or 
Flemish engraver, flourished about the year 1640. 
He engraved several plates, among which are the 
following : 

Peter denying Christ ; after Gerard Segers. 

Titian and his Mistress ; after the etching by Van Dyck. 

The Tooth-drawer ; after Theodor Roelants. 

PAUL, J. S., an English mezzotint engraver, 
flourished about the year 1760, and has left a few 
portraits, among them that of Mrs. Barry, the 
actress, after Kettle ; and Lady Georgiana Spenser 
and her daughter, after Reynolds. He also en- 
graved a ' Conversation ' piece after Jan Steen. 
His plates show much ability. 

PAUL, Robert, was probably a native of Soot- 
la'jd. He resided at Glasgow in the latter part of 
the last century, and studied in the Academy 
there. He engraved some views of that city, and 
one representing the Cathedral is dated 1762. 

PAULI, (or Padx,) Andreas, also called De 
Pauus, a Dutch engraver, was born about 1598. 
No details of his life are known. The following 
plates by him have much in common with those of 
Johann Anton Pauli : 

Portrait of the physician N. Bulius. 

Titian and his Mistress ; copied on a reduced scale from 

Van Dyck^s ■plate. 
The Denial of Peter ; after G. Zeghcrs. 
Vir^ and Child ; after Rubeii.i. 
Bacchus and Ceres ; after .Sprangher. 
The Entry of Maria de' Medici into the towns of Mons, 

Brussels, and Antwerp, in 1(331 ; three plates, 
A set of Fifty Plates of Emblems. 

PAULINI, Berto di Giovanni, (or Paolini,) an 
obscure painter of Citta della Pieve, who flourished 
early in the 16th century. 

PAULINI, Giacomo, (or Paolini,) was an Italian 
engraver, a native of Naples, who flourished about 
1600, and apparently resided at Venice. We have 
a few prints by him, among which are the following: 

St. Peter ; probably from his own design. 

A View of the Poute di Rialto, Venice. 

An Alphabet. 

PAULINI, PiETRO. See Paolinl 
VOL. ly. a 

PAULSEN, Fritz, German painter ; born May- 
31, 1838, at Schwerin ; became a pupil of the 
Diisseldorf Academy, and subsequently studied at 
Munich under Piloty, and, later, in Paris. Settled 
in Berlin, where his portraits were much appreci- 
ated. His works in genre include ' Bauerfanger' 
(1874), ' Der Augenblick zur Rache ' (1867), in the 
Schwerin Gallery, and ' Bericht von Ball ' (1886). 
He died at Berlin, February 22, 1898. 

PAULUTY, Zacharie, portrait painter, was born 
at Amsterdam in 1600, and died in 1657. 

PAULUS, Jacobus. This name is found on part 
of an altar-piece in the Santa Croce chapel of San 
Giacomo, Bologna. It is of no great merit. 

PAULUZZI, Stefano, a Venetian painter who 
enjoyed some repute about the middle of the 17th 
century. Lanzi says his pictures had greatly 
deteriorated in his time owing to the badness of 
his grounds. 

PAULY, Nicolas, a miniature painter, was born 
at Antwerp in 1660, and died at Brussels in 1748. 
Very little is known of his life. 

PAULYN, Horatids, is introduced by M. Des- 
camps among the artists born about the year 1643. 
He was a native of Amsterdam, but it is not said 
under whom he studied. According to Balkema 
he died in 1686. Some of his pictures are in the 
manner of Rembrandt. He excelled in painting 
conversations and ' gallant ' subjects, but too often 
outraged decorum. He affected piety and ex- 
hibited all the outward signs of devotion, while 
he painted subjects which caused libertines to 
blush. At one time he set out for the Holy Land 
with a number of companions, but they broke up 
en route. In the Ufl&zi, Florence, there is a picture 
by him, ' The Miser.' 

PAULYN, Izaak, called by Lord Orford, Paling, 
was born at Amsterdam about the year 1630, and 
was a pupil of Abraham van den Temple. He was 
an eminent portrait painter, and in that capacity 
he visited England in the reign of Charles II., 
and there resided many years. In 1682 he returned 
to Holland, and established himself at the Hague, 
where he met with great encouragement, and where 
he died. He also painted conversation pieces in 
the style of his master. 

PAUPELIER, Pierre, a French miniature 
painter, was born at Troyes in 1621. He became 
a member of the Academy in Paris in 1664, and 
died in 1665 (?). 

PAUQUET, Jean Louis Charles, engraver, was- 
bom in Paris in 1759. He was instructed by 
Gauchet, and engraved after Van Dyck, Le Sueur, 
Teniers, Barbier, Moreau, and others. He died 
about 1820. 

PAUSIAS, one of the ancient Greek painters, 
was a native of Sicyon, and was first instructed in 
the art by his father, Brietes, but afterwards became 
a disciple of Pamphilus. He was the first artist of 
antiquity who painted ceiling.s. He also painted 
small pictures, and was particularly successful in 
the representation of children. Some of his rival 
artists pretended that he made use of those subjects 
as best suited to the slow and laboured style of his 
execution. To contradict the calumny, and to 
prove that he was capable of more spirited exer- 
tions, he finished in one day a large picture repre- 
senting the infant Hercules, which picture obtained 
from this circumstance the title of ij^fp^o-ios, " the 
day's work." In his youth he became enamoured 
of Glycera, the beautiful garland-maker ; and one 
of his most admired works was a portrait of his 



mistress holding a garland. A copy of this picture 
was purchased at Athens, hy Lucius Lucullus, for 
two talents. Pausias also excelled in painting 

PAUSON, another Greek painter, lived at about 
the same time as Polygnotus and Micon. He is 
mentioned hy Aristotle. " Polygnotus," says that 
philosopher, " drew men more perfect than they 
were, Pauson worse than they were, and Dionysius 
iBUch as they were." Whence we may infer that 
Polygnotus improved upon ordinary nature, that 
Pauson degraded her by a selection of her more 
vulgar forms, and that Dionysius contented him- 
self with representing her as she usually appears. 

PAUTRE. See Le Paultre. 

PAUWELS, WiLHELM Ferdinand, Belgian 
painter ; born April 13, 1830, at Eckeren, near 
Antwerp ; at first he studied with Wappers and 
Dujardin at the Antwerp Academy ; a subsequent 
residence in Italy served to develop his powers. 
From 1862 to 1872 he was a professor at the 
Weimar School of Art, and this post he held at the 
Dresden Academy from 1876 onwards, becoming 
eventually Hofrath. His canvas, ' Graf Philipp 
von Elsass,' is in the Dresden Gallery. ' Die 
witwe Jakobs van Artevelde' is in the Brussels 
Museum. Other pictures of his are at Munich, 
Leipzig, Eisenach, and Washington. lie obtained 
gold medals in 1857, 1864, and 1868, and the 
Leopold Order in 1861. He died at Brussels in 

PAVESE, El. See Sacchi, Francesco. 

PAVIA, GlACOMO, was born at Bologna the 
18th February 1655, and is said to have been a 
scholar of Antonio Crespi. He painted histori- 
cal subjects, and was employed in several works 
for the churches in his native city; the most 
esteemed being his picture of 'St. Anne teach- 
ing the Virgin to read,' in San Silvestro ; and the 
' Nativity ' in San Giuseppe. Lanzi states that he 
visited Spain. He died in 1750. 

PAVIA, Giovanni da. Lanzi ascribes several 
pictures in the churches at Pavia to au artist of 
this name. He was a pupil of Lorenzo Costa. 

PAVIA, Lorenzo da. There is a picture in the 
church at Savona signed Laurentius Papiensis. 
Its apparent date is about 1550. 

PA VON, Ignatius, was a scholar of Raphael 
Morghen. He imitated the manner and copied 
several of the fine engravings of his master. The 
dates of his birth and death are not known. The 
following are his principal works : 

Hater Amabilis ; after Sassoferrato. 

The Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. John, in a land- 
scape ; after Raphael ; but copied from the engraving 
by Ji. Morghen. 

La Madonna del Trono ; after Raphael. 

La Madonna di Foligno ; after the same. 

La Vierge a I'Oiseau ; after the same ; copied after R. 
Moryhen. ^ 

The Transfiguration ; after the same ; copied after S. 
Morijlien. . . 

The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Domemchmo. 

St. John 'Writing ; after the same. 

The Magdalene ; after Schid<>ne. 

Leda ; after Correijyio : and several others after Car- 
racci, JV. I'aussin, S;c. 

PAVONA, Francesco, a painter, was bom at 
Udine in 1682. He was instructed by A. Camio 
and G. dal Sole, and painted portraits and historical 
subjects. He travelled through Italy, Germany, 
Spain, and Portugal, painting for the diflferent 


courts, but settling eventually at Bologna. He died 
at Venice in 1773 or 1777. 

PAXINO. See Nova, Pecino de. 

PAXTON, John, a Scotch portrait and historical 
painter, bom in the first half of the 18th century. 
He was taught at Foulis's Academy, Glasgow, and 
coming to London, became in 1766 a member of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he exhibited 
as well as at the Royal Academy. He spent some 
time at Rome, and finally went to India, dying at 
Bombay in 1780. 

PAY, Jan van, (or Pey,) a painter of history and 
portraits, was born at Reidlingen in 1589. He was 
painter to the Elector of Bavaria, and portraits by 
him are to be found in Munich and the neighbour- 
hood. He died in 1660 (?). 

PAYE, Miss, an English miniature painter, who 
was probably the daughter of B. M. Paye. She 
exhibited at the Academy from 1798 to 1807, and 
appears to have had a fair practice. Among other 
people, Mrs. Siddons sat to her. 

PAYE, Richard Morton, an English subject 
painter, born at Botley, Kent, about the middle of 
the 18th century. He was brought up as a chaser, 
but his art tastes induced him to become a painter, 
and he produced some works which rapidly brought 
him into repute. For some time he was on terms 
of intimacy with ' Peter Pindar,' but the connection 
did not last long, and ended in a quarrel. Paye 
was an unfortunate genius. Two pictures of his 
are said to have been sold respectively as works of 
Velasquez and of Wright of Derby. But his work 
did not find a market, and he suffered much from 
ill-health. Poverty overtook him, and he sunk into 
obscurity. He is believed to have died in 1821. 
Many of Paye's pictures were engraved by J. 
Young, who was a friend of his ; Valentine Green 
engraved his ' Child of Sorrow,' and three others, 
while he himself engraved ' Puss in Durance,' and 
' No Dance, No Supper.' 

PA YEN, Antoine A. J., a Flemish landscape 
painter, born at Tournai towards the close of the 
18th century. He resided for a long time in the 
East Indies. He obtained the prize for landscape 
in 1815 at Brussels. Amongst his pictures are; 

Brussels. Museum. Landscape : moonlight. 

Haarlem. Museum. Views in Java. 

PAYNE, John, an English engraver, was born 
about the year 1607. He was a disciple of Simon 
van de Pass, and is considered the first artist of 
this country who distinguished himself with the 
burin. Had his application been equal to his 
genius, he would have ranked among the first of 
his profession ; but he was indolent and dissipated, 
and though recommended to King Charles I., 
he neglected his fortune and his fame, and died 
in indigence before he was forty, in 1647. He 
engraved portraits, frontispieces, and other plates 
for books, as well as a variety of other subjects, 
such as landscapes, flowers, fruit, birds, beasts, 
&c., but his portraits are the most esteemed of his 
prints. They are executed entirely with the graver, 
in a free, open style, and produce a very pleas- 
ing effect. One is dated as early as 1620. In 
Eveljfn's 'Scultura,' he is commended for his 
engraving of a ship, which Vertue informs us was 
the ' Royal Sovereign,' built in 1687, by Phineaa 
Pett. It was engraved on two plates, and when 
joined, was three feet long, by two feet two inches 
high. The following are his most esteemed por- 
traits : 


Henry VII., prefixed to his Life by Lord Bacou. 
Henry VIII. 

Robert Devereux.Eari of Essex, with a hat and feather. 
Sir Benjamin Rudyard ; after Jfyiens. 
Doctor Alabaster ; after Cornells Jansen. 
Hugh Broughton. 
Alderman Leate ; after C. Jansen. 
Roger Bolton. 1632. 
Arthur Lake, Bishop of Chichester. 
Sir Edward Coke. 16l'9. 
Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland. 
George Wither, the Poet, with a hat on, for his ' Em- 
blems,' published in 1635. 
William Shakespeare. 
Ferdinand of Austria ; after Van Dyck, 
Count Ernest de Mansfeld. 
Elizabeth, Countess of Huntingdon. 

PAYNE, William, an Englieli water-colour land- 
scape painter, born about 1760. He was in early 
life employed in Plymouth Dockyard, but having 
a love of art, lie devoted himself to it. His manner 
of painting had originality, and he produced some 
good effects of colour. In 1790 he removed to 
' London, and obtained a good practice as a drawing- 
master. From 1809 to 1813 he was an Associate 
of the Water-Colour Society, after which there is 
BO trace of him. There are several specimens of 
his art in the South Kensington Museum. 

PAZ, Don Jose, historical painter, was born at 
Madrid late in the 17th century. He was of no 
importance as an artist, but held an ofSce under 
the Spanish Court. 

PAZZI, M.4KIA Magdalena de, was born at 
Florence in 1566. She became a Carmelite nun, 
and painted saered pictures. S. Maria in Cosmedin, 
at Rome, possesses one of her works. She died 
in 1607. 

PAZZI, PiETRO Antonio, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Florence about the year 1706, and 
died in 1770. He was a pupil of G. Piamontini 
and C. Mogalli, and engraved several portraits of 
artists for the ' Museo Fiorentino,' Gori's ' Museo 
Etrusco,' and the ' Museo Capitolino,' as well as 
various plates after pictures in the Florentine 
galleries. Among others we may name the follow- 
ing : 


Francesco Albani, Bologuese Painter ; se ipse pinx. 
Federigo Baroccio, Painter ; ditto, 
Giacomo Bassano, Painter ; ditto, 
Giovanni Bizelli, Painter ; ditto, 
Andrea Boseoli, Painter ; ditto. 


The Holy Family ; after L. Cambiaso. 

The Assumption of the Virgin ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin and Christ ; after Van Di/c/c. 

St. Zanobi resuscitating a dead Person ; after Betti. 

St. Philip refusing the Popedom ; after the same. 

A Sibyl ; after Crespi. 

PEACHAM, Henry. In Walpole's ' Anecdotes,' 
this man is said to have engraved a portrait of 
Sir Tliomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex, 
after Holbein. He was the author of a book called 
'The Complete Gentleman,' published in 1633. 
He was bom at South Minims in Hertfordshire, 
and took the degree of M.A. at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He was tutor for a time to the children 
of Lord Arundel, whom he accompanied to the 
Low Countries. In the course of his life he also 
visited Italy. He was an amateur rather than a 
professed artist, and was skilled in music as well 
as painting and engraving. In his book entitled 
' The Complete Gentleman,' and another entitled 

'The Gentleman's Exercise,' he lays down rules 
for drawing and painting in oil ; for making of 
colours, blazoning coats of arms, &c. He died about 

PEACKE, Edward, was an English engraver, 
who flourished in the middle of the 17th century. 
In conjunction with Robert Peacke, who was 
probably his brother, he executed some plates of 
friezes, and other architectural ornaments, pub- 
lished in 1640. 

PEACKE, William, was an engraver and painter 
of the time of James I. Strutt mentions him as the 
engraver of two portraits of the Earl of Holland 
and the Earl of Warwick. 

PEAK, James, an English engraver. We have 
several plates of landscapes by him, some of which 
were engraved for Boydell ; he also etched a few 
plates from his own designs. Among others the 
following are by him : 

A View of Waltham Abbey. 

Two Landscapes ; after Fil/ement. 

Two Views of Warwick Hall in Cumberland, and Ferry 

Bridge, in Yorkshire ; after Sellers. 
A Landscape, with figures ; after Claude. 
Morning, a Landscape ; after the same. 
A Landscape, with Ruins ; after G. ^mith. 
A Landscape, with a Waterfall ; the companion ; after 

the ^amc. 
Four Views ; after R. Wilson, 
Banditti in a rocky Landscape ; after Boryoynone. 
The Beggars, the companion ; after the same. 

PEAKE, Robert, serjeant painter to James I. 
in conjunction witli John de Critz. He painted 
many portraits of James I. and Charles I., especially 
a notable one of the latter king, which still hangs 
in the University Library at Cambridge. Fait- 
home the elder was one of his pupils. He was 
born about 1680, and died in 1620. 

PEAKE, Sir Robert, son of the above Robert 
Peake, a print-seller "on Snow Hill near Holborn 
Conduit," who had some skill himself as an en- 
graver, and who assisted both Faithorne and 
Hollar, who were his personal friends, in the 
production of their plates. He took up arms 
on the Royalist side at the time of the Civil 
War, and was Lieutenant-Governor under the 
Slarquis of Winchester at the siege of Basing House. 
He was knighted at Oxford in 1645. On the 
surrender of Basing House he was taken prisoner, 
but later on was released, but was exiled for refus- 
ing to take the oath of allegiance to the Protector. 
After the Restoration he became Vice-President of 
the Hon. Artillery Company, and died in 1667, 
aged about 75. 

PEALE, Charles Wilson, an American portrait 
painter, was born at Chesterton in Pennsylvania, 
in 1741. He was apprenticed to a saddler, and 
after being successively saddler, harness-maker, 
watchmaker, carver, naturalist, and taxidermist, 
at the age of twenty-six he took lessons in painting 
from Copley, in Boston. In 1770-1 he studied in 
London under West, and in 1772 painted the first 
picture of Washington, as a Colonel. He painted 
the portraits of many distinguished revolutionary 
officers. He opened a picture-gallery in Phila- 
delphia, and was instrumental in establishing an 
Academy of the Fine Arts in Pennsylvania. He 
died at Philadelphia in 1827. His eldest son 
Raphael, also a painter, died at Philadelphia in 

PEALE, Rembrandt, painter, son of Charles 
Wilson Peale, was born in Bucks county, Penn- 



sylvania, in 1778. He showed talent as a draughts- 
man in early life, and in 1796 he established 
himself as a portrait painter at Cliarleston, South 
Carolina. From 1801 to 1804 he studied in London 
under West, and then went to Paris, where he 
painted the portraits of several eminent men. In 
1809 he returned to Philadelphia. He there 
painted two subject pictures, ' The Roman Daugh- 
ter,' and ' The Court of Death,' and many portraits, 
among which we may specify those of President 
Jefferson, Mrs. Madison, Commodore Bainbridge, 
Perry, Decatur, Genera! Armstrong, and the sculptor 
Houdon. Peale died in 1860. 

PEARCE, William, portrait painter, was born 
in London about the middle of the 18th century. 
He painted rustic subjects, and Charles Turner 
engraved his ' Milkmaid.' He exhibited at the 
Academy in 1798-9. 

PEARSON, Mrs. Charles, a portrait painter. 
Her maiden name was Dutton. She was born in 
1799. Early in life she mirried a solicitor named 
Pearson, who was afterwards a member of Parlia- 
ment. She exliibited portraits at the Roj'al Academy 
from 1821 to 1842, two of them being portraits of 
Lord Mayors. Mrs. Pearson died in 1871. 

PEARSON, COKNELitrs, was born at Boston, and 
came to London at an early age, where he was 
apprenticed to a copper-plate engraver. He soon 
abandoned this for the practice of painting in 
water-colours, to which he devoted himself, 
becoming a regular exhibitor at the Suffolk Street 
Galleries (1843-79). He was one of the oldest 
members of the Langham Sketching Chib, and 
was constant to the older traditions of English 
water-colour. He died in 1891 in his 83rd year. 

PEARSON, Egi.ington Margaret, daughter of 
Sanmel Paterson, distinguished herself by her skill 
in painting on glass. She was the wife of James 
Pearson. She jiainted two sets of the Cartoons, 
after Raphael, one of which was purchased by the 
Marquis of Lansdowne,and the other by SirGregory 
Page Turner. There is also another set, but whether 
by the husband or wife, or by both, is not certain. 
She died in 1823. Her works were various, but 
mostly copied from pictures by other masters. 

PEARSON, James, a glass painter, was born at 
Dublin about the middle of the 18th century. He 
learat his art at Bristol. There are windows by 
him at Brasenose College, in Salisbury Cathedral, 
and in Aldersgate Church, London. Pearson also 
painted some designs after James Barry, R.A. 
He married the aliove-named Eglington Margaret, 
the daughter of Samuel Paterson, a well-known 
book-auctioneer. He died in 1805. 

PEARSON, John Loughborodgh, son of a 
water-colour artist of Durham, was born at Brus- 
sels on July 5, 1817. At the age of fourteen he 
was articled to Bonomi, a Durham architect, and 
three j'ears later left for London, where he worked 
in the offices of Anthony Salvin and Philip Hard- 
wick. He devoted himself mainly to ecclesiastical 
architecture, and soon became one of the most 
distinguished of the modern school of Gothic re- 
vivalists. Holy Trinity Church, Vauxliall Bridge, 
built in 1850, was his first work of importance, 
and this was followed by St. Peter's, Vauxhall, and 
the Art Schools in the same neighbourhood. St. 
Augustine's, Kilburn, in 1871, and St. John's, Red 
Lion Square, in 1875, are among other London 
churches of his designing. His greatest achieve- 
ment was the Cathedral of Truro, which was begun 
from his designs in 1878, and completed, except 


for the western towers, in 1903. Among his 
domestic buildings may be named Lechlade Manor 
House ; the reconstruction of Westwood, Syden- 
ham ; Craigside, the seat of Lord Armstrong; St. 
Peter's Convalescent Home, Woking ; and the 
Astor Estate OBBce on the Embankment. Probably, 
however, it is as a restorer that he is best known. 
He was the official architect to many cathedrals, 
Bristol, Rochester, and Chichester among them ; 
and his rather drastic restoration of Westminster 
Abbey and Peterborough met with severe criticism. ' 
Pearson was a clever painter in water-colours of 
architectural views of cathedrals, &c., which he 
naturally rendered with much sympathy, and from 
1851 onwards the designs for his current work 
were regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. 
In 1874 he was elected an Associate of the 
Academy, in 1878 became a Knight of the Legion 
of Honour, and in 1880 a Royal Academician. 
He was also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 
He died on Dec. 9, 1897, after a short illness, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey on Dec. 16. 

PEA.RT, (or Paert,) Henry, an English portrait 
painter, born in the first half of the 17th century. 
He studied under Francis Barlow and Old Stone, 
and was much employed on copies of pictures in 
the royal collections. He died about 1697. 

PEAT, T., an English portrait painter, in the 
latter half of the 18th century. He was a follower 
of Reynolds, and exhibited at the Academy from 
1791 to 1805. Much of his work was in enamel. 

PECHAM, Georg, (or Peham), painter and en- 
graver, was an artist of the Munich school. By 
some he is supposed to have been a pupil of 
Melchior Pocksberger. We have by him some 
etchings, among which are : 

Hercules and Antaeus. 
Neptune and the Tritons. 
Virgin and Child. 

View o£ Gratz. 
He died about 1604. 

PECCHIO, Domenico, was born at Verona in 
1712, or 1715. He was a pupil of Balestra, and 
one of the most famous landscape painters of his 
day. He died in 1759. 

PIllCHEUX, Benoit, son and pupil of Laurent 
P^cheux, was born at Rome in 1769. In 1793 he 
won the great prize at the Academy of Parma, and 
became three years later professor at Turin. The 
date of his death is unknown. He painted the 
' Assumption ' and the ' Annunciation ' for the 
churches of Rouen and Yvetot respectively. He 
was the author of ' Iconographie Mythologique.' 

PECHEUX, Laurent, painter and designer, was 
born at Lyons about 1740, and came when young to 
Paris, whence he proceeded to Rome, and became 
a pupil and friend of Rafael Mengs. He was dis- 
tinguished by his frescoes in the Villa Borghese, 
and was later on made chief painter to the King of 
Sardinia, a member of the Academy, and a Knight 
of the Order of St. Maurice .and Lazarus. He died 
at Turin in 1821. 

PECHWELL, August Josef, a painter, was 
born at Dresden in 1757. He was instructed by 
Flutin, and afterwards went to Rome, where he 
remained till 1781. He painted altar-pieces and 
portraits. He was Inspector of the Royal Gallery 
at Dresden. He died in 1811. 

PECHWELL, Carl von, a German engraver, 
flourished at Vienna in the latter half of the 18th 
century. He engraved the portrait of the Emperor 


Joseph II., after P. Batoni, and those of several 
other German princes; also the following subjects: 

La Tieille Amoureuse ; ajter J. Toornvliet. 

The Judgment of Paris ; after A. van der Werff, with 

a dedication to the Graces of Europe. 
Venus uncovered by a Satyr. 
The Reading Magdalene ; after F, Satoni's picture at 

The Angry Mother and her Daughter ; after P. delta 


PECINO. See Nova, Pecino de. 

PECKITT, William, born in 1731 at Hurs- 
thwaite, Yorks, died in 1795, was one of the most 
important of English glass-painters, and the last 
of a school which had for above 500 years been 
famous in York. He was of humble birth and 
trained as a carver and gilder, but adopted the art 
of glass-painting. Though almost self-taught he 
may have worked for a time with William Price 
the younger. He especially devoted himself to 
the chemistry of coloured glass, in which he 
attained great skill, producing probably a greater 
variety in transparent colour, as distinct from 
enamel-colours, than has ever been achieved by 
any other artist ; the latest examples of old ruby 
glass (before the manufacture was revived in the 
19th century) were due to his skill. He married 
Mary Motley, the daughter of a sculptor of York, 
and he was buried in the churchyard of St. Martin- 
cum-Gregory in that city. An inscription in his 
honour, " designed and executed by his afflicted 
widow," was added to a window in the church of 
that parish in the year after his death. His earliest 
and latest works are to be seen at York. In and 
after 1757 he was engaged in repairing the ancient 
windows in the Minster, but before that date he 
had produced original works. 

York, Justice-room of the Guildhall : A symbolical 
presentment of ' Justice in a Triumphal Car.' Peckitt 
made a gift of this work to the municipality, and in 
return was admitted without payment to the freedom 
of the city. It was executed in 1753 and put up in 

York Minster, south transept, 1754 : A figure of ' St. 
Peter,' with the arms of the See, for which he was 
paid £11 15s. But iu 1758, "having attained to 
greater excellence in his art," he was dissatisfied with 
the figure and presented another in its place. 

York Minster, 1793 : The figures of ' Abraham,' 
'"Moses,' and * Solomon' in the south transept, to 
complete with the ' St. Peter ' a set of four. These 
he bequeathed to the Dean and Chapter, who had 
them put up in accordance with his will in 1795. 

Lincoln Catliedral, 1762 : The east window ; geometrical 
patterns of coloured glass (it has been removed). 

Exeter Cathedral, 1766 : The great west window, 
prob.\hly Peckitt's finest work, was barbarously 
removed in 1903. 

Oxford, Oriel Chapel, 1767 : He painted the ' Present- 
ation of Christ in the Temple' — a window now on 
the north side of the ante-chapel. It was designed 
by Dr. Wall, a physician of Worcester. 

Oxford, New College Chapel : The north windows, 
executed between 1765 and 1774 from the designs of 
Biagio Eebecca, E.A. Each of the five windows 
contains eight figures, three of personages and 
prophets from the Old Testament, and two from the 
New; the later windows show greater variety and 
delicacy of colour than the earlier. 

Cambridge, Trinity College Library, 1775: A large 
window from a design by G. B. Ciimani ; among the 
heads are portraits of Newton, Francis Bacon, and 
George III. Little coloured glass or pot-metal is 
used in this window. 

Peckitt also executed a good deal of repairing 
and ornamental glazing in various cathedrals, &c.. 

throughout the country, such as may still be seen 
in the clerestory at Peterborough and at Tewkes- 
bury. He was employed by Horace Walpole to 
paint some windows at Strawberry Hill in 1768 ; 
and there were in the chapel at Bishopsthorpe, 
Yorks, several coats-of-arms, recently removed, 
not without mutilation, to the " business-room " of 
the Archiepiscopal Palace. c. B. 

PECORI, DOMENICO, was a pupil of Bartolommeo 
della Gatta, and a partner of Niccol6 Soggi of 
Arezzo. He lived in the 15th century, but no 
certainty exists as to the dates of his birth or death. 
An ' Adoration of the Virgin ' by him is still in the 
Sacristy of the Pieve at Arezzo ; and other works 
of his may be found in that city and its environs. 
Vasari says he was more skilled in the use of 
tempera than in that of oil. 

PEDIUS, QuiNTDS, a Roman artist, grandson of 
C. Pedius, flourished about twenty years before 
Christ. He was dumb, and died young. 

PEDONE, Bartolo, an Italian painter, wlio 
worked in the first half of the 18th century. He 
painted landscapes, sea-pieces, storms, and night- 
pieces. He died in 1735. 

PEDRALI, GiACOMO, an Italian perspective and 
architectural painter, who flourished at Brescia 
from 1 630 to about 1660. He was a companion of 
Doraenico Bruni, and was already dead in the 
latter year, 

PEDRET. See Padro y Pedret. 

PEDRETTI, Giuseppe Carlo, was born at 
Bologna in 1694, and was a scholar of Marc An- 
tonio Franceschini. He resided some time in Po- 
land ; and on his return to Bologna painted a great 
number of pictures and altar-pieces for the churches 
and public edifices, of which the most esteemed are 
the ' Martyrdom of St. Peter,' in San Petronio ; 
' Christ bearing his Cross,' in San Giuseppe ; and 
' St. Margarita,' in the Anunziata. He died in 1778. 

PEDRIEL, Santos, a Spanish painter, who was 
a pupil of Sanchez-Coello. He painted historical 
subjects, and flourished about 1670. Siret gives 
the date of his death as 157H. 

PEDRIGNANI, Girolamo, a painter and en- 
graver, who flourished at Forli about 1640 to 1650„ 
Among his plates are : 

The Death of Abel. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise. 

Adam bewailing the Death of .\bel. 

PEDRINI, Giovanni, of Milan, who flourished 
in the 16th century, was one of those followers of 
Leonardo da Vinci who exaggerated their master's 
style. His works are to be seen at Milan, Berlin, 
and elsewhere. Pedrini is supposed to be identical 
with the Pietro Riccio, mentioned by Lomazzo as a 
pupil of Leonardo. 

PEDRO, El Licenciado. See Gutierrez. 

PEDRO, Francesco del, an engraver, was born 
at Udine in 1736. lie established himself at Venice, 
and among his engravings we may name : 

A Holy Family. 

A sleeping Jesus. 

Charity; iijter Alhanl. 

Judgment of Paris ; after Giordano. 

The Card-player ; afier Tenters. 

Landscapes ; after Londonio and Mi'ygiotto. 

PEDRONI, Pietro, an Italian historical painter, 
was a native of Pontremoli. He studied at Parma 
and Rome, and eventually settled at Florence, 
where he became Director of the Academy. He 
died in 1803 



PEDUZZI, DOMENICO Antonio, a Dutch painter 
of Italian extraction, was born at Amsterdam in 
1817. He was a pupil of J. Pieneman, and painted 
eilects of light and interiors. He died at Vienna 
in 1861. 

PEE, Engf.i.hardt van, a Flemish painter, who 
was bom at Brussels. He resided chiefly in Ger- 
many, and had much success at the Court of 
Munich. He died in 1605. 

PEE, Henrietta van. See Wolteus. 
PEE, Jan van, a Dutch figure painter, born at 
Amsterdam about 1640. He was a son of Em- 
manuel Van Pee, a Dutch picture-seller, and was 
chiefly employed in copying the works of the Dutch 

PEE, TheodOR van, a Dutch historical portrait 
and interior painter, was born at Amsterdam in 
1669. His painting not being sufficient to support 
him, he became a picture-dealer. In this capacity 
he came to England in 1715 and 1719, and on the 
last occasion he remained seven years, and amassed 
a considerable fortune. He then returned to his 
own country, and died at the Hague in 1747 or 1750. 
PEEL, Pactl, was born at London, Ontario, in 
1861. He received his first art-training at the 
College of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania, and studied 
subsequently at the Royal Academy, London, and 
in Paris under Gerome. He settled in Paris and 
only returned to Canada for short visits, and his 
art was French both in spirit and technique. In 
1889 he gained an honourable mention for his 
' Life is Bitter,' and a gold medal in 1890 for 
'After the Bath.' He specially loved to paint 
children and baby-life, but he also painted land- 
scapes with a fine sense of colour and light. He 
died in 1892. 
PEER, Lange. See Aartsen. 
PEETERS, Bonaventura, a Flemish painter of 
battles and sea-pieces, was born at Antwerp in 1614. 
His favourite subject was a stormy sea with light- 
ning flashing above, and a ship in danger. His 
works are very unequal in merit. His strong point 
was composition, and the arrangement of light and 
shade. He died at Hoboken in 1652, and was 
buried there. He usually signed his pictures P. B. 
with the date. Works : 



View at Flushiug, 



View of Middelburg. 



View on a River-bank. 



Dordrecht from the Maas. 
A Storm at Sea. 



View of Corfu (?) {Signed 
Bonaventiira Peelers; fecit in 
Hoboken 1652.) 



View of Scheveningen (with 
fiqures hy David Tenters the 



A Seaport. 

Vienna. Liechtenstein C. 

Three pictures of Storms at Sea. 



A Sea-piece. 



A Military Post. 

PEETERS, Clara, a Flemish still-life painter, 
who flourished in the 17th century. Several pictures 
by her are in the Madrid Museum, and one bears 
the date 1611. 

PEETERS, Gerrit. See Pieteeszen. 

PEETERS, GiLLES (or Egidics), who was born 
in 1612, and died in 1653, was a brother of Bona- 
ventura Peeters, and worked in the same atelier. 
Nothing is known of his paintings, but he etched a 
series of hunting-pieces after Snyders. 

PEETERS, Jacob, a Flemish painter of church 
interiors, who flourished in 1695. He was a pupil 

of Pieter Vandevelde, at Antwerp, in 1672-3, and 
Master of the Guild in 1688-9. He painted in the 
style of Pieter Neefs. His brother Jan flourished 
at Antwerp as a painter and engraver in 1680. 

PEETERS, Jan, a brother and pupil of Bona- 
ventura Peeters, was born at Antwerp in 1624. 
He painted similar subjects to those of his brother, 
though in general his works are very inferior to 
those of Bonaventura. He sometimes painted com- 
bats at sea, and even attempted historical subjects. 
He became a Master of the Guild in 1645, and 
appears to have died in 1677. Paintings by him 
are in the Antwerp Museum, the Munich Pinakothek, 
and the Museum and Liechtenstein Collections at 
Vienna ; and the Rijks-Museum of Amsterdam 
possesses a good picture of the ' Destruction of 
the English fleet at Chatham, in 1667,' by him. 
He engraved a series of landscapes in the style of 

PEGNA (or Pegnia). See De la Peigne. 

PEHAM. See Pecham. 

PEINS. See Pencz. 

PEIPERS, Hermine. See Stilke. 

PEIROLERI, Pietro, an Italian engraver, was a 
nativeof Turin, and flourished about tlje year 1760. 
Zani gives 1741 for the date of his birth, and says 
lie was active in 1777. Nagler says he was born 
in 1738, and gives a list of 20 prints by him. 
Neither authority mentions the date of his death. 
His chief prints appear to be : 

Bacchus seated on a Tun ; after Rubens. 
Portrait of the Foruarina ; after Raphael. 
Portrait of Raphael ; after the same. 
Philippe de Champagne ; copied from Edelinck. 
The Holy Family ; after Scarsellino. 
The Finding of Moses ; after Lazzarini. 
A * Eoman Charity ; ' after the same. 
Abraham's Offering ; after Bellncci. 
Jupiter and Calisto ; after Amiconi. 
Zephyrus and Flora ; after the same. 

PELACANE. See Morone, Dom. 

PELAIS, Michel, (or Palais?,) supposed to have 
flourished at Rome about 1625. He engraved the 
portraits of Cardinal d'Ossat and J. de Gasteboig. 
His mark is also found on prints after Palma the 
younger, and Federigo Zuccaro, and his manner 
approaches that of Cornells Cort. The signature 
Palais fee. is to be found on a wretched print of 
' St. John preaching in the Wilderness,' but the 
author may have been a totally difierent person. 

PELEE, Pierre, a native of Courtedoux in the 
Canton of Bern, and a scholar of von Schenker, 
engraved from 1820 to 1838. The following prints 
by him are noticed by Nagler : 

The Evangelist St. John ; after Dmnenichino. 
The President Duranti ; after P. Delaroche. 
Several Portraits and Vignettes for the works of Vol- 
taire and Kousseau ; after Dcsenne and Deveria. 

PELEGRET, Tojias, a Spanish historical painter 
in fresco and en grisaille, was bora at Toledo, where 
he studied the elements of his art, but afterwards 
went to Italy and placed himself under Baldassare 
da Siena, and Polidoro da Caravaggio, from whom 
he derived his knowledge of chiaroscuro ; and 
whom he made his model. He returned to Spain, 
in the time of Charles V., and established himself 
at SaragoBsa, where he acquired considerable reput- 
ation. His drawings were highly prized, not only 
by amateurs, but by artists. "They were purchased 
with avidity by painters, sculptors, decorators, and 
goldsmiths. Unfortunately few or none of his 
works in fresco exist, and the only examples of his 


ability that can be mentioned with certainty, are 
some pictures in the manner of Polidoro C'aravaggio 
in the Monastery of Santa Eugracia, in Saragossa. 
He died at the age of 84. He had many scholars ; 
among them was Cuevas, who assisted hira in 
painting the sacristy of the cathedral of Huesca, 
and some other works. 

PELGROM, Jakob, a Dutch landscape painter, 
who flourished early in the 19th century. He was 
a pupil of J. Pieneman. 

PELHAM, Henrt, historical and miniature 
painter, resided with Copley, R.A., and was moat 
probably his pupil. In 1777 he contributed to the 
Academy ' The Finding of Moses,' which was en- 
graved by W. Ward m 1787. In the following 
year he exhibited some miniatures in enamel and 

PELHAM, James, miniaturist and portrait 
painter, chiefly in water-colour, was bom in 
London, September 16, 1800, the son of James 
Pelham (died circ. 1850), also a miniaturist of some 
note, but not equal to his son in ability ; he was a 
great-nephew of the Prime Minister, Henry Pelham. 
In early life the second James Pelham travelled 
about the kingdom, painting portraits of notable 
persons, especially in the eastern counties and in 
Bath and Cheltenham. He was appointed painter 
to the Princess Charlotte, and had many distin- 
guished sitters. Pelham was resident at Bath in 
1832, when he made his first appearance at the Royal 
Academy with portraits of Viscount and Viscountess 
Weymouth. In 1836 there were five portraits, and 
in 1837 one, by James Pelham, resident in London, 
but it is uncertain whether this exhibitor was the 
father or the son. Most probably it was the latter. 
In or before 1846 he settled at Liverpool. In that 
year he had six portraits at the Exhibition of the 
Liverpool Acaderay,in 1847 three, and in 1848 four, 
also eight miniatures. He was elected an Associate 
of the Academy in 1847, a full member in 1851, 
and in 1854 or 1855 Secretary, in which capacity 
he for several years took a prominent part in 
arranging the Academy's Exhibitions during a 
period of great importance in its history. He 
exhibited portraits yearly until 1854, but not after- 
wards. The progress of photography so greatly 
interfered about this time with the practice of 
miniature and portrait painters that, like many 
others, Pelham had to turn to another branch of 
art — in his case it was the painting of domestic 
genre subjects, usually on a small scale. In 1855 
his only contribution was entitled ' Fast Bind, 
Fast Find,' priced 12 guineas. Thereafter he 
appears to have exhibited only twice ; in 1859 
'A Cup of Tea,' 12 guineas, and in 1867 'The Old 
Sempstress' and 'The Siimn)er Tourist,' not for 
sale. It is not well to speak with certainty, be- 
cause of possible confusion with the artist's son, 
James Pelham the third, who began to exhibit in 
1858. Pelhani's interest in the Academy did not 
abate. He continued to act as Secretary until 1860 
or 1861, and, after an interval, again, until suc- 
ceeded by his son in 1867. He died at Liverpool, 
April 17, 1874, and was survived by eight of a 
family of nine children. J.\mes, already mentioned, 
is a well-known Liverpool artist in landscape and 
genre, and Miss Emily Pelham in early life gave 
considerable promise. Slie exhibited genre sub- 
jects at the Liverpool Academy in 1867, and, 
according to Graves, sent four pictures to Suffolk 
Street from 1867 to 1879. A painter named Henrv 
Pelham, "at Mr. Copley's, Leicester Fields," who 

exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1777 and 
1778, does not appear to have been related to 
James Pelham. In addition to ten miniatures 
(two in enamel) he showed 'The Finding of Moses.' 
The portrait of James Pelham, painted by John 
Robertson, is in possession of his son. E. R; D. 

PELHAM, Peter, an English engraver, was born 
in London in 1684, and died about 1738. He en- 
graved several portraits in mezzotint; among which 
are the following : 

King George I.; after KneUer. 

King George II. ; after the same. 

Anne, Consort of the Prince of Orange ; after the same. 

Oliver Cromwell ; after Walker. 

Thomas Holies, Date of Newcastle. 

Robert, Viscount Molesworth ; after Gibson. 

John, Lord Carteret ; after Kne)ler. 

James Gibbs, Architect ; after Hys-ing. 

Peter Paul Rubens ; after Ruben's. 

Edward Cooper ; after Van der Vaart. 

Dr. Edmund, Bishop of London ; after 3[iirray. 

J. C. Pelham, a painter chiefly of portraits, born in 
1721, was his son. 

PELICHY, Gertrude de, a Flemish portrait, 
landscape, and animal painter, born at Utrecht in 
1743. In 1753 she followed her father to Bruges, 
and afterwards resided in Paris, where she received 
lessons from Suvee. In 1777 she returned to Bruges, 
and was made an honorary member of the Imperial 
Academy of Vienna. She painted portraits of the 
Emperor Joseph II., and of his mother, the Empress 
Maria Theresa. In the Bruges Academy there are : 
a landscape ; a head of Christ, after Guide ; and an 
old man's head, by this lady. She died in 1825. 

PELISSIER, Theodor, a German painter of 
French extraction, was a pupil of Wach, and 
painted genre pictures towards the end of the 18th 
century. He lived at Hanau, Hesse. 

PELKIN, Cornelis, an indifferent Dutch en- 
graver, lived about the year 166.''). He engraved 
a frontispiece to a book entitled ' Spiegel der 
Spaensche Tirannie,' published at Middleburg in 

PELLEGRINI, Andrea, an Italian painter, 
flourished at Milan from 1560 to 1595. He painted 
historical subjects, and severiil of his pictures are 
to be found in the church of St. Jerome at Milan. 

PELLEGRINI, Carlo, draughtsman and cari- 
caturist, was born at Capua in 1838, and was, on 
his father's side, the scion of an ancient family 
long settled in the district, and known as the 
Sedili Capuani; on bis mother's a descendant 
of the Medici. In his youth he became involved 
in the Italian struggle for liberty, and enrolled 
himself among the Garibixldians. In 1865 he 
arrived in England in straitened circumstances,, 
and a chance having revealed his gifts as a satirical 
draughtsman, he was engaged on the staff of 
' Vanity Fair.' In 1869 his first political carica- 
ture, a drawing of Lord Beaconsfield, appeared in 
that journal. It was signed " Singe,'' a pseudonym 
which he afterwards changed for " Ape." Hence- 
forth he was a prolific contributor for many years 
to ' Vanity Fair,' and has left behind him many 
hundreds of portraits of notabilities in the English 
political, artistic, and social world. One of the 
most successful was a statuette in red plaster of 
Mr. Lowe standing on a match-box, which the 
artist modelled in Count Gleichen's studio. His 
Last published caricature was that of Sir William 
Dolby, the famous aurist, and the last he drew a. 
sketch of Mr. Edison, the inventor of the phono- 



■graph. During his long residence in London, 
Pellegrini's gay and genial temper endeared him 
to all with whom he came in contact, and in his 
last illness a fund was provided by his more intimate 
friends for his support. He died in Mortimer Street, 
Cavendish Square, January 22, 1889, and was 
buried at Kensal Green. 

PELLEGRINI, Giovanni Antonio, was born 
at Padua in 1674 (or Venice in 1675). He was a 
scholar of Genga ; and is said to have received some 
instruction from Paolo Pagani. He distinguished 
himself among the modern Venetians, by a ready 
and ingenious invention, and an unusual facility 
of execution, though the effect of his works is im- 
poverished by a feeble and languid colouring, and 
a total neglect of the principles of chiaroscuro. 
The reputation he had acquired at Venice, and 
afterwards in Paris, recommended him to the notice 
of the Duke of Manchester, who invited him to 
England, where he resided some years, until 1712, 
in which year he entered the service of the Elector of 
Saxony at Dresden, and finally returned to Venice. 
He died in 1741. He executed several ornamental 
works for the mansions of the English nobility. 
He is noticed in the ' Guida di Venezia,' with this 
addition, ' Fu pittore piu di fortuna che di merito ' 
(' he was a painter rather by favour than by merit '). 
Some of his pictures have been engraved by V. 
Green, J. B. Cathelin, P. Simon, and T. Park. The 
following are preserved : 

Augsburg. Gallery. Several portraits and allegories. 

Genoa. Durazzo Pal. The Oath of Hamlet's Mother. 
Paris. Louvre. Allegorical design — Modesty 

offers the Artist's Painting 
to the Academy. 
Eome. Academy of St. 1 vr„i,„ 
Luke. j "■''°^- 
Venice. S. JHoi'se. The Brazen Serpent. 

PELLEGRINI, Domenico, a jiainter, was born 
at Venice about 1768. He studied chiefly at Rome, 
and his first great works were the ' Death of Mes- 
salina,' and 'The Marriage at Cana.' In 1792 he 
came to England, where he gained a considerable 
reputation as a portrait painter. He returned to 
his own country and painted several portraits in 
Rome, Venice, and Naples. Schiavonetti engraved 
after him. 

PELLEGRINI, Felice, was born at Perugia in 
1567, and was a scholar of Federigo Baroccio. He 
painted historical subjects, and became an artist of 
sufficient celebrity to be invited to Rome by Pope 
Clement VIII., who employed him in the Vatican. 
After having exercised his talents at Rome with 
some success, he returned to Perugia, where he 
died in 1630. 

PELLEGRINI, Francssco, was, according to 
Barotti, a native of Ferrara. He was a scholar of 
Giovanni Battista Cozza, and flourished about the 
year 1740. There are many of his works in the 
churches at Ferrara. In the cathedral is a ' St. 
Bernard ; ' and in San Paolo a ' Last Supper.' 

PELLEGRINI, Pellegrino, an Italian historical 
painter, was employed at the Escorial at Madrid, 
and was appointed painter to the Court of Spain. 
He died about 1634. 

PELLEGRINI, Vincenzio, the brother of Felice 
Pellegrini, was born at Perugia in 1575, and was 
also educated in the school of Baroccio. He painted 
several pictures for Perugia, in the churches of 
Sant' Antonio, in the Chiesa Nuova, and in other 
places. He was called ' II Pittor Bello ' for the 
beauty of his person. He died in 1612. 


PELLEGRINO, Fra Ignazio. See Danti. 

PELLEGRINO da BOLOGNA, and Domenico. 
See TiBALDl. 

PELLEGRINO da MODENA (or Munari). See 

tino di Battista. 

PELLENC, Jean Charles Lodis L^on, French 
painter ; born February 28, 1819, at Nimes (Gard); 
highly successful as a landscape painter in water- 
colour ; contributed regularly to the Salons since 
1848, his subjects being chiefly chosen from the 
scenery of Southern France or in the Seine-et- 
Marne and Cote d'Or departments, as, for instance, 
' Environs d'Epernon ' (1848), 'Groupe de Chenes 
a Marlotte' (1869), 'L'Autonme k Reclose' (1881), 
&c. He died in December 1894. 

PELLET, David, was a French engraver, whose 
name is affixed to a plate representing Louis XIII. 
when young, on horseback, with the portraits of 
Henry IV. and Maria de' Medici in small ovals at 
the top. 

PELLETIER, Jean, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris about the year 1736. We have 
several plates by him of various subjects, among 
them the following : 

The 'Watering-place ; after Berchem, 

Kuins and Figures ; after the same. 

The Fish-Market ; after Pierre. 

The Green-Market ; after the same. 

Diana reposing ; after Boucher. 

The Eape of Kuropa ; after the same. 

Two Pastoral subjects ; after the same. 

The Union of Design aucl Painting; after Katoire. 

Young Bacchus ; after C. van Loo. 

The Travellers ; after Wouwerman. 

Ladies going to the Chase ; after the same. 

The Tipplers ; after Ostade. 

Nagler mentions about twenty more, after Claude, 
A. Van der Velde, Teniers, Bega, P. Millet, Metsu, 
and others. Pelletier's wife also engraved two 
plates after A. Ostade, and one after Wouwerman. 
There is no account of the death of either. 

PELLI, Marco, an engraver, was born at Venice 
about 1696. His principal engravings are heads 
of saints ; a few portraits ; a ' Charge of Cavaliy,' 
after Borgognone ; and a ' Landscape,' after D. B. 
Zilotti, signed M. Pelli exc. No particulars of 
his life have been preserved. 

PELLICIAIO. See Del Pelliciaio. 

PELLICOT, Louis Alexis de, a French painter, 
and native of Digne. He flourished in 1787. A 
' Cromwell at Windsor ' and a set of views of old 
French chateaux were among his most important 

PELLIER, Nicolas Francois, a native of 
Besan9on, was born in 1782, and has left a few 
small landscapes engraved with the point from his 
own designs. He died in 1804. 

PELLIER, Pierre Edm^ Louis, a French por- 
trait and historical painter, who flourished about 
1815. He was a pupil of Regnault. In the 
Museum at Caen is a ' Telemachus ' by him. 

PELLINI, Andrea, a native of Cremona, who 
flourished about 1595. He painted historical pic- 
tures, and resided chiefly at Milan. 

PELLINI, Marc Antonio, an historical painter, 
was born at Pavia in 1659. He was a pupil of Th. 
Gatti, and studied at Venice and Bologna. He 
died in 1760. 

PELOSI, Francesco, an historical painter, who 
flourished at Venice in the 15th century. At 


Bologna are by this artist a 'St. Julian,' a 'St. 
Jamee,' a ' Virgin and Child,' and a ' Dead Christ' 

PELOUSE, L^ON Germain, French painter ; 
born at Pierrelaye (Seine-et-Oise) in 1838 ; began 
life as a commercial traveller, but in spite of the 
opposition of his parents he determined to become 
an artist. His whole career is an example of 
indomitable energy. He made his debtit in 1865 
with a picture that, having no studio of his own, 
he was obliged to paint in barracks, the colonel 
permitting this. Success came slowly ; and it was 
not till 1873 that he received a medal of the second 
class. In 1878 he obtained a first-class medal and 
the Legion of Honour. At the Universal Ex- 
hibition of 1889 he received a gold medal. The 
French School possessed in him one of its most 
brilliant and prolitic landscape artists. His charm- 
ing ' Coin de Cernay en Janvier ' is in the Luxem- 
bourg ; other well-known pictures are his 'Environs 
de Prdcy,' ' Souvenir de Cernay,' ' Coupe de Bois k 
Senlisse,' and 'Matin en Bretagne,' which are to 
be seen in private and public collections. His 
preference was for broad and simple motives, 
which he delighted to express in low keys of 
colour perfectly suited to the scenery he loved. 
He died at Pierrelaye, July 31, 1891. 

PELTRO, John, engraver, was bom in 1760. In 
1779 he exhibited some engravings after Taverner 
and others, but his chief work was engraving after 
Repton the miniature views of gentlemen's seats 
for the ' Polite Repository.' He died at Hendon 
in 1808. 

PEMBROKE. Thomas, an English historical 
painter, born in 1702. He was a pupil and follower 
of the younger Laroon, and was patronized by the 
Earl of Bath. His best known work is a ' Hagar 
and Ishmael,' which was mezzotinted by J. R. 
Smith and published by Boydell. He died in 1730. 

PEN, HiSPEL, (or Penn). Strutt has fallen into 
error with respect to a supposed artist of this 
name ; it is now satisfactorily ascertained, that the 
prints assigned to him ought to be included in the 
works of Beham. 

PEN, Jacob, was a Dutch painter, mentioned by 
Balkema as being particularly employed by Charles 
II. He says that he composed with intelligence, 
and added beautiful colour to correct drawing ; but 
he says nothing of his subjects, and adds, "All his 
pictures are in England." Pen died in 1678. 

PENA. See Diaz de la Pena. 

PENAl. See La Penai. 

PENALOSA, Juan de, an historical painter of 
the school of Seville, was born at Baeza in 1681. 
He was one of the best scholars of Pablo de Ces- 
pedes, whose works he assiduously imitated, as is 
evinced in the magnificent picture in the cathedral 
of Cordova, representing St. Barbe. He also 
painted a ' St. Jago ' for the convent of Arizafa ; 
several pictures for the Jlinimes, and many others 
for private collections in Cordova, where he died 
in 1636. 

PENCHARD, J., was a Dutch engraver, who 
resided at Ley den about the year 1678. His plates 
are chiefly confined to frontispieces, and other book 
ornaments ; but he engraved the anatomical plates 
for the works of Reg. de Graaf, with the portrait 
of the author, published at Leyden in 1678. 

PENCZ, Georg, a native of Nuremberg, was 
born at or before the beginning of the 16th centmv. 
He was admitted into the Guild of Painters in 
1523, after he had been, if not under the instruc- 
tion, at least under the influence, of Albrecht Durer 

He was associated with the Behams, and with 
them in 1524 underwent the sentence of banish- 
ment for heresy. His sentence, however, seems 
to have been allowed to drop, as we find frequent 
notices of his presence in Nuremberg, though he 
was deprived of his citizen-right, and in 1525 he 
was permitted to settle in Windeheim, a place 
within the city's jurisdiction. About 1532 he 
probably returned to Nuremberg altogether. Be- 
fore his trial we find him engaged on the work of' 
restoring pictures, but he was afterwards appointed 
painter to the Rath. There is no proof that he 
paid much attention to engraving till 15.35, the first 
date on any of his plates. He seems to have 
visited Italy on several occasions, and the dates of 
those visits have unusual importance from the fact 
that Passavant confidently ascribes to him one of 
the finest of the plates, which the world has been 
in the habit of giving to Marc-Antonio. In the 
fourth volume of the ' Peintre-Graveur,' Passavant 
says : " Pencz left his home to frequent the school 
of Marc-Antonio. This is put beyond a doubt by 
the style of his words at the time. The influence 
of the Italian school is clearly present. . . . Above 
all is it visible in the ' Massacre of the Innocents 
(au Chicot), Bartsch, 18,' hitherto considered the 
original plate by Raimoiidi himself.'' Passavant 
goes on to say that this Massacre au Chicot is finer 
and firmer in drawing than the one by Marc-An- 
tonio, but rather less graceful and life-like. To 
quote his works ; " On carefully comparing these 
two masterpieces of engraving on copper, No. 18 
appears neater and firmer in drawing, but difiEers 
not only in the burin line, which is slightly thinner 
and stiffer than that of so consunmiate an artist as 
Marc-Antonio, but the expression of the heads has 
less life, and the hatchings sometimes have that 
horizontal direction which is never found among 
the Italian engravers. No. 20 (Bartsch), which 
undoubtedly belongs to Marc- Antonio, is of freer 
line, and fuller outline, and of greater vivacity in 
the heads. Everything considered, we are fully 
convinced that the print, No. 18, ' Au Chicot,' was 
executed by George Pencz after the original draw- 
ing of Raphael" (vol. iv. p. 101). To all this 
the champions of Raimondi oppose an alibi, assert- 
ing that Pencz did not practise engraving until 
after the deaths both of Raphael and Raimondi. 
It is difficult to see how this can be conclusive, 
and there certainly is much in common between 
the work in the disputed plate and tliat in the 
' Triumphs of Petrarch,' which are without doubt 
by Pencz. In 1539 Pencz was certainly in Rome, 
and at this time executed a large print after Giulio 
Romano, called ' The Taking of Carthage,' and to 
this period is also assigned by Passavant, 'The 
Prisoners,' a print generally ascribed to Ghisi. 
Pencz executed several plates in miniature from 
the Old and New Testaments ; also many scenes 
from ancient history and mythology. In 1544 he 
was commissioned to paint a ' S. Jerome ' at Nurem- 
berg, where he was also successful in portrait paint- 
ing. He died at Breslau in 1650. Most of the 
pictures ascribed to Pencz are merely copies from 
his plates, but the following may be considered 
authentic : 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of the painter Erhard 

.Scbwetzer {iiyned inth a 
monoijram and dated 1544). 
Portrait of Schwetzer's wife. 

Portrait of a Young Man. 1534. 


Carlsruhe. Museum. Portrait of a Mathematician. 
Dresden. Gallery. Three fragments from an 

'Adoration of the Magi,' 
signed G. P. in a monotjrain. 
„ „ Two Male Portraits (?). ' 

Glasgow. Gallery. Female Portrait (^formerly as- 

cribed to Holbein^ whose name 
appears upon it). 
Gotha. Gallery. A Portrait. 

Hampton Court. Portrait of an Italian Gentle- 

Vienna. Belvedere. A Portrait. 

Copies of Holbein's Era,smus, at Windsor, Brunswick, 
and in the Bruderhaus at Nuremberg. 

His engravings of Bible subjects are notable for 
their secular spirit, and his work as a whole for its 
combination of Italian refinement in execution with 
northern thoroughness. The following list includes 
all his more important plates : 
The six triumphs of Petrarch. 
The Massacre of the Innocents lau Chicot). 
The taking of Carthage (signed Georgino Penc: pictor, 
Narnberg, Faciehat, Anno MDXXXIX) ; after 
Giulio Romano. 
The Prisoners. (Generally ascribed to G. Ghisi.) 
Scenes from the Old Testament. 

„ „ New „ 

Thomiris, Medea, Paris, and Procris (four plates). 
Triton carrying otf Amymone. 

The Legend of Virgil and the Scornful Lady {2 plates). 
Death of Sophonisba. 
The Conversion of St. Paul. 
Portrait of Duke Frederick of Saxony. 
(Penc: is the only one of ' The Little Masters ' who has 
left no Madonnas.) 

See Bartsch, ' Les Peintres Graveurs,' vol. viii. p. 
319, 1803 ; ' The Little Masters,' W. B. Scott, 1880 ; 
and J. D. Passavant, ' Le Peintre Graveur,' vol. iv. 

PENET, Louis FKASgois, a French painter and 
engraver, born at Thiennes (Nord) in 1834 ; was a 
pupil of Kusten ; painted portraits, genre pictures, 
and still-life, doing a good deal of work in email, 
notably a portrait of Sarah Bernhardt as Dona 
Sol. He obtained a third-class medal in 1886. 
He died in Paris, March 2, 1901. 

painter and engraver; born April 4, 1811, in 
Paris ; became a pupil of Charlet ; served as an 
officer of artillery ; a prolific illustrator, notably 
of Stranger's works and of Scarron's ' Roman 
Comique.' Among his pictures are ' Vieux Trouba- 
dour,' ' La Mort de Judas,' &c. In 1847 he 
obtained a third-class medal, a second-class 
medal in 1851, and the Legion of Honour in the 
same year. He died November 3, 1872. 

PENICAUD. This was the name of a family of 
artists of the 15th and 16th centuries. It com- 
prised : 

LEONARD or Nardon PjJnicaud, an enameller of 
Limoges (1495—1513). 

Jean Penicaud, the elder, also an enameller of 
Limoges (beginning of the 16th century). 

Jean Penicadd, the younger, a painter (1531-47), 
has left a portrait of Luther and several other 
works in Paris, and in private collections. 

Jean Penicadd, the youngest, called ' The Glory 
of Limoges,' was a follower of Parmigiano in style. 
The Louvre has a fine collection of his enamels. 

Pierre Penicaud, probably a brother of the last 
(born 1515), is the painter of some draped figures 
in the Gatteaux Collection, and of a mythological 
subject on porcelain at Berlin. For a more detailed 
account of the Penicauds see Laborde, ' Notice des 
Emaux du Louvre.' 

PENLEY, Aaron Edwin, a water-colour painter, 

born in 1806, first appears in 1835 as an exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, to which he continued to 
contribute occasionally till 1857. In 1838 he was 
elected a member of the Institute of Painters in 
Water-colours, but withdrew in 1856 on the 
ground that justice was not done to his works 
when sent for exhibition. In 1859 he was, at his 
owTi solicitation, re-elected an Associate. From 
1851 till its dissolution he was Professor of Drawing 
at the Addiscorabe East India College, and he held 
a similar post at Woolwich till his death. He was 
water-colour painter to William IV. and Queen 
Adelaide. He was the author of ' Elements of 
Perspective,' ' The English School of Painting in 
Water-colours,' and ' Sketching from Nature in 
Water-colours.' He died at Lewisham in 1870. 
PENNA, Delt.a. See Ndzzi. 
PENNACCHI, Girolamo di Pier-Maria, (called 
Girolamo da Treviso,) was the son of Pietro Maria 
Pennacchi, and born in 1497 at Treviso, in which 
city a house known as that of Pier Maria Pennacchi 
still exists, its facade covered with a fresco by 
Girolamo of the 'Judgment of Solomon,' together 
with medallions, playing children, and similar 
designs. In early life Girolamo went to Venice, 
and from thence to Genoa, but nothing authentic 
now remains of his labours in either city. In 1532 
he was employed by Cardinal Gloss to paint several 
frescoes in the Castello at Trent ; remains of these 
still exist. In 1533 Sabba da Castiglione employed 
him to paint at the church of the Commenda of 
Faenza a votive fresco of the ' Virgin and Child, with 
Saints,' and a kneeling portrait of himself, that still 
remains over the high altar. At about this period 
in his life he paid a visit to Bologna, where several 
of the churches possess frescoes and paintings by 
liim. Between the years 1535 and 1538 he returned 
to Venice, and became intimate with Titian, San- 
sovino, and Aretino. During this visit he painted 
many frescoes in different palaces of the nobility ; 
those executed by him in the Palazzo Andrea Odone 
still remain. In 1542 he came to England, and be- 
came architect and engineer to Henry VIII., and was 
employed by that monarch at the siege of Boulogne, 
where he was killed by a cannon-ball in 1544. The 
mode of his death is described in a letter from 
Aretino to Sansovino, dated in July 1545. Works : 
London. Nat. Gal. Virgin and Child.with SS. Joseph, 
James, and Paul, and patron. 
(The best example extant. It 
came originally from the BoC' 
caferri Chapel in San Do- 
vienico, Bologna.) 
Eome. Colonna Pal. Portrait of a Man holding a medal. 
Treviso. Onigo Coll. Virgin and Child, with St. Joseph. 
„ „ Two bust portraits of Men. 

PENNACCHI, PiETRO Maria, was the son of 
Giovanni di Daniele Pennacchi, and bom in 1464. 
He probably spent his early j-ears in Treviso, and 
went to Venice in after-life. In the church of San 
Francesco delhi Vigna, Venice, there is an ' Annunci- 
ation ' by him ; and Santa Maria della Salute, Santa 
Maria della Misericordia, and La Madonna de' 
Miracoli have each ceilings panelled in relief with 
sacred subjects in the panels, which are ascribed to 
this artist. On the front of a house in the Via 
Ognissanti, Treviso, are various sacred and profane 
frescoes, said to have been painted by Pietro in 
1528, in which year he died. The following works 
by him may also be mentioned : 
Berlm. Museum. Christ in the Tomb, between two 

Treviso. Cathedral. The Assumption of the Virgin. 


PENNE, Charles Olivier de, French painter ; 
born in Paris, January 11, 1831 ; was a pupil of 
Leon Cogniet and Charles Jacque ; in 1857 he 
obtained the Second Grand Prix de Kome with his 
picture entitled ' Jesus et la Samaritaine,' though 
his debut at the Salon was in 1855 with ' Dans 
deux mille ans,' inspired by Victor Hugo's 'Arc 
de Triomphe.' He excelled as a painter of animals 
and of hunting scenes, such as ' Retour de la 
Cliasse,' 'Chiens Bleus de Gascogne,' 'Sangliers 
au Fernie,' ' Pendant la Chasse,' &c. He painted 
a good deal in water-colour, and exhibited such 
work at regular intervals. He gained a third-class 
medal in 1875, a second-class one in 1883, and a 
silver medal at the Exhibition of 1889. He died 
at Marlotte, April 18, 1897. 

PENNE, Jan van, a Dutch still-life painter, was 
settled at Antwerp about 1680. He was born about 
1652, and died after 1700. He was the teacher of 
J. J. Horeraans the elder. Perhaps identical with 
J. van Pee. 

PENNEMAKERS, the Recollet, was, according 
to Balkeuia, a scholar of Rubens. In the Museum 
at Antwerp there is an ' Ascension of Christ ' at- 
tributed to him. 

PENNENSUS, F., who was probably a painter, 
and a native of Italy, has left a few slight etchings, 
the following among them : 

The Holy Family, with St, Catharine, and an Angel in 
the air : after Parmigiano. 

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; /rom his own design. 

PENNEVILLE, Jan, a Flemish historical painter, 
was a native of Bruges. He was Master of the 
Corporation of St. Luke in 1639, and died in 1681. 

PENNEY, N., a French engraver, has left some 
plates of devout subjects, executed with the graver. 
Among others is 'The Virgin appearing to St. 
Bartholomew,' which is apparently from his own 
design, as he adds/ea< to his name. 

PENNI, Bartolommeo, was an Italian portrait 
and historical painter of the 16th century. He 
was engaged in England by Henry VIII. at the 
same time as Antonio Toto. 

PENNI, Gianfrancesco, called II Fattore, was 
a painter of Florence, born about 1488. He went 
to Rome when he was very young, and was re- 
ceived into the school of Raphael, of whom he 
became a favourite disciple ; and being entrusted 
by that artist with the management of his domestic 
affairs, he acquired the appellation of ' II Fattore.' 
Raphael employed him in many of his most im- 
portant works, particularly in painting upon the 
cartoons for Leo X., and in the Loggie of the Vati- 
can. Taja informs us that the histories of Abra- 
ham and Isaac were executed by Penni. In these 
important undertakings, he acquitted himself so 
much to the satisfaction of Raphael, that he was 
appointed joint executor with Giulio Romano. He 
was employed by Clement VII., in conjunction 
with Giulio, to finish the frescoes of the ' History 
of Constantine,' which had been begun in the 
Saloon now called after them. ' Constantino's 
Vision of the Cross,' and his ' Battle with Maxen- 
tius,' were painted by Giulio ; his ' Baptism by St. 
Silvester,' and his ' Donation of Rome to that 
pontiff,' by Penni ; so in ' The Assumption of the 
Virgin,' at Monte Luce, Perugia, Penni painted 
the lower half. He had also a principal share 
in the ' History of Cupid and Psyche,' in the 
Famesina. After this he fell into disagreement 
vnth Giulio, and made a tour through Lombardy, 
settling afterwards at Rome. The marriage of 

his sister with Perino del Vaga led him to work- 
ing in conjunction with this artist also. Of his 
own compositions, those executed in fresco have 
now almost entirely perished ; and he painted 
so few pictures in oil, that they are rarely to be 
met with. He particularly excelled in landscapes, 
and was well acquainted with the beauties of 
architecture. In 1525 he was in\-ited to Naples 
by the Marquis del Vasto, and took with him an 
admirable copy he had made of the ' Transfigura- 
tion,' by Raphael, which he sold to that nobleman, 
for whom he executed some considerable works. 
This copy is now in the Sciarra Colonna Palace, 
at Rome. He died in 1528. Pictures by him are in 
the Vatican, the Museum of Naples, and the galleries 
of Dresden and Stuttgart. According to some 
authorities the picture in the Bridgewater Gallery, 
known as ' The Madonna del Passeggio,' is painted 
by him. 

PENNI, LncA, called Romano, the brother of 
Gianfrancesco Penni, was born about the year 
1500. He is said to have frequented, for a short 
time, the studio of Raphael ; and after the death of 
that' master to have attached himself to Perino del 
Vaga. After painting some pictures for the churches 
at Lucca and Genoa, he visited England, in the reign 
of Henry VIII., by whom he was for some time 
employed, and afterwards went to France, where 
he painted at Fontainebleau, in conjunction with 
II Rosso. On his return to Italy he applied himself 
to engraving, and executed several plates, both 
with the point and the graver. Among his designs 
are ' Diana borne on the shoulders of Orion ' (en- 
graved by Giorgio Ghisi) ; ' Apollo with the Muses 
upon Parnassus ' (engraved by G. Mantovano) ; and 
a ' Scourging of Christ ' (engraved by H. Wierix). 
His prints are chiefly from the works of 11 Rosso 
and Primaticcio ; the following are the best : 

The Death of Lucretia. 

Two Satyrs presenting Wine to Bacchus ; after II Rosso. 

Leda drawing Arrows from Cupid's Quiver ; after the 

Susanna and the Elders ; after the same. 
The Sacrifice of Isaac ; after Primaticcio. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same. 
Penelope at work, surrounded by her Women ; after 
the same. 

PENNING, Nicolaas Lodewijk, born at the 
Hague in 1764, was a schoLar of Dirk van der Aa, 
and painted landscapes, interiors of stables, and 
marine subjects. He died at the Hague in 1818. 
His drawings are held in some esteem. 

PENNINGTON, John, a landscape painter, of 
whose personal history little is known, was an 
exhibitor at the Liverpool Academy in 1811 ; he 
was then resident at Stockport. In the following 
year he had removed to Liverpool, which may 
liave been his native place, the family of Penning- 
ton being one well known in the town, where an 
earlier John Pennington was a noted potter. 
It is stated by one writer that this was his father. 
Pennington's exhibits in 1812 show him to have 
visited Wales, Galloway, and Birmingham in 
quest of themes ; they included ' A Winter piece," 
a class of subjects for which he was noted. In the 
two following years he did not exhibit, and there 
were no further Exhibitions until 1822. Penning- 
ton was then a member of " the Academy of the 
Liverpool Royal Institution," and showed four 
pictures, the largest, a 'View on the Banks of 
the Canal, near Bootle,' being priced £21. He 
was then in Ranelagh Street, but before the next 



Exhibition (1824) had removed to Everton Terrace. 
He continued to reside there and to be a member 
of the Academy until 1840, after which his name 
disappeared from the catalogues. In the mean- 
time he was a regular exhibitor, his total con- 
tributions numbering' nearly one hundred. His 
subjects were chiefly local, but sometimes he 
had scenes from North Wales, the Lake District, 
Derbyshire, and Cheshire. Occasionally he at- 
tempted such genre subjects as ' Peasants Re- 
posing,' ' The Fisherman's Family,' and ' The 
Fish Herds.' He used figures freely and skilfully 
in his landscapes. He does not seem to have 
attempted any high flights, or to liave advanced 
greatly in reputation. Towards the latter part of 
his life the exhibition prices of his pictures were 
little enhanced. In 1835 'View near Black Combe, 
Cumberland,' was 22 guineas; in 1836 'View 
near Hale' was 25 guineas; in 1839 'Near Speke, 
Winter,' was 30 guineas ; and in 1840 ' View 
near Northwich,' his last exhibit, was 20 guineas. 
A newspaper critic in 1828 observed that " Mr. 
Pennington's prices are always moderate, whicli 
shows that he is modest and void of pretence to 
a high ranlc in his profession." He was a careful 
craftsman, drew well, and had a tolerable if some- 
what timid colour sense, but lacked perception of 
atmospheric values. In water-colour he seems 
to have been an experimenter. Another of his 
critics writes: "He puts a queer oily varnish or 
something we cannot better describe over his 
drawings, which is extremely offensive to the eye. 
If freed from that his scenes would be good." 
Pennington was apparently content with his local 
reputation, for he never exhibited in London. He 
was a bachelor. E. R. D. 

PENNY, Edward, was born at Knutsford, in 
Cheshire, in 1714, and having, at an early period 
of his life, discovered an inclination to painting, he 
was sent to London, where he was placed under 
the tuition of Hudson, who was at that time emi- 
nent. He afterwards went to Rome, where he 
studied some time under Marco Benefial. On his 
return to England, some time before 1748, Penny 
became a member of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists of Great Britain, of which he was for 
some time vice-president. At the foundation of 
the Royal Academy he was one of the original 
members, and was appointed their first Professor 
of Painting. He continued in that situation, and 
read an annual course of lectures, which were well 
received, until the year 1783, when, in consequence 
of declining health, he was obliged to resign the 
professorship, and was succeeded by Barry. About 
this period he went to reside at Chiswick, and 
having married a lady of property, lived in quiet 
retirement until his death, which happened in 1791. 
Penny was principally employed in painting 
small portraits in oil, which were very generally 
admired. He also painted sentimental and historical 
subjects, many of which were publicly exhibited. 
Among others, were the ' Death of General Wolfe,' 
from which a mezzotint print was published by 
Sayer, and met with a very extensive sale ; the 
portrait of the 'Marquis of Granby relieving a 
sick Soldier," from which there is a print; ' Virtue 
rewarded,' and ' Profligacy punished,' two pictures 
which are also engraved. In 1782 he exhibited 
for the last time. The pictures then shown included 
'The Benevolent Physician,' 'The Rapacious 
Quack,' and 'The Distraint of the Widow's Cow.' 
PENOZZI, B., is mentioned by Papillon as an 

engraver on wood, but he has not specified any of 
his prints. 

PENS. See Pencz. 

PENSABENE, Era Marco, and Fra JIarco 
Maraveia, his assistant, both of the order of the 
Dominicans at Venice, painted at Treviso in 1520 
and 1521. The former was born at Venice about 
1486, and entered his religious order in 1502. Lanzi, 
enumerating the scholars, followers, and imitators 
of Giovanni Bellini, mentions the altar-piece in 
the Dominican church at Treviso, painted by 
Marco Pensabene and his assistant, in which the 
cupola, the columns, and the perspective, with the 
throne of the Virgin seated with the infant Jesus, 
and surrounded by saints standing, the steps orna- 
mented with an angel playing on the guitar, are 
all modelled on similar things by Bellini. Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle conjecture that this altar-piece 
may have been finished by Savoldo. In 1520 
Pensabene began a painting of 'The Madonna 
with Saints,' for San Niccol6, in Treviso, but for 
some unknown reason fled secretly .from his con- 
vent in 1621, before it was completed. It still, 
however, evinces such merit that it has been 
ascribed to Titian, Giorgione, and Sebastiano del 
Piombo. In 1524 Pensabene was again a Dominican 
friar in Venice, where he died in 1529. Two por- 
traits by him are in the monastery at Treviso, and 
a ' Madonna with Saints ' in possession of the Conte 
Lochis Carrara. 

PENSEB, Charles Francois Joseph, French 
painter and lithographer; born August 10, 1799, 
at Epinal (Vosges). His drawings and paintings 
of French and Swiss scenery gained him consider- 
able reputation in Orleans, where he chose to 
establish himself Here he died, July 11, 1871. 

PENSIERI, Battista. See Parmensis. 

PENTHER, Daniel, Russian painter ; born at 
Lemberg in 1837 ; studied at the Vienna Academy ; 
also at Munich, Paris and Rome. In 1873 he was 
appointed Court painter to the Grand Duke Michael 
at Tiflis. He studied for a while with Lenbach. 
He died at Vienna, February 11, 1887. 

PENZEL, Johann Georg, a painter and en- 
graver, was born at Hersbruck, near Nuremberg, 
in 1764, according to Brulliot (Zani and Nagler 
say in 1754), and died at Leipsio in 1809. He 
commenced with Schellenberg at Winterthur, and 
afterwards studied at Dresden, where he entirely 
devoted himself to engraving. He worked much 
for the publishers there, and engraved many of 
Chodowiecki's designs. 

PEPIJN, Martin, (Pepin, or Pepyn,) was born 
at Antwerp in 1575. It is not known under whom he 
studied, but he went when young to Italy, where 
he remained several years. Such was the reputation 
he acquired at Rome, that when Rubens, who 
was then in the zenith of his fame at Antwerp, 
heard of Pepijn's intention to return to his native 
country, it occasioned him some uneasiness. Pepijn 
became a member of the Guild at Antwerp about 
1600, and died in 1642 or 1643. In the church 
of the hospital at Antwerp there are two ad- 
mirable works by him ; they are both triptychs. 
In the centre picture of one he has represented 
the Baptism of St. Augustine ; on one of the 
wings, that Saint giving alms to the poor ; on 
the other, St. Augustine curing the Sick. The 
centre picture of the other triptych rejjresents 
St. Elisabeth giving charity to a group of miserable 
objects, who are struggling to approach her. On 
one of the wings is the death of that Saint, and on 


the other her Ascension to heaven, with a choir of 
angels. The Museum of the same city possesses a 
' Preaching of St. Luke,' and ' The Passage of the 
Red Sea' (1626), by him; the Cathedral a 'St. 
Norbert,' and the Arenberg Gallery at Brussels a 
' Female Head.' Most of the works of Pepijn 
are, however, in Italy. His daughter, Katharina 
Pepijn, also a painter, was born in 1619, and be- 
came a member of the Guild in 1653. 

P^QUEGNOT, Adguste, French painter and 
engraver; born Oct. 5, 1819, at Versailles ; became 
a pupil of the elder Cioeri ; painted landscapes 
and completed several remarkable engravings. 
He died in Paris in 1878. 

PfiQDIGNOT, an obscure French landscape 
painter of the 18th century. He is chiefly re- 
membered as the friend of Girodet Trioson, with 
whom he travelled. 

PERAC. See Dup^rac. 

PfiRAIRE, Paul EjiMANnEL, French landscape 
painter ; born in 1830 at Bordeaux ; a pupil of 
Isabey and of Luminals ; since 1866 exhibited 
regularly at the Salons, his subjects being mainly 
suggested by the scenery of the environs of Paris. 
His picture, ' Le Marais, environs de Corbeil ' 
(1890), was bought by the State, as also his large 
canvas exhibited at the Salon in 1892, entitled 
' Un coup de vent ; bles versus.' Other pictures 
by him are: 'tie de Croissy k Bougival ' (1866), 
'La Saison Dor^e, bords de la Seine ' (1882), and 
'Couch^e du Soleil, Ballancourt ' (1886). In 1880 
he received a medal of the third class, and an 
honourable mention at the Universal Exhibition 
of 1889. He died in Paris, January 21, 1893. 

PERANDA. See Santo Peranda. 

PERGELLES (or Percellis). See Parcelles. 

PERCY, Sidney Richard, was a son of 
Edward WilKams the landscape artist, who as- 
sumed the name of Percy. He was born about 
1821, and died at Sutton in Surrey in 1886. He 
was a clever landscape painter, and the founder of 
the so-called School of Barnes. He constantly 
exhibited at the Royal Academy and various other 
Picture Exhibitions, and was a prolific painter, 
contributing over 300 pictures to various Exhibi- 

PERDANUS, Abraham, a Dutch painter of still- 
life, born at Haarlem in 1673. He was a pupil of 
Brakenburg, and died at Maarsen in 1744. 

PERE, Ant. van de. See Vandepeee. 

PEREA, . A Spanish painter mentioned by 

Eepinosadelos Monterosamongthe artists employed 
at Seville in the decoration of the funeral monument 
of Philip IL Perhaps identical with Pereira (^q. v.). 

PEREA, Blas de, was a Portuguese painter, who 
settled in Castile about 1550. He was a friend of 
the painter Francisco de Holanda. 

PEREDA, Antonio, (or Peeea,) a Spanish his- 
torical painter, was born at Valladolid in 1599. 
He was a scholar of Pedro de las Cuevas, and gave 
early proofs of his ability in art. After making 
considerable progress in the school of Cuevas he 
was placed by his patron, Don Francisco de Texada, 
with Juan Bautista Crescenzi, Marquis de la Torre, 
who had been a pupil of Pomerancio. At the age 
of eighteen he produced and exhibited to the public 
a picture of the ' Immaculate Conception,' in which 
the Virgin appeared on a throne of clouds supported 
by angels. 'The reputation he acquired by this per- 
formance induced the 'Conde-Duque,' Olivarez, who 
was then occupied in filling the palace of the Buen 
Retiro with the works of the best Spanish painters, 

to place Pereda among those of the highest rank. 
He performed his part to the satisfaction of his 
patron, and was munificently rewarded. Pereda's 
works were much in request, and he exercised his 
talent on a great variety of subjects. History, 
social scenes, still-life, vases, tapestry, musical 
instruments ; all were within the compass of his 
versatile brush. He died at Madrid in 1669. His 
works were formerly to be found in all the palaces 
and churches of Madrid, Toledo, Aloala, Ouenca, 
Valladolid, and in many private collections. At 
present there are two in the Madrid Gallery, one of 
which is a 'St. Jerome meditating on the last 
Judgment ; ' in the church of San Toraas is a ' St. 
Domingo and God the Father' (1640), and in the 
Academy of San Fernando ' The Dream of Life ; ' 
in Marshal Soult's collection there was a 'Christ 
asleep on the Cross,' with flowers and skulls about 
Him; in the Esterhazy Gallery, at Pesth, there 
is a 'St. Anthony and the Infant Christ' (the 
same subject is among the Suermondt pictures at 
Berlin) ; a still-life subject (1621) is at St. Peters- 
burg ; and three or four in the Gallery at Munich. 
Formerly it was considered that no Spanish col- 
lection was complete without an example of 

PEREDA Y DUARTE, Tomas de, a Spanish 
artist, who became a member of the Academy of 
San Fernando in 1757. He died in 1770. 

PEREGRINI da CESENA, an Italian engraver 
of the 15th century. Duchesne enumerates sixty- 
six plates by his hand, which he calls nielli. More 
recent critics, however, see in these not proofs of 
goldsmith's work, but impressions from plates ex- 
pressly engraved for printing. The facts in favour 
of this view are, in the first place, the number of 
these so-called nielli, and, secondly, the occurrence 
of the artist's signature upon the prints with the 
letters the right way. Peregrini's most important 
plate is a ' Resurrection,' which is signed De Opus 
Peregrini Ce'. The rest of the plates ascribed to 
him are signed either P or O.P.D.C. 

PEREIRA, Vasco, (Peretra, or Preira), was a 
Portuguese painter, who resided at Seville, in great 
credit, at the end of the 16th century. He wa* 
employed in 1594 to repair the fine fresco of ' Christ 
of the Criminals,' painted only thirty years pre- 
viously \>y Luis de Vargas. He was one of the 
artists employed in the cathedral of Seville in 
1598, to prej^are the magnificent decorations for 
the funeral service of Philip 11. He painted the 
' Decollation of St. Paul ' for the convent of that 
order, in competition with Mohedano and Vazquez. 
He executed many other works which have ceased 
to exist in Spain, though some are to be found in 
Portugal. He was reckoned a skilful draughtsman. 
but dry and hard as a colourist, as maybe noted in 
the ' Four Doctors of the Church ' painted by hiui 
for the library of the Carthusians of Santa Maria de 
las Cuevas, and an 'Annunciation ' in the college of 
San Hermenegildo. He died at the commencement 
of the 17th century. The Dresden Gallery possesses 
a ' St. Onofrius ' by him. In the case of the ' Cruci- 
fixion ' in the Misericordia of Oporto, it is undecided 
whether it was the work of Pereira, or of Vasco 
Fernandez. The Museum of Seville possesses a 
'Nativity' dated 1.579. 

PERELLE, Gabrikl, an eminent French de- 
signer and engraver, was born at Vernon-sur-Seine 
at the beginning of the 17th century, and died in 
Paris in 1675. He was instructed by Daniel Rahel, 
whom he soon surpassed. He excelled in drawing 



and engraving landscapes and views, of which he 
left a prodigious number. He usually enriched 
them with ruins and other objects, which give an 
agreeable variety to his scenery. Although by far 
the greater part of his plates are from his own com- 
positions, he also engraved from the designs of 
several other masters, particularly Paul Bril, Gas- 
par Poussin, Asselyn, and above all, Silvestre. 
His best works are comprised in the two collections, 
' Ddlices de Paris,' and ' Delices de Versailles.' He 
was assisted in his numerous works by his sons, 
Nicolas and Adam Perelle, who, after his death, 
engraved a great number of plates of architectural 
views, landscapes, &c., which are inferior to those 
of their fatlier. Nicolas is stated to have engraved 
'The Four Seasons,' and 'The Four Elements,' and 
to have died at Orleans ; Adam, to have been born 
in 1638, and died in Paris in 1695. The Perelles 
worked both with the point and the graver. Their 
works from their own designs are multifarious, and 
frequently to be met with. The following are the 
principal plates they engraved after other artists : 

A set of four Views, the Church of St. Michel at Dijon, 
the Palace in that City, the Bridge of Grenoble, and 
the Porte Royale at Marseilles ; after Silvestre. 

Four Views in Paris, the Arsenal du Mail, the Pontneuf , 
the Louvre, the Mail, and surrounding country ; after 
the savie. 

A set of foiu: Views, the Baths of Bourbon d'Archam- 
baud, the Castle of Bourbon Lancy, with the Baths 
of Julius Ccesar; and the great Chartreuse near Gre- 
noble ; after the same. 

Six Views of the Jardin de Euel ; after Israel Silvestre. 

Two Mountainous Landscapes, with biblical subjects ; 
after P. Bril. 

Six Views in Rome and its Environs ; after J. Asselt/n. 

A View of Ruins, with the Adoration of the Magi ; 
after Poeleinherij. 

PEREPJETTE, , executed a coarse etching 

after Paolo Veronese, representing the Holy Family 
accompanied by two angels. 

PERET. See Perret. 

PEREYRA. See Pereiea. 

PEREZ, Andres, a Spanish historical and flower 
painter, was born at Seville in 1660 ; and was 
instructed by his father, Francisco Perez de Pineda 
one of the members of the Society of Professors 
who established the Academy in that city, and 
who was himself a scholar of Murillo. In the 
sanctuary of Santa Lucia, at Seville, there were 
three Scriptural subjects relating to the holy sacra- 
ment, signed Andres Perez, 1707 ; and in the 
pacristy of the Capuchins of the same city another 
with the date 1713, representing the ' Last Judg- 
ment,' taken in part from that of Michelangelo. 
Perez was, however, most successful in painting 
flowers and other objects after nature. His his- 
torical works show a great falling off from the 
good rules Murillo had endeavoured to establish. 
Andres Perez died in 1727. 

PEREZ, Antonio, a Spanish historical painter, 
bom in a village of Andalusia. In 1548 he was 
employed to paint chosen subjects for the old 
sanctuary of Seville cathedral. In 1550 he finished 
tiiree pictures for the church of Nuestra Seiiora ; 
in 1553 he painted the altar of San Ibo, and in 1555 
restored that of the church of San Francisco. He 
died about 1580. His son Antonio worked with him. 

PEREZ, Antonio and Nicolas, painters, were 
two brothers living at Seville from 1654 to 1668, 
who devoted considerable time and money to the 
foundation of the Academy in that city, 

PEREZ, Bartolome, was a Spanish painter, born 
at Madrid in 1634, and appointed painter to the 

king in 1689. He was the scholar and son-in-law 
of the flower-painter Arellano, whom he excelled 
as a draughtsman, and sometimes assisted by paint- 
ing the figures in his works. He was particularly 
successful in rendering curtains and drapery, on 
which he was much employed for the theatre at 
Buen Retiro. His flower-pieces too were much 
esteemed. He died in 1693 from a fall from some 
scattblding whilst painting a ceiling in the palace 
of the Duke of jlonteleon. He painted a ' St 
Rosa of Lima,' a ' Virgin praying to the Child,' 
and many flower paintings, of which there are 
four good examples in the Madrid Museum. 

PEUEZ, Florian JnAN, a Spanish nobleman, and 
amateur painter of genre subjects, was bom in 
tlie neighbourhood of Madrid in the first half of 
the 16th century. He was a knight of a religious 
oi'der ; in 1566 was appointed valet to Phihp II. 
He died at the commencement of the 17th century. 

PEREZ, JoAQniN, a Spanish historical painter, 
was born at Alooy. In 1773 he gained the prize 
from the Academy of San Carlos at Valencia. He 
died in 1779. 

PIllUEZ, Matteo. See Alesio. 

PfiREZ DE LA VILLA AMIL, Geronimo, a 
Spanish painter, born at Madrid about 1810. He 
studied at the Madrid Academy, and painted land- 
scape, genre, and notably architectural interiors 
with figures. His best known picture is an 'Interior 
of Seville Cathedral on Corpus Cliristi Day.' He 
published a work on Spanish Architecture, illus- 
trated by lithographs. He died at Madrid in 1853. 

PEREZ DE PINEDA, Francisco, was a pupil 
of Murillo. His son, who bore the same name, 
went at his father's death to the school of Luca de 
Vald^s, and died at Seville in 1732. Bermudez 
says that his pictures were as bad as the doggerel 
verse in which he wrote the life of Fernando de 

PERFETTI, Antonio, an engraver, was born at 
Florence in 179i and from 1818 onwards was a pupil 
of Rafael Morghen. In 1828 he obtained the prize 
at the Florence Academy with his ' Sibyl of Cumae,' 
after Guercino, but obtained wider renown through 
his ' Presentation in the Temple,' after Fra Barto- 
lommeo. He and his pupils completed the engraved 
collection of the Gallery of Florence. He died in 
that city in 1872. Other plates by him are : 

The Madonnas ' della Sedia ' and ' del Grauduca ' ; after 

Birth of the Virgin ; after A,idrea del Sarto. 
Portrait of D.ante ; after Giotto. 

PERGER, Anton von, German painter ; born 
December 20, 1809, at Vienna ; was first taught 
by his father and afterwards at the Vienna Academy. 
He then travelled in Italy, becoming Professor at 
the Vienna Academy in 1845. He painted land- 
scapes and genre scenes. He had also considerable 
literary talent. He died at Vienna, April 14, 

PERGER, SiGMUND Ferdinand von, historical 
painter and engraver, was born at Vienna in 1778, 
and studied at the Academy there. In 1816 he be- 
came Court painter, and in 1825 assistant custodian 
of the Belvedere Gallery. He died in the same 
city in 1841. As a painter on porcelain he showed 
himself especially skilful, working eleven years at 
the Imperial factory. Among his works we may 
name : 

Horse-race at Kopcsan {afterteards enyraved hy himself). 

The Herald bringing the News of the Victory of Mara- 
thon to Athens. 


The Hape of Ganymede. 

Eomulus and Kemus with the She-wolf. (Etching.) 

PERICCIOLI, Gmno, (or Periccivoli,) designer 
and etcher, was born at Siena about 1600, and after 
receiving some instruction from bis uncle Fran- 
ceBOO, an ecclesiastic and caUigraphist, completed 
his studies in Rome and Venice. He subsequently 
visited Constantinople, Egypt, Malta, Sicily, and 
Spain, where Philip III. appointed him drawing- 
master to tlie prince, his son. He next went to 
Holland, and was similarly employed on behalf of 
the Princess Louise ; then to England, where he 
painted Charles I. ; and finally returned to his own 
country, where he entered the service of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany. He died after 1660. He pro- 
duced numerous pen-and-ink drawings, several of 
which he etched. Two plates by him after Vanni 
represent a ' King writing,' and a ' Warrior on 

PERIER, FRANgois, an obscure French painter 
and engraver, who died about 1655. He was a 
native of Saint- Jean-de-Laure. He was a member 
of the maitrise. 

PBRIGAL, Arthur (Senior), an English his- 
torical and portrait painter who gained the Royal 
Academy Gold Medal in 1811 for liis 'Themistocles 
taking refuge with Admetus.' In early life Mr. 
Perigal in the Admiralty, where several of 
his relatives have held appointments at various 
times, but he resigned his post in order to devote 
himself to Art. A fine example of his work is a 
large canvas representing a scene from ' The 
Talisman,' where Queen Berengaria and Edith 
Plantagenet intercede with King Richard for the 
life of the Knight of the Leopard. This picture is 
now in the possession of his daughter-in-law- 
Mrs. Perigal, of 7 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgh. 
Other examples of his work are — ' Lo, at the 
Couch where Infant Beauty Sleeps,' and 'The 
Finding of Moses.' He also painted many portraits, 
including a very fine one of his son- — Arthur 
Perigal, R.S.A. — now in 7 Oxford Terrace, Edin- 
burgh. Mr. Perigal lived in London, Northampton, 
and Manchester, and finally settled at Edinburgh, 
where he died in 1847. A. O'R. 

PERIGAL, Arthdr, R.S.A. , son of the above, 
was born in London in 1816. He was a landscape 
painter of considerable repute, his forte being 
Highland scenery, but he also painted many Italian 
and Norwegian scenes. He spent many winters in 
Italy. A fine specimen of his work in that country 
is a large oil-painting, ' The Grand Canal, Venice,' 
which can hold its own among the many repre- 
sentations of that famous waterway, and which 
elicited the warm praise of his friend, T. Faed, R.A. 
This fine picture is now in the possession of his 
widow at 7 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgh. Another 
large picture, 'Pompeii with Vesuvius in Eruption,' 
was painted on the spot during the eruption 
of 1872. This is now the property of his son-in- 
law, Lt.-Col. J. O'Reilly, A.M.S., Belhaven, Guild- 
ford. Mr. Perigal painted an immense number 
of pictures of Highland scenery, a great many of 
which are to be found in private collections in 
Scotland. The large oil-painting, 'The Borderland,' 
— now in the possession of his widow — was speci- 
ally asked for, and hung in a conspicuous position 
in the Glasgow Exhibition of 1889. A fine oil- 
painting, 'Glen Nevis,' occupied a prominent 
position in the Glasgo%v Exhibition of 1901, and 
attracted much attention. It was lent by its 
owner, L. Piatt, Esq., Stirling. The fine picture. 

' Romsdal' (Norway), was bought for a large sum 
by the Academy of Fine Arts. Some others of 
Mr. Perigal's many works are : 

Molde (Norway). 

Early Summer in Lowlands. (Bought by Academy of 

Fine Arts.) 
Loch Lee— Glen Esk. (In the Collection of the Earl of 

Spittal Sands and Rocks. (Exhilited in Royal Academy 

and botujht by Mr. Samuel Morley, 31. F.) 
Dunrobin Castle. 
On the Jed. 
An Evening in Skye. 
Loch Tromlie. 
Moor near Kinlochewe, Rosshire. (Scottish National 

The Matterhorn by Moonlight. 
Loch Corruisk (Isle of Skye). 

The two last-named pictures are now in the 
possession of his son. Dr. Perigal, New Barnet. 

In the house where Mr. Perigal lived and 
worked (No. 7 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgli) there 
are a great number of his paintings in oils and 
water-colours, and many hundreds of his works 
were dispersed by sale after his death. Mr. Perigal 
was a regular exhibitor in the Scottish National 
Academy, Edinburgh, and an occasional contributor 
to the Royal Academy and the British Institution 
from 1861 to 1876. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1841, an 
Academician in 1868, and Treasurer in 1880. At 
a later period many people hoped and expected 
that he would have been elected President. Mr. 
I'erigal died somewhat suddenly in 1884, and is 
buried in the Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh. A, O'K, 

PERIGNON, Alexis Joseph, a Frencli portrait 
and genre painter, born in Paris in 1806. He was 
the son of A. N. Perignon, under whom, and Gros, 
he studied. His works were awarded medals in 
18.86, 1838, and 1844, and he obtained the Legion 
of Honour in 1850, becoming an officer of the order 
in 1870. His latter years were spent at Dijon as 
Director of the Academy there. He died in 1882. 
Amongst his works are : 


Museum. Portrait of Admiral Leray. 
Jluseum. St. Cecilia. 

PERIGNON, Alexis Nicolas, the elder, a French 
painter and engraver, also an architect and notary, 
was born at Nancy in 1725. He travelled in Italy 
and Switzerland, and died in Paris in 1782. He 
painted landscapes in oil, and flowers in gouache ; 
and has etched 43 plates from his own landscapes. 

PERIGNON, Alexis Nicolas, the younger, a 
French painter of portraits, genre, and historical 
subjects, was born in Paris in 1785. He was a 
pupil of Girodet, and exhibited at the Salon from 
1814 to 1850, obtaining a second class medal in 
1824. He died in 1864. At Versailles there are 
by him : 

Davoust in 1792. 

The Duke of Orleans and the Duke of Chartres. 

Perignon's daughter, Caroline Louise Emma, 
Mme. Debay, also won some repute as a painter. 

PfiRIN, Alphonse Henri, French painter, born 
in Paris, March 12,1798; became a pupil of Guerin 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1827 he went to 
Rome and made the acquaintance of Orsel. De- 
corations by him are in Notre Dame, Paris ; he 
also painted portraits, landscapes and genre scenes. 
His engraving of Madame Becamier is also re- 



markable. In 1827 lie obtained a second-class 
medal, and the Legion of Honour in 1854. He 
died in Paris in January 1875. 

PERIN-SALBREUX, Li:^ Louis, a French minia- 
ture painter, born at Kheims in 1753. He came to 
Paris at the age of twenty-five, and took lessons 
from an Italian painter called Sicardi. On the 
outbreak of the Revolution he retired to Rheims, 
where he died in 1817. 

PERINI, Giuseppe Sforza, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Rome about the year 1748, and was stili 
living in 1795. He executed some of the plates 
for the ' Seuola Italiana ' of Gavin Hamilton, and 
engraved some of the statues in the Clementine 
Gallery. The following, among others, are by 
him : 

The Frontispiece to the 'Seuola Italiaua,' with two figures 

by Miche/ai)(/e/o- 
Jupiter and Autiope ; after Jacopo Palma 
Charity ; after Bartolommeo Sckedone. 
Christ beariug his Cross; after Lanfranco. 

PERINI, LoDOVico, an indifferent Italian en- 
graver, has left some prints executed with the 
graver, among which is one representing two men 
playing at cards, and a woman overlooking them. 

PERINO DEL VAGA. See Buonaccorsi. 

PERIS, Henri, a Flemish landscape painter. 
He was appointed Dean of the Corporation of St. 
Luke at Antwerp in 1662. In the church of the 
Augustins at Antwerp are two landscapes by him. 
He died in 1670. 

PERISIN. See Perrissim. 

PERJECOUTER. See Serwouter. 

PERKINS, Charles C, an American painter, 
draughtsman, and writer on art. He was born at 
Boston in 1823. He studied painting under Ary 
Scheffer, and etching under Bracquemond and 
Lalanne, but most of his life was devoted to the 
study of art history and to its teaching. In 1876 
he was appointed honorary director of the Museum 
of Fine Arts at Boston. In 1864 he published 
'Tuscan Sculptors,' in two volumes; in 1867, 
'Italian Sculptors,' in one volume, and in 1878, 
'Raphael and Michael Angelo.' The plates in 
these books were etched by himself, mostly from 
his own designs. He died in 1886. 

PERLA, Francesco, the reputed author of two 
frescoes in the Cathedral of Mantua, dating from 
the 16th century. 

PERNA, PlETRO, according to Strutt, was an 
engraver on wood, to whom some prints marked 
P. P. are usually attributed. He lived to the latter 
end of the 16th century. 

PERNET, , is mentioned by Strutt as an 

engraver who lived about the year 1620, and 
executed a few indifferent portraits. 

PERNICHARO, Pablo, a native of Zaragoza, 
studied with Hovasse at Madrid. Philip V. granted 
him a pension to enable him to study in Rome, 
where he was elected to the Academy of St. Luke. 
On his return he became painter-in-ordinary to the 
king, and Director of the Academy of San Fer- 
nando from 1753 till his death in 1760. He furnished 
various sacred compositions to the palace, the 
Academy, the church of San Isidro, and the 
hospital of Monserrate, also a copy of Raphael's 
' Assembly of the Gods ' to the palace of San 

PERNOT, Fran<;:ois Alexandre was born at 
Wassy (Haute Marne) in 1793. He was a pupil 
of Victor Bertin and Hersent. He travelled from 
1818 to 1828, through Switzerland, the Vosges, the 


Rhine Provinces, Belgium, England, and Scotland. 
He worked to some small extent as a sculptor 
also. He died in 1865. Among his pictures we 
may name : 

Eighty sketches of old Paris. 

A series of picturesque Views in Scotland. 

The Trenches of Vincennes. ( Versailles Gallery.) 

Marius in Carthage. 

Tell's Chapel. 

Ruins of the Chateau de Pierrefonds. 

PEROFF, Wassilij Grigorjewitsch, Russian 
painter; born December 1833 at Tobolsk (Siberia). 
He was the natural son of Baron Kriidener, and 
received the name of Peroff for his abilitj' in writing 
(pero signifying pen). He studied with Stupin at 
Arsamass, and with Wassiliew at Moscow, and in 
Paris. It was at Moscow that he settled, where he 
became a professor. He began as one of Russia's 
most realistic painters by his canvas ' Arrival of 
the Police Officer,' exhibited in 1858, which gained 
him the silver medal of the Petersburg Academy. 
This was followed by a series of pictures depicting 
tragic events in domestic life in some remote vil- 
lages of the Caucasus. He was successful in 
light genre subjects too ; and his fertility may be 
imagined when we know that he signed upwards 
of 200 oil-paintings. His health, and, in fact, his 
mental powers, at last gave way, which put a 
sudden stop to his career as an artist. He died at 
Moscow, May 22, 1882. 

PEROLA, Juan, Francisco, and Est^fano, 
painters, sculptors, and architects, were three 
brothers, natives of Almagro, in La Mancha, who 
are supposed to have studied in the school of 
Becerra. In 1586 they were employed by the 
Marquis of Santa Cruz, with Cesare Arbasia, an 
Italian, to paint in fresco the staircase, halls, and 
court of his palace at El Viso. In the adjacent 
conventual church of the Franciscans were some 
oil pictures and various marble tombs attributed to 
the Perolas; they also assisted Mohedano in paint- 
ing frescoes for Cordova cathedral. 

PERON, Dal. See Cdsighe. 

P^RON, Louis Alexandre, a French historical 
painter, was born in Paris in 1776. He was a 
pupil of David, and among his works are ' The 
Capture of Toulon ' and ' The Blurder of the Inno- 

PERONI, Giuseppe, according to Abate Affo, 
was born at Parma about the year 1700. He first 
studied at Bologna, under Felice Torelli and Do- 
nate Creti, and afterwards went to Rome, where he 
became a scholar of Agostino Masucci. He was a 
tolerably correct designer, and, in his best perform- 
ances, imitates the style of Carlo Maratti. Such 
are his pictures in the church of San Satiro, at 
Milan ; and the 'Conception,' at the Padri dell' 
Oratorio, at Turin. In competition with Pompeo 
Batoni, be painted in fresco for the church of Sant' 
Antonio Abate, ' The Crucifixion,' which places him 
among the most respectable artists of his time. 
He died in 1776- 

PEROTTI, PiETRO Antonio, portrait painter, 
was born at Verona in 1712, and died there in 
1793. He was a pupil of Balestra, and painted 
pastel portraits at Venice, Rome, and London. 
He married Angelica Legru (born 1719, died 
1776), who executed works of a similar class. 

PEROU, Antoine, an obscure painter, who was 
appointed concierge to the Acad^mie in Paris, in 
the time of Louis Testelin, whose pupil he had been. 

PEROUX, Joseph Nicolaus, was born at Lud- 


wigsburg in 1771, and after studying at Stuttgart, 
became the first teacher of Overbeck, and came in 
1806 to Frankfort, where he died in 1849. He 
painted portraits in oil and miniature, an allegor- 
ical Reformation picture, and a ' Christ as the 
Children's Friend ' (now in the City Collection at 

PEROXINO, Giovanni, a painter who was active 
at Alba, in Piedmont, in the year 1517. He 
painted an altar-piece for the conventual!, in that 

PERRACINI, Giuseppe, an historical painter, 
called II Mirandolese. He was born in 1672, and 
died in 1754. His talent was very slight, and he 
should not be confounded with Pietro Paltronieri, 
who was also called II Mirandolese. 

PE RRANDEAU, Charles, French painter ; born 
1865 at Sully-sur-Loire (Loiret) ; was a pupil of 
Cabanel ; made his d^but at the Salon in 1880 
with ' Extase' ; obtained au honourable mention in 
1881 for ' Mort de J^sus ' and 'La Veuve ' ; also a 
third-class medal in 1886 for 'MistJre'; and a 
silver medal at the Universal Exhibition of 1889 ; 
painted genre pictures, and landscapes melancholy 
in feeling and masterly iu execution. He died 
June 20, 1903. p. p. 

PERRE, Jan. See Van der Perre. 

PERREAL, Jehan, called Jean de Paris, was 
court painter to Charles VIII., Louis XII., and 
Francis I., from 1483 to 1528, and produced numer- 
ous pictures of battles and sieges. His father, 
Claude de Perreal, painter and poet, in whose 
honour Clement Marsh wrote some verses, was 
valet to Louis XI. in 1474. Jean's name occurs for 
the first time in 1483, as that of a valet-de-chambre 
to Charlotte, the wife of Louis XI. He followed 
the French army into Italy, and was commissioned 
to paint some of its feats. Jean was employed by 
the municipality of Lyons in 1489 and 1493 to 
organize the fetes given by the town in honour 
of the visit of Charles VIII. In 1496 he was the 
first to sign the act of incorporation of the Lyons 
artists. He was the friend and protector of the 
poet, Jean Lemaire, whom he presented to Anne of 
Brittany. After Anne's death Perreal was charged 
to paint her portrait, which he did, from the corpse. 
The miniatures in a manuscript relating to the 
Queen's obsequies are also ascribed to him. Per- 
real, who was en engineer and architect as well as 
a painter, died in 1528 or 1529. 

PBRRET, Marius, French painter; born at 
Moulins (Allier) ; studied under Cabanel ; for several 
years exhibited regularly at the Salon ; gained an 
honourable mention at the Exhibition of 1889 ; at 
the Salon of 1890 won the Prix Raizeoourt-Goyon ; 
a medal in 1892 ; and a second-class medal in 
1897. His later work dealt entirely with scenes of 
Indo-China, to which he gave great vivacity and 
colour. His Algerian picture, ' Douar d'Ouled 
Nayli,' gained a silver medal. He died at Java in 
September 1900. 

PERRET, PiETER, (or Pedro Peret,) an en- 
giaver, was born about 1550 : it is uncertain 
whether he was a native of France or of the Low 
Countries. He studied at Rome under Cornells 
Cort, and was engraver to the Duke of Bavaria 
and the Elector of Cologne. In 1589 he settled at 
Antwerp, where he engraved some views of the 
monastery of San Lorenzo in the Escurial, from 
drawings by Juan de Herrera, which gave so 
much satisfaction to Philip II. that he invited him 
to Spain, and appointed him his engraver ; an 


office which he retained under Philip III. and IV. 
He was called to Madrid in 1595, and resided there 
till his death in 1637. His chief performance was 
a set of portraits of the Kings of Portugal, pub- 
lished in 1603, which he inscribed Pedro Ferret 
sculptor Regis fecit. He also engraved several 
plates of historical subjects, among which are: 

The 'Woman takea in Adultery ; after Brueyhel. 

The Cha.stity of Joseph ; after Speeckaert. 

Four subjects from the Life of Ignatius Loyola, with 
his portrait. 

PERRIER, Francois, called Le Bourguiqnon, 
was a French painter and engraver, who was born 
either at Saint Jean de Losne or at Macon, in Bur- 
gundy, about the year 1584. He was the son of a 
goldsmith, who had him instructed in the elements 
of design ; but as he opposed his desire of becoming 
a painter, the young Perrier secretly left his home, 
and, without the means of subsistence, associated 
himself with a blind mendicant, who was on his 
way to Italy, and by this means arrived at Rome. 
He accidentally became acquainted with Lanfranco, 
who encouraged him in his pursuit, and admitted 
him into his school. After a residence of several 
years at Rome, he returned in 1630 to France, and 
passed some time at Lyons, where he painted a 
set of pictures for the cloister of the Carthusians. 
He then visited Paris, where Simon Vouet, who 
was then in possession of every commission of 
importance, employed him in painting the chapel 
of the chateau of Chilly, from his design. Finding 
little employment in Paris, he returned to Rome in 
1635, where he applied himself to engraving the 
principal antique statues and bas-reliefs, and exe- 
cuted several plates after the Italian masters, as 
well as from his own designs. After the death of 
Simon Vouet, he returned to Paris in 1645, when 
he was employed to paint the gallery of the Hotel 
de la Vrilliere, and was one of the twelve professors 
who in 1648 founded the Academy. He died in 
Paris in 1650. Some of his best paintings are the 
frescoes in the above hotel, and his pictures of 
' Apollo in the Chariot of the Sun,' ' The Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony,' and ' Acis and Galatea ' — this 
last in the Louvre. We have by him also a con- 
siderable number of etchings, from his own designs, 
and after other masters. He sometimes signed his 
name Paria. The following are his principal 
plates : 

A set of one hundred prints from antique statues, 
publisheti at Rome. 

A set of fifty, from ancient bas-reliefs. 

Ten plates of Angels from the Farnesina ; after Raphael. 

Two plates of the Assembly of the Gods, and the Mar- 
riage of Cupid and Psyche ; after the paintings by 
Raphael, in the Farnesina. 

The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Agost. Carracci. 

The Flight into Egypt ; after the same. 

The Nativity; after S. Vouet. 

The portrait of Simon Vouet ; F. Perrier fecit. 1632. 


The Holy Family, with St. John playing with a Lamb. 

The Crucifixion ; inscribed Franciscus Perrier, Bur- 
i/undius, pinx. et scut. 

St. Eoch curing the Plague-stricken. 

The Body of St. Sebastian, supported by two Saints. 

Venus and the Graces. 

Time clipping the Wings of Love, engraved in chiar- 

PERRIER, Guillaume, born at Macon about 
1600, was the nephew and scholar of Fran9oi8 
Perrier, whose style he followed. Of his works as 
a painter the most considerable are his pictures in 



the sacristy of the Minimes at Lyons, where he 
took refuge, having killed a man in a duel. We 
have by this artist several etchings, executed in 
the style of his uncle. He died in 1655. Among 
his best plates we may name : 

A Holy Family. 

Tlie Death of the Magdalene. 

Portrait of Lazarus Meysonnier, 

An allegorical subject. 

PERRIN, fiiiiLE, French painter, bom at Rouen 
in 1810; became a pupil of Delaroche and of 
Gros. In later life he became Director of the Paris 
Academy of Music, and also of the Paris Opera 
Comique. His pictures include 'Mallil§,tre mourant' 
(in the Caen Museum), ' Mort de Saint Meinrad,' 
and ' Louis XIV. au Chateau de Cr^cy.' He died 
September 15, 1884. 

PERRIN, Jean, was an obscure engraver on 
wood, who, conjointly with Jean Munier, executed 
a set of cuts for a work entitled ' La Morosophie 
de Guillaume de la Perriere Tolsain, contenant cent 
Emblemes,' published in 1553. 

PERRIN, Jean Charles Nicaise, a French his- 
torical painter, was born in Paris in 1754. He was 
a pupil of Doyen and Durameau. In 1787 he was 
elected a member of the Academy of Painting. 
Among his works are, ' Venus healing the Wound 
of iEneas,' ' The Sacrifice of Cyanippus,' and an 
' Assumption.' He died in 1831. 

PERRIN, Olivier Stanislas, a French painter, 
born at Rostrenen in 1761. He first studied at the 
Academy of Rennes, but afterwards, through the 
kindness of the Duke of Charost, he entered the 
studio of Doyen. He then worked with the en- 
graver Massard, after which he went on two or 
three campaigns. He then obtained a Government 
post at Quimper, and painted several pictures illus- 
trating Breton life. He died at Quimper in 1832. 

PERRIN, Thomas, a miniaturist, who flourished 
at Dijon about 1400. He worked for the Duke of 

PERRISSIM, JACQnES, (Perisin, or Persinus,) 
was an old French engraver, who flourished about 
the year 1570. In conjunction with J. Tortorel, 
he designed and engraved, partly on wood and 
partly on copper, a set of twenty-four large prints, 
representing subjects from the Huguenot war, 1559 
to 1570. His copper-plates are etched in a coarse, 
incorrect style ; the woodcuts are executed with 
more attention. He sometimes signed his prints 
./. Perrissim fecit, or J. Persinus fecit, and some- 
times marked them with the monogram U. Zani 

thinks that he was a German by birth, an opinion 
in which Nagler seems to concur. The latter says 
he was bom in 1530, and quotes the work referred 
to as being published in 1567 and 1674. Brulliot 

has given his monogram thus l|> which agrees with 

Nagler, who calls him C- Jakob. When he en- 
graved conjointly with Tortorel the monogram is 

See also Toktorel. 

PERRONEAU, Jean Baptiste, a French en- 
graver, wac bom in 1731, and died in 1796. He 
was instructed by L. Cars. He engraved also after 
Boucher, Van Loo, and Bouehardon. He was a 
painter in crayons, and was for a short time in 
England, where he exhibited some portraits in that 
niedium. Among other prints, he has left two of 
the elements, ' Air ' and ' Earth,' after Natoire ; 

the companions, ' Fire ' and ' Water,' are engraved 
by P. Aveline. Perroneau is said by Siret to have 
died at Amsterdam in 1783. 

PERROT, Antoine Marie, a French landscape 
and architectural painter, born in Paris in 1787. 
He was a pupil of Watelet and Michallon. Among 
his landscapes are views of Clisson and Messina. 

PERROT, Catherine, a French miniature, flower, 
and animal painter, who flourished in the 17th 
century. She was a pupil of Nicolas Robert, and 
was received into the Academy in 1682. She 
pubhshed some works on painting in miniature. 
She married one Claude Horry, a notary. 

PERKOT, Ferdinand Victor, a French painter, 
born at Paimboeuf in 1808. At the age of nineteen 
he painted for the small church of Ploudaniel an 
' Assumption,' which attracted a great deal of at- 
tention. He then went to Paris to study, and there 
executed for M. Gudin a large number of litho- 
graphs. He painted several sea-pieces, and in 
1836 went to Italy, where he produced a picture of 
' Susannah and the Elders ' which made some sens- 
ation. In 1840 he went to St. Petersburg, and 
was just about to be admitted into the Academy, 
when, yielding to the severity of the climate, he 
died in 1841. 

PERRY, Francis, an English engraver, was born 
at Abingdon in Berkshire, and was a pupil of one 
of the Vanderbanks. He was for some time under 
Richardson, but made little progress as a painter. 
He afterwards set up as an engraver, and for 
some time worked for the magazines. He died in 
London in 1765. His best plates are coins and 
medals, which he copied with neatness and pre- 
cision. He also engraved some portraits, among 
which we have the following : 

Dr. Ducarrel, afl&xed to his Anglo-Norman Antiquities. 

Matthew Hutton.. Bishop of Durham. 

Alexander Pope, Poet. 

He also etched a series of drawings, by himself, 
of Lichfield Cathedral. 

PERSECOUTER (or Persecuteur). See Ser- 

PERSEUS, an ancient Greek painter, who flour- 
ished more than three hundred years before Christ. 
He was a disciple of Apelles, and though greatly 
inferior to his master, he may be presumed to have 
possessed considerable talents, as he was favoured 
with the particular esteem of that painter, who 
addressed a treatise on art to him. 

PERSfiUS, Edvard, Swedish painter ; born 
December 23, 1841, at Lund; became a pupil of the 
local Academy ; studied at Dtisseldorf, and subse- 
quently under Piloty at Munich. Travelled in Italy 
in 1872, and then returned to his native city in 
1875; painted historical subjects, such as 'Katherine 
Mansdotter and Erich XIV.,' ' Judith,' and also 
portraits. He died at Stockholm, October 8, 1890. 

PERSEVAL, — , a French portrait painter, born 
at Chamery in 1745. He was a Professor of Draw- 
ing at the Royal College of Pont-le-Voy. In the 
Museum at Rheims there is an old woman's portrait 
by him. He died in 1837. 

PERSIJN, Renier de, (Perseyn, Perztn, &c.,) 
called Narcissus, was a painter and engraver, bom 
at Amsterdam about the year 1600. He went to 
Rome, where, in conjunction with Cornells Bloe- 
maert, Theodor Matham, and M. Natalia, he en- 
graved the statues in the Palazzo Giustiniani. He 
married the daughter of the glass-painter, Theodor 
Crabeth, who brought him a fortune which enabled 
him to drop the profession. He worked with the 



\_TIie Luitvic 


burin in a neat, clear style. We have also the 
following plates by him : 

The Portrait of Ariosto ; after Titian. 
Baldassare, Count Castiglione ; after Saphael. 
S. Coster, Physician ; after Sandrart, 
Admiral Meppel ; after Pierson. 
Old Age ; after Rubens. 

PERSINUS. See Peerissim. 
PERSON, NicOLADS, a German engraver, flour- 
ished about the year 1700. He executed a set of 
indifEerent prints after portraits of German Arch- 
bishops ; these were published in 1696. 

PERSYN, Jan, a Dutch portrait painter, born at 
The Hague in 1708. He was a pupil of Constantine 
Netscher. He afterwards entered the Artillery, 
and became an engineer in the service of the Dutch 

PERTUS, Raphael, a Spanish painter of history 
and landscape, who flourished at Saragossa about 
1680. His landscapes were graceful in composition 
and pleasant in colour. 

PERUCCI, Orazio, an Italian historical painter, 
born at Reggio in 1548. He was a pupil of Lelio 
Orsi, and was also an architect. In the church of 
S. Giovanni in Reggio there is a picture of S. 
Albert by him. He died in 1624. His son 
Francesco was also an artist. 

PERUGIA, Bernardino da, was a painter living 
in Perugia in the early part of the 16th century, 
who has been often confounded with Pinturicchio. 
He established himself in San Severino in 1509, 
and in 1524 he painted an altar-piece, now in San 
Domenico of that city, representing a ' Virgin and 
Child, with four Saints.' Several paintings ascribed 
to him are to be seen in Perugia. In London, 
at Dudley House, is ' A Virgin holding a bird by 
a string, with the Child in her grasp.' At the 
Louvre, a ' Crucifixion,' with numerous figures, is 
generally attributed to him. 

PERUGIA, Mariano da, or Mariano di der 
Edsterio da, an obscure scholar of Perugino, to 
whom Vasari refers as the author of a picture ' of 
slight interest ' in S. Agostino, at Ancona. Mariotti, 
however, ascribes to him a better work in S. Do- 
menico, at Perugia. 

PERUGINI, a landscape painter of Milan, to 
whose pictures figures were added by Alessandro 
PERUGINO, Aloisi (or Ldigi). See Scaramdccia. 
PERUGINO, Domenico, an obscure painter, who 
died in Home about 1590, aged 70 years. He is 
supposed to have been also the engraver mentioned 
by Vasari as the author of certain excellent plates 
after Roman antiques (see vol. v. p. 431 [^MilanesiV) 
PERUGINO, IL. See Santi, Pietro. 
PERUGINO, II Cavaliehe. See Cerrini. 
PERUGINO, Paolo. See Gismondi. 
PERUGINO, Petruccio. See Montanini. 
PERUGINO, Pietro. See Vanucci. 
PERUGINO, PoLiDORO, a goldsmith, who was 
living about 1550 at Perugia, and who may have 
also engraved. It has been suggested that he may 
be the Perugino alluded to by Vasari in the life of 
Marc-Antonio (vol. v. p. 431 [Mt/aii^si]). 

PERUZZI, Baldassare, in spite of Vasari's 
elaborate arguments to the contrary, was, it has 
been incontestably proved, a naiiK of Siena, and 
"»M>t in any way related to the noble Florentine 
family of the same name. His father's name was 
not Antonio, but Giovanni di Salvestro di Salva- 
dore, a weaver from Volterra, who settled at Siena, 

H 2 

where, in 1481, Baldassare was born. He appears 
to have been originally a pupil of Giacomo 
Pacchiarotti, but came also markedly under the in- 
fluence, first of Pinturicchio, and then of Sodoma : 
and, although other influences subsequently inter- 
vened, his work to the end abounds in traces of 
the manner of both these earlier masters. In the 
field of architecture, however, his individuality 
had full scope for development, in which art few 
before or since have excelled, or equalled him. No 
trace can now be found of tlie chapel at Volterra 
decorated by liim, of which Vasari makes mention, 
but documentary evidence proves that in 1501 he 
was employed on certain paintings for the chapel of 
S. Giovanni in the Cathedral at Siena. About 1503 
lie left his home for the Eternal City, and among his 
earliest works there are the frescoes in the principal 
chapel at S. Onofrio. In spite of traditionary ascrip- 
tion of the more important part of these frescoes to 
Pinturicchio, Signer Cavalcaselle has been able to 
prove that the whole of the chapel is really the 
work of the young Peruzzi. Two other works, 
probably of about the same date and also exhibit- 
ing the same affinities with the style of Pinturicchio, 
are to be found in the Museum at Madrid : ' The 
Rape of the Sabines' and the 'Continence of Scipio'; 
wliilst an interesting fragment of fresco represent- 
ing the ' Three Graces ' in the Palazzo Chigi at 
Rome recalls the celebrated marble group in the 
Cathedral Library of his native city. In this latter 
work the graceful pose and charming smile of the 
three beautiful heads betray the influence of 
Sodoma, as also does the peculiar treatment of the 
tree-trunks and foliage in the background. Of the 
two small chapels in the Church of S. Rocco a 
Ripetta mentioned by Vasari, one is totally de- 
stroyed, and the other so injured by restoration as 
to leave little or no trace of the original work. 
Signer Cavalcaselle, however, discovered some 
much more impoitant evidences of his talent, 
overlooked by Vasari, in the ' Stanza dell'Eliodoro ' 
in the Vatican — work spared by Raphael from the 
general destruction of his predecessor's labours in 
those apartments. It is even suggested by Signer 
Morelli that the portrait introduced into the fresco 
of the ' Expulsion of Heliodorus,' generally sup- 
posed to be a likeness of " Giulio Romano," is 
really one of "Baldassare Peruzzi." In two of 
the saloons of the Capitol are certain large 
frescoes representing scenes from Roman history, 
at present labelled ' Bonfigli,' — but attributed at 
different times to very varied authors — which, in 
spite of much destructive restoration, are clearly 
the work of Peruzzi. Here the influences of both 
Pinturicchio and Sodoma are very marked, though 
the taste of the artist himself for architectural 
effects is also strongly apparent. It was at about 
this period (1505-6) that he appears to have been 
particularly attracted to this latter art, and, through 
the influence of the wealthy Agostino Chigi, his 
fellow-citizen, to have obtained much employment 
at the Vatican from Pope Julius II. , in which he 
even rivalled Bramante. To the year 1508-9 
belongs a fine work by him in mosaic, still existing 
in the crypt of the Church of S. Croce in Gierusa- 
lemrae ; but the most important works, both pictorial 
and architectural, belonging to this period, were 
those carried out by him for Agostino Chigi at the 
celebrated Villa Famesina in the Trastevere, the 
entire plan of which villa tradition has till recently 
assigned to Peruzzi. Whether this be so or not, he 
undoubtedly executed important external decora- 


tions, which have unfortunately perished. Those, 
however, in the interior which still survive, though 
from their situation placed in strong contrast with 
masterpieces by his most celebrated contemporaries, 
hold their own for graceful design and imagination, 
and greatly redound to his credit Throughout all 
his later paintings the influences of the two greatest 
masters of the time, Raphael and Michelangelo, 
may be observed striving %vith his earlier Sodom- 
esque impressions, blended nevertheless bj' a talent 
distinctly individual to himself. These tendencies 
may again be noticed in the charming frescoes 
painted by him in the Capella Ponzetti of the 
Church of the Madonna della Pace. In 1522 he 
was invited to Bologna, where he made designs 
for the Church of S. Petronio, and also executed 
certain works for Count Giovanni Battista Benti- 
voglio. Among these last was a cartoon for the 
' Adoration of the Magi,' subsequently copied by 
Girolamo da Treviso, and engraved by Agostino 
Carracci. This cartoon is now in the National 
Gallery in London. In 1520 he had been ap- 
pointed by Leo X. architect of St. Peter's, but in 
1527, at the Sack of Rome, after suffering great 
hardships and being plundered of all his posses- 
sions, he escaped to Siena, where he was warmly 
welcomed, appointed City Architect, and consulted 
on a vast variety of sudjects, artistic and military. 
To him is due the removal of the high altar and 
choir of the Duonio from under the cupola to its 
present position. During this time he decorated the 
chapel and certain ceilings at the Villa Belcaro 
outside the city. These frescoes, after cruel injury 
and neglect, have been carefully restored, but, alas ! 
show little trace now of their original merit. The 
Palazzo Pollini, formerly " del Celsi," is a fine speci- 
men of his architectural skill, of which examples 
abound in his native city, and it contains three 
much-injured ceiling-paintings by him. He also 
painted the striking, but by no means faultless, 
' Sibyl foretelling the Advent of Christ to the Em- 
peror Augustus,' in the Church of the Fontegiusta. 
In March 1535 he returned to Rome to continue 
work at St. Peter's, but died — not, according to 
Vasari, without suspicion of poison — on the 7th of 
January, 1536, and was buried in the Pantheon 
beside Raphael. As an architect he takes raiik 
among the greatest, and is scarcely surpassed by 
any, but as a painter, althougli he had much 
imagination, grace, and skill in draughtsmanship, 
his work shows rather too much trace of the pre- 
vailing influences with which he successively came 
in contact, and scarcely excite enthusiasm. His 
taste for decorative ornament was fine, and full of 
charming and fanciful conceits. His principal 
existing works with pencil and brush are as 
follows : 

Berlin. Jlfa[/a:we, 98. 
(.Iliiusi. Duomo, Sacristy. 
Dresden. Galhri/, 99. 

Loniiou. A'a(. Gallery. 

„ BriJgcuHitcr ] 

House, J 
„ Mr. Jlond. 

Madrid. Gallery, 573. 
., 574. 
Milan. Marchese FassaU. 
„ Co)iie Giovio. 

Muntpellier. Gallery, 577. 
Munich. Gallery, 1052. 


Annunciation. E. (?). 
Madonna and Saints. 
Adoration of tlie Magi. 
Adoration of the Magi. 

Adoration of the Magi. 

Portrait of Alberti Pio da 
Carpi. 1512. 

Rape of Sabiues. E. 

Continence of Scipio. E. 

Bust of young Man. 

Dido and jEneas. 

Bust of young Man. 

Portrait of " Bindo Altoviti. " 
{Accordinti to Mr. Beren- 
son. Cent. Italian Painters.) 

Munster. Gallery, Vi. Madonna and Infant St. John. 

in Ar. ' E. 

Rome. Villa Albani. Madonna with SS. Lawrence, 

Sebastian, James, and 
Donor. E. 

„ Borghese,92. Venus. 

„ Ca2>itol. Frescoes : Sala IV. Judith ; 

Roman Triumph. E. Sala 
VII. Hannibal in Italy. 
Corsini, 706. Flight into Egypt. 
Farnesina. Frescoes : Sala di Galatea, 
the entire ceiling, and in a 
lunette a gigantic Head in 

„ ,, Room off Sala di Psiche. 

Frieze. All about 15U. 

„ „ Saloon (upper floor). Decora- 

tive frescoes. 

,, I'atican. Stanza dell' Eliodoro, Fresco 

decoration of ceiling. (De- 
coi-ative work only.) 

" '^^'Tasfs^XIII. ] Jla'-'-i^Se of St. Catherine. E. 
„ Prince Chigi. Fresco : The Tliree Graces. 

„ *S'. Croce in Gierusa- Mosaics (after design) not 

lemme. Crypt. later than 1503. 
„ S. 31. della Pace, Frescoes: Madonna with 
\st Chapel, L. Saints and Ponzetti as 
Donor ; (above) Biblical 
Scenes 1516. 

" i:o/m"kIlTar: ] Presentation of the Virgin. 
,, S. Onofrio, Choii: Frescoes: Assumption and 
other sacred subjects. E. 

orio,over%tdandy'lf?°^^-- Co™"at,on, and 
ZrdChapch,R.i ^"■*"<'^- 
Siena. Sala IX. 29. Madonnaandlnfant St. John. 

,, Arcodelle due Porte. Fresco: Madonna, Infant St. 
Joliu, and Catherine. L. 
„ Belcaro (near Siena). Frescoes: Ceiling, Ground 
Floor. Judgment of Paris. 
„ „ Loggia. Decorations (completely 

,, „ Church, Ap^e. Madonna and Saints. 
„ Palazzo Pollini. Ceiling Frescoes : Continence 

of Scipio ; Epipliany ; 
Stoning of Elders. L. 
„ Duomo, Chapel of S. Frescoes: Youthful 
Giovanni. in Desert ; St. John Preach- 
ing. 1501. 

" l^(''.!4ftar•' z' I ■^■"^"^''"^ ""'^ *''® ^''^y'- ^• 

R. H.H. C. 
PERUZZINI, DOMENICO, an engraver, born at 
Pesaro, supposed to have been the elder brother of 
Giovanni Peruzzini. He appears to have lived 
mostly at Ancona, and flourished from 1640 to 
1661, according to the dates on the prints attri- 
buted to him by Bartsch. These prints had been 
jireviously ascribed to Doviemco Piola, but the 
style is entirely different, both in design and 
execution. It is supposed that, like his brother 
Giovanni, he was a scholar of Simone Cantarini da 
Pesaro, and his etchings resemble those of that 
master, and of Guido Keni. Subjoined is a list of 
their titles : 

The Holy Virgin, lialf-leugth, with the infant Jesus. 

D. P. 1661. 
I'he Virgin seated, with the Infant on her knees. D. 

P. 1661. 
Christ tempted by the Devil, in the form of an old man. 

D. P. 1642. 
Christ bearing liis Cross, with other figures, half-lengths. 

B. P. P. F. engraved on the cross {circular). 
The Holy Family and Saints. DonV^. Per""'. Anconae, 

St. Anthony of Padua praying, and the Infant Jesus 

appearing to him ou a cloud supported by three 

cherubim. Bom P. F. 


The Assassination. A man iu his shirt on a bed, assailed 

by three soldiers, cue of whom thrusts a lance into 

his body. D. P. 1640. 
Four landscapes. The first is signed D. P.f. Anconae ; 

the others, D. P. only. 
St. Jerome doing Penance in the Desert. The letters 

D. P. F. are on a plant to the right. {Considered 


PERUZZINI, Giovanni, was born at Ancona, 
or at Pesaio, in 1629, and was a scholar of Simone 
Cantarini. There are several of his pictures in the 
churches of his native city, of whicli the most 
esteemed are the ' Decollation of St. John,' at the 
Spedale ; and a picture of ' St. Teresa,' at the 
Carmelitani. He resided some time at Bologna, 
where there are some of his works in the public 
edifices, particularly the ' Descent of the Holy 
Ghost,' in the church of SS. Vitale ed Agrioola ; 
and a picture of ' St. Cecilia,' in the church dedicated 
to that Saint. He was invited to the court of 
Turin, where he executed several works, both in 
oil and in fresco, so much to the satisfaction of his 
patron, that he was made a knight of the order of 
St. Maurice. He died at Jlilan in 1694. He was 
vain of his facihty of execution, and inscribed on 
one of the lunettes of the Portico de' Servi in Bo- 
logna, " Opus 24 Hor. Eq. Jo. P." (the work of 
twenty-four hours by Gio. Peruzzini, knight). Carlo 
Cignani, on reading it, observed, " Le rainchionerie si 
fanno presto " (trifles are soon done). Giovanni's son 
Paolo, and his brother, Domenico, were also painters. 

PERY, Nicolas, an obscure historical painter of 
the seventeenth century. He was received into 
the Guild of St. Luke, at Brussels, in 1736. 

PERZYN. See Persijn. 

PESARESE, II (or Simone da Pesaro). See 

PESARI, Giovanni Battista, an Italian his- 
torical painter, was a native of Modena. He lived 
some time at Venice, where he died after 1650. 

PESARO, Niccol6. See Trometto. 

PESCHEL, Karl Gottlieb, a German historical 
painter, born at Dresden in 1798. He was a pupil 
of Vogel, and studied in the Dresden Academy. 
In 1825 he went to Rome, where he remained about 
a year. On his return he assisted his master Vogel 
on frescoes at Pilnitz. About 1830 lie was ap- 
pointed a Professor in the Dresden Academy. 
Considerable attention was devoted by him to 
mural decoration, and good examples of his work 
are to be seen in the Roman House, Leipsic ; and 
at the Royal Palace at Dresden. He died in 1879. 
Amongst his chief pictures are : 

Rebecca at the 'Well. {Leipsic Museum. ) 

' Come unto Me, all ye that labour.' 1851. {Dresden 

The Crucifixion. {Leipsic Jfuseum.) 
Ezekiel in Babylon. 

Angels appearing to Jacob. 1345. {Dresden Gallery.) 
Holy Family. {Leipsic Museum.) 

PESCI, Gastaro, a Bolognese painter of arnhi- 
tectural perspectives who flourished about 1776. 
No details of his life are known. 

PESCIA, Mariano da, also called Graziadei, 
was an Italian painter the time of whose birth and 
death is uncertain ; Zani says he died about 1520 ; 
others, that he was born in 1525, and died in 1550. 
It is also said that he was a scholar of Domenico 
Ghirlandajo, and assisted him in liis works ; but in 
that case he must have been born much earlier, as 
Ghirlandajo died in 1494. Perhaps it was Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo. In the chapel della Signoria, in the 

Palazzo Vecchio at Florence, there is an altar-piece 
by him ; and, in the Gallery, the ' Virgin and 
Infant Jesus, with Elizabeth and the young St. 
John.' It is agreed by all that he died young, and 
his kno^vn works are very few. 


PESENTI, Galeazzo, called II Sabbioneta, a 
painter and sculptor of Cremona, who flourished in 
the 15th century. A Martire Pesenti, also called 
II Sabbioneta, lived at Cremona at the end of the 
16th century. 

PESNE, Antoine, the son of Thomas Pesne, (a 
portrait painter, and brother of Jean Pesne,) was 
born in Paris in 1684 (?). He studied under his father 
and under his uncle Cliarles de la Fosse, and after, 
wards spent some time at Venice for further improve- 
ment. After having heen received a member of the 
Paris Academy he settled at Berlin, where he became 
court painter to Frederick the Great, as well as 
Director of the Academy. He died at Berlin in 
1757. He painted history and portraits, and his 
works were much admired by the connoisseurs of 
the court. The Galleries of the Berlin ' Schloss,' and 
of Potsdam and Sans-souci, contain many of his 
works, and some elegant genre pictures are in the 
Dresden Gallery. Pesne painted figures in the 
pictures of his friends C. S. Dubois and P. C. 
Leygebe. The following are among the best known 
of his own pictures : 

Portrait of Frederick the Great. (Enyraved by Wille.) 
His own Portrait. {Dresden Gallei-y. Engraved by G. 

F. Schmidt.) 
Himself and Wife. {Berlin Museum.) 
Family picture of the Colonel of the Swiss Guard, Baron 

von Erbach. 
Tapestry pictures with portraits of Prince Leopold and 

his Family. {Dessau Castle.) 
Portrait of the Chev. Vleughels. 

,, „ Painter Dubuisson. 

,, „ Mailame Dubuisson. 

A Cook plucking a Turkey. 
A Young Girl with Pigeons. 
Portrait of the Engraver Scmidt and his Wife. 

PE.SNE, Jean, a French engraver, was born at 
Rouen in 1623, and died in Paris in 1700. It is 
not ascertained by whom he was instructed, but 
he attained some success as an artist, particularly 
as a designer. He produced 168 plates, of which 
some are executed with the burin alone, and others 
in combination with the point. His principal 
plates are from tlie pictures of Nicolas Poussin, 
with which he succeeded admirably ; others are 
after Raphael, Titian, the Carracci, Guercino, Giulio 
Romano, and others. The following are perhaps 
the best : 


Two of Nicolas Poussin ; after piftnres by that painter^ 
Louis le Comte, Sculptor to the King. 
Fran(;ois Langlois ; after Van Dyck. 


Assumption of the Virgin. 

Esther before Ahasuerus. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

The dead Christ, with the Virgin and St. John. 

The Entombment. 

The Death of Sapphira. 

The Holy Family attended by Angels, with a dedication 

to Le Brun. 
The Vision of St. Paul. 
The Triumph of Galatea. 

The Testament of Eudamidas ; one of his best prints. 



The Seven Sacraments, in seven plates of two sheets 

The Labours of Hercules, in nineteen plates; from the 

paintings in the Louvre. 

The Holy Family; after Raphael. 

A set of fifteeu landscapes ; after Gtierczno, and other 

PESZKA, Josef, Polish painter ; born February 
19, 1767, at Cracow; became a pupil of Estreicher, 
and then of Lampis and Smuglewicz at Warsaw. 
In 1797 he went to Wilna ; in 1800 to St. Peters- 
burg, and subsequently to Moscow. Became Court 
painter to Prince Kadziwill. He returned to Cracow 
to fill the post of Professor at the University there. 
His choice was mostly that of historical and genre 
subjects. He died September 4, 1831. 

PETE, Simon, an obscure painter of Valladolid, 
who flourished about 1661. 

PETER, Emm., a German miniature painter, 
born at Jiigerndorf in Silesia, in 1799. He died at 
Vienna in 1873. 

PETER, Wenceslaus, animal painter, was born 
at Carlsbad in Bohemia in 1742. He applied him- 
self successively to metal working, chasing, and 
sculpture before settling to the art which he at last 
adopted. He became Professor at the Academy of 
San Luca in Rome, and his best work is ' The 
Terrestrial Paradise.' A ' Hen and Chickens ' by 
him is in the Borghese Gallery. He died at Rome 
in 1829. 

PETERS, Anton de. See De Peters. 

PETERS, Bonaventura and Jan. See Peeters. 

PETERS, Frans Locas, was born at Mechlin in 
1606. He was the son of an obscure painter, from 
whom he learned the elements of design, but he 
afterwards entered the school of Gerard Segers. 
He did not, however, follow the style of that 
master, but abandoned historical painting to devote 
himself to landscapes. He was taken into the 
service of the Archduke Leopold, in whose employ- 
ment he passed the greater part of his life. He 
died at Brussels in 1654. 

PETERS, Gerrit. See Pietep.szes. 

PETERS, Matthias, flourished at Amsterdam 
about the year 1660, and, in conjunction with his 
brother Nicolaas Peters, engraved the plates for 
the ' Atlas Major,' published by Blaeu, in that city, 
from drawings by the publisher. 

PETERS, the Reverend Matthew William, 
was born in the Isle of Wight in the first half of 
the 18th century. His parents very early removed 
to Ireland, where his father held a post in the Cus- 
toms at Dublin. The son became pupil of Robert 
West, the master of the school of design there, and 
in 1759 he obtained a premium from tlie Society of 
Arts. He was brought up, however, for the Chinch, 
and came to hold the appointments of Prebendary 
of Lincoln and chaplain to the Prince Regent. In 
the pursuit of art as an amateur he travelled in Italy, 
and when at Parma he copied the 'St. Jerome,' 
and his copy is now in the church at SafEron Walden. 
In 1782 he also copied, for the Duke of Rutland, 
a picture by Le Brun in the Carmelite church at 
Paris. In 1771 he was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1777 a full Academician. 
He resigned in 1790, and died in 1814, at Brasted 
Place, in Kent. He is better known by the prints 
engraved for Boydell and Macklin than by his 
paintings, though some of his pictures have al- 
most the impasto of Sir Joshua Reynolds. His 
' Resurrection of a Pious Familv, ' the 'Guardian 


Angel,' 'Cherubs,' and the 'Spirit of a Child;' 
his scenes from the ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' 
and from ' Much Ado about Nothing,' and other 
theatrical subjects, were very popular. He painted 
many fancy subjects and also portraits with much 
taste and elegance. He was patronized by some 
of the nobility of his day, for whom he painted 
subjects very different from his ' Resurrection of a 
Pious Family.' There are engravings of several 
of his fancy pieces and portraits by Bartolozzi, 
Marcuard, Simon, Thew, Dickinson, and J. R.Smith. 
He was severely satirized by " Peter Pindar." 

PETERS, PiETER Francis, the younger, German 
painter; born at Nijmegen in 1818; a pupil of 
his father. After travel in Germany, Switzerland, 
France and Italy, in 1845 he settled at Stuttgart, 
where with Herdtle he founded a permanent Art 
Exhibition ; painted landscapes, such as ' An 
Autumn Evening, near Stuttgart,' 'A Mill, near 
Monaco ' ; also various water-colours. In 1872 he 
gained the grand medal in London, and the Order 
of St. Michael in 1869. He died at Stuttgart, 
Feb. 23, 1903. 

PETERSEN, Heinrich Lhdwig, a Danish en- 
graver, was born at Altona in 1806. In 1824 he 
entered the Academy of Dresden, and in 1827 the 
atelier of Rossmasstsr. In the two following years 
he engraved some landscapes and portraits at 
Heidelberg for the Ehrenhalle, and in 1835 several 
plates for the Bibliographical Institute at Hild- 
burghausen, and for the Austrian Lloyd's Company 
some small landscapes after Rothbart and David. 
In 1838 he settled at Nuremberg, where he executed 
his principal plates — the ' Madonna della Sedia,' 
after Raphael ; ' The Tribute Money,' after Titian ; 
' The Children in the Wood,' after Von der Eiubde, 
and 'Charles IX. on the Night of St. Bartholomew.' 
From 1840 to the end of his life he etched 
extensively for Hefner's work on costumes, and 
produced numerous facsimiles from drawings by 
the old masters. He became conservator of the 
art collections at Nuremberg, and died there in 
1874. He was also a restorer of engravings and 

PETERSEN, Johann-Erik Christian, marine 
painter, was born at Copenhagen in 1839. He 
studied at the Academy of his birthplace, and then 
under Melbye and Dalil. He was engaged in the 
war as a Danish officer in 1864, and in the following 
year went to America, where he died at Boston 
in 1874. 

PETERSON, Frederic, enamel painter, was a 
pupil of Boit, and died in London in 1729. 

PETERZANO, Simone, (Preterzono,) was a 
native of Venice, and was brought up in the school 
of Titian. He flourished about the year 1590. His 
' Pieta,' in the church of San Fedele, at Milan, is 
signed with his name, to which he has added 
Titiani discipulns. In the church of San Bar- 
naba, at Milan, he painted some frescoes from the 
life of St. Paul. There is a fine ' Assumption,' in 
the Chiesa di Brera, at Milan by him. 

PETHER, Abraham, was born at Chichester 
in 1756. In the early part of his life he ap- 
plied himself to the study of music, and at the 
age of nine years, is said to have occasionally 
performed as organist in his native city. He 
afterwards turned his thoughts to painting, in 
which he was instructed by George Smith, and 
attained a considerable rank in the art as a land- 
scape painter, particularly by his moonlight effects, 
whence he has obtained the sobriqjtet of 'Mooa« 


light Pether.' A ' Harvest Moon ' by him met 
with special adminition. His moonlight pieces 
are notable for their astronomical accuracy. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1784, his sub- 
ject being ' Moonlight.' In 1789 he followed this 
with ' A Ship on Fire at Night,' and at intervals 
with others, till in 1811 he sent a second 'Erup- 
tion of Vesuvius.' Pether not only distinguished 
himself as painter and musician ; his philosophi- 
cal and mathematical researches were of some 
value. He also showed skill as a mechanic, and 
constructed various optical instruments, such as 
telescopes, misorosoopes, air-pumps, and electric 
instruments. Pether died April 13th, 1812. 

PETHER, Sebastian, the eldest son of Abraham 
Pether, was born about 1790, and was probably 
instructed by his father, as he painted similar sub- 
jects. His pictures consist of moonlights, con- 
flagrations, and sunsets, and exhibit fine feeling ; 
but the narrowness of his circumstances, and the 
largeness of his family, reduced him to the necessitj' 
of working for picture-dealers, and beyond them it 
does not appear that he ever had a patron, except 
in one instance. That patron was Sir John F. 
Leicester, Bart., who commissioned him to paint 
' A Caravan overtaken by a Whirlwind,' which was 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1826, together 
with 'The Destruction of a City by a Volcano.' 
His first and almost his only previous contributions 
had been in 1814, when his subjects were ' A View 
from Chelsea Bridge,' and ' The Burning of Drury 
Lane Theatre.' He had considerable knowledge 
in the mechanical arts, and, it is said, was the 
first that suggested the idea and construction of 
the stomach-pump to Mr. Jukes, the surgeon 
who introduced it to the medical profession. His 
pictures are not numerous ; but they were a source 
of great emolument to his friends the dealers, as 
they could be readily copied, and the copies dis- 
posed of to country gentlemen ; whence it is that 
his name so frequently appears in catalogues. His 
real works have considerable merit. He died at 
Battersea in 1844. 

PETHER, William, painter and mezzotint en- 
graver, was the cousin of Abraham Pether, and 
was born at Carlisle in 1731. He painted por- 
traits in oil and miniature, and studied engraving 
under Thomas Frye. He was admitted into the 
Ro}-al Academy in 1778, and exhibited occasionally 
between 1781 and 1794. He died in London about 
1795. He engraved several fine plates after Rem- 
brandt and other masters, as well as a few from 
his own works. Among others, we have the 
following prints by him : 


The three brothers Smith, Painters of Chichester ; Tl'. 

Pether pijuc. et fee, 1765. 
Benjamin West ; after Lawranson. 
S.imuel Chandler, D.D. ; after ChamherKn. 
Fran9ois du Quesnoy, Sculptor ; after C. le Brun. 
Carlo Tessarini, Musician ; after Palthe. 
Eembrandt's Wife (the Jewish Bride) ; after Remhrantlt. 
Bubens's second Wife ; after liubens. 


The Rabbi; after Hemhrandt. 
An Officer in Armour ; after the same. 
An old Man with a beard ; after the sawe. 
The Lord of the Vineyard ; after the same. 
A Village Festival ; after Teniers. 
A Warrior ; half-length ; after Giori/iove. 
The Descent from the Cross •. after the picture in King's 
College, Cambridge, by DanieU da Votterra. 

The Philosopher ; after Jos. Wriyht. 

The Sculptor ; after the same. 

The Academy ; after the same. 

The Continence of the Chevalier Bayard ; after Penny. 

The Hermit ; after the same. 

The Alchemist ; after the same. 

PETIT, Giles Edm6, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1696, and died in 1760. He was 
a pupil of J. Chereau, and engraved several plates 
in the style of his instructor, the most esteemed 
being his portraits. Among others, we have the 
following prints by him : 


Francis I., King of France ; after Titian ; for the 

Crozat Collection. 
Louis Philip, Regent of France ; after Liotanl. 
Louis XV., King of France ; after C. van Loo. 
Charles Edward Stuart, the Pretender ; after Dupra. 
Phihbert Papillon, Canon of Dijon. 
Ren6, Charles de Maupeon, President of the Parliament. 
Peter Bayle, Author of the Historical and Critical 

Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary. 
Annand Jules, Prince of Rohan ; after Riffaitd. 
Henri Charles de Pompone, Abb6 of St. Medard. 
Jean Fr6d6ric Philipeaux, Count of Maurepas. 
Joachim Frau(;ois Potier, Duke of Gesvres. 


The Disciples at Emmaus ; after J. Andre. 
The Visitation ; after the same. 
The Virgin of the Rosary ; after the same. 
St. Catharine of Siena ; after the same. 

PETIT, Jean Louis, a Frencli historical and 
marine painter, was born in Paris in 1795. He 
was a pupil of Maudevare and Regnault. He died 
in 1876. Works : 

Combat of Roland and Rodomont. 
The Wreck, f 

PETIT, the Rev. John Louis, an English amateur 
draughtsman, born in 1801. He was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 
1823 as a senior optime, and afterwards took holy 
orders. Antiquarian pursuits were his delight, and 
he drew the illustrations for his works and papers. 
He was a member of the Institute of British Archi- 
tects, and of the Arclia;ological Institute. He also 
produced a few good etchings. He died at Lich- 
field in 1868. Amongst his publicarions were : 

'Remarks on Church Architecture, with Illustrations.' 

' Principles of Gothic Architecture as applied to Pansb 

Churches.' 1845. 
' The Abbey Church of Tewkesbury.' 1848. 
' Architectural Studies in France.' 1854. 

PETIT, L^once, a French draughtsman and 
illustrator, was born in 1839. He was a constant 
contributor to the Salons after 1869, and to the 
'Journal Amusant' and ' Le Monde Illustr^.' He 
died in 1884. 

PETIT, Louis, a designer and engraver, waa 
bom in Paris in 1760, and was a scholar of_N. 
Ponce. He was much employed in designing 
vignettes and other book illustrations, which he 
etched with considerable ability. He died about 
1812. Among his detached engravings the follow- 
ing are most deserving of notice : 

La Belle Jardiniere, jointly with Massard ; after RaphaeL 
The Infant Jesus asleep, finished by Bonnet ; after the 

Aurora ; after the same. 

A Holy Family ; after the same. , , „ , 

St Romualdus ; after A. Sacchi ; finished by Dam'mne. 


The dancing Nymphs ; after Van der Werff. 

And several plates for Ligni's ' History of the Life of 
Christ ' ; among which are the ' Trans6guration,' after 
Raphael ; and the ' Last Supper,' after Leonardo da 

PETIT, Louis Marie, a French water-colour 
painter of still-life and miniatures, flourished at 
Fontainebleau at the end of the 18th century. He 
was a pupil of David and De Moitte. Works : 

The School-boy and the Arts. 

Landscape with Mill. 

PETITOT, Jean, the elder, enameller and minia- 
ture painter, was bom at Geneva in 1607. He was 
the son of a sculptor and architect, who designed 
him for a jeweller, and having frequent occasion to 
make use of enamel in that trade, he attained such 
skill in colour, that he was advised to apply him- 
self to portrait painting. He was patronized by 
Charles I. and Louis XIV., and liis extraordinary 
ability %vas deserving of their protection. In com- 
pany with Pierre Bordier, who afterwards became 
his brother-in-law, he visited Italy, where they both 
resided some years. Petitot painted the heads and 
hands, and Bordier the draperies and backgrounds. 
In this division of labour tliey visited England, 
and had the good fortune to form the acquaint- 
ance of Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne, 
physician to the king, who had, by experiment, 
discovered how to get super-excellent colour in 
enamel. Mayerne introduced Petitot to King 
Charles I., who retained him in his service, and 
gave him apartments at Whitehall. He painted 
tlie portraits of that monarch and of his family, 
several times. He copied several pictures after Van 
Dyck, who assisted him with his advice. King 
Charles often went to see him at work, as he took 
great pleasure both in painting and chemical experi- 
ments. The death of his royal protectot was a misfor- 
tune for Petitot, who did not quit the exiled family, 
but followed them in their flight to Paris, where 
he was looked upon as one of their most faithful 
adherents. Charles II,, during his abode in France, 
took great notice of Petitot, and introduced him to 
Louis XIV., who appointed him his painter in 
enamel, and gave him apartments in the Louvre. 
He painted that monarch several times, Anne of 
Austria, his mother, and Maria Theresa, his queen. 
Being a zealous Protestant, and dreading the con- 
sequences of the revocation of the edict of Nantes 
in 1685, Petitot begged the king's permission to 
retire to Geneva. Louis, unwilling to part with so 
favourite an artist, for some time evaded the de- 
mand, and employed the celebrated Bossuet, bishop 
of Meaux, to endeavour to convert him. This not 
succeeding, Petitot was at length allowed to leave 
France, after a residence of thirty-six years, and lie 
returned to Switzerland. He settled at Geneva, 
but the crowd of admirers who came to see him 
was so great, that lie was obliged to quit Geneva 
and retire to Vevay, where he continued to exercise 
his art till he had reached the age of 84. He died 
in 1691. 

Petitot was the first artist to bring enamel paint- 
ing to complete technical perfection. In the Soutli 
Kensington Museum {Jones Collection) there are 
fifty-two enamel portraits which are certainly by 
Petitot, while some eight or ten more are ascribed 
to him with more or less justice. Among tlie 
former several are scarcely to be equalled, certainly 
not to be excelled, elsewhere. Among them we 
may name six portraits of Louis XIV., and por- 
traits of Sully, La Valliere, Vendome, Olympia 


and Hortense Mancini, Richelieu, Mazarin, Mme. 
de S^vign^, Moliere, ' La Grande Mademoiselle,' 
Mme. de Montespan, the Duke of Orleans, Armand 
de Meilleraye, Turenne, and Ninon de I'Enclos. In 
tlie Apollo Gallery of the Louvre are about sixty 
of Jean Petitot's finest enamels, consisting of por- 
traits of Louis XIV., of his family, of ladies of the 
Court, and of the statesmen and military com- 
manders of France. 

PETITOT, Jean Lonis, the younger, the son of 
Jean Petitot the elder, was born in or about 1660. 
He was instructed in enamelling by his father. 
He settled in London, where he exercised his art 
with considerable success, and painted for Charles 
II. up to 1682, when he removed to Paris. In 
1695 he returned to London, where eventually 
he died. His works are inferior to those of liis 
father, though they possess great merit. A few 
of the best are at South Kensington, and others 
are in the Dartrey Collection. Among others he 
painted : 

Charles 11. 

Peter the Great. 

Queen Catherine. 

The Due de Berry. 

The Due d'Anjou. 

PETRAZZI, AsTOLFO, was a native of Siena, and 
flourished about the year 1635. He was a scholar 
of Ventura Salimbeni and Pietro Sorri, and, accord- 
ing to Baldinucci, painted some pictures for the 
public edifices and private collections at Siena. 
One of his principal works is the ' Communion of St. 
Jerome,' at the Agostiniani at Siena, in which he 
exhibits something of the style of the Carracci. He 
excelled in painting children, whom he introduced 
very happily into his emblematical subjects. Such 
are his ' Four Seasons ' in tlie Villa Chigi, at Volte, 
which are admired for tlie playfulness and ingenuity 
of the groups. He died in 1665. 

PETRI, Heinrich, was born at Gottingen in 
1835. At the age of seventeen he entered the 
Academy in Diisseldorf In 1854 his first paid 
work was a copy of a ' Madonna ' after Deger. 
He was for a short time at Munich in 1857, and in 
the following year proceeded to Rome, where he 
studied the masters of the early Renaissance and 
Overbeck. After his return he, in 1861-2, painted 
in encaustic in the convent chapel of Nonnen- 
werth, particularly a ' Descent from the Cross,' 
which attracted general attention. In 1868 he 
paid a second visit to Rome, in order to paint an 
altar-piece for Lisbon. In 1870 we find him at 
Diisseldorf producing a ' Virgin and St. John 
weeping over the Body of Christ,' and in 1871 his 
chef d'cenvre, 'The Virgin as the Protectress of 
poor Children.' He died at Diisseldorf in February 

PETRI, PiETRO DE, was born, according to 
Orlandi, at Premia, in the Novarese state, in 1671 ; 
Zani, however, says he was born in 1663, and died 
in 1716. He studied at Rome, in the school of 
Carlo Maratti. He painted history, and united 
with the style of Maratti somewliat of the taste of 
Pietro da Cortona. One of his principal works at 
Rome is a picture of the ' Crucifixion,' in the church 
of SS. Vinceiito ed Anastasio : he also painted 
some frescoes in the tribune of San Clemente. We 
have a few etchings by this artist from his own 
designs, executed in the style of a painter, among 
which are : 

The Assumption of the Virgiu. 
San Lorenzo Criustiniano. 


[ The lAii/vrc 




[^The Louvre 





Zani distinguislies Inm from Pietro Antonio de 
Petri, or Pitri, towhom Bartsch has assigned four 
engravings in addition to the two above named. 
Zani says the latter was born at Rome. 

PETRIE, George, a landscape painter, the son 
of James Petrie, was born at Dublin in 1789. His 
art-training was gained in the school of the Dublin 
Society. He was much devoted to antiquarian 
pursuits, and furnished many drawings for the 
illustration of works on Ireland. In 1810 he visited 
Wales, and in 1813 London, in company with 
Danby and O'Connor. In 1816 he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy. In 1826 lie was elected an as- 
fiociate of the Hibernian Academy, becoming a 
full member in 1828, and subsequently president. 
From 1833 to 1839 he was entirely employed on 
the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, and took charge 
of the topographical and antiquarian branch of the 
work. In 1845 he visited Scotland. In 1847 he 
received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the 
University of Dublin, and in 1849, a pension on the 
Civil List. He resigned the presidency of the 
R.H.A. in 1859, and died at Dublin in 1866. He 
published much relating to archiEology ; his 
magnum opus is ' On the Ecclesiastical Architec- 
ture of Ireland ; ' but in early life he contributed 
many papers to the ' Dublin Examiner,' and similar 

PETRIE, James, a Scotch portrait painter of the 
18th century, born at Aberdeen. About 1780 he 
settled in Dublin, and obtained a good practice 
there. In the troubled times of the Irish Rebellion 
he was a firm loyalist, but nevertheless he painted 
several members of the 'patriot' party, among 
them Emmet, Curran, and Lord Edward Fitzgerald. 

PETRINI, Cav. Giuseppe, an Italian painter, 
born at Carono, in the Luganese, about 1700. He 
was a pupil of Strozzi, and painted historical 
subjects. He died about 1780. 

PETTER, Anton, was born at Vienna in April, 
1781. In 1808_ he visited Home, and in 1814 
obtained admission to the Vienna Academy with 
liis ' Meleager murdered by his mother in his wife's 
arms.' In 1820 he became professor to the Aca- 
demy, and in 1828 director. He died at Vienna in 
1858. His principal historical pictures are: 

Ma-^imilian's meeting with his BriJe, Mary of Burgundy. 
(/« the Johanneum at Gratz.) 

Meeting of the same Royal Couple, the Consort holding 
their little son Philip in her arms, after the Battle of 
Guinegate. {Belvedere.) 

Joanna of Aragon by her husband's cofEn. 

Charles V.'s visit to Francis I. 

Rudolf of Hapsburg by Ottokar's corpse ; tcilh other 
subjects from Fi/rker's ' Rudolphias.' 

PETTER, Franz Xaver, flower painter, was 
born at Vienna in 1791, and died in 1866. He was 
a pupil of Drechsler in the Academy, and afterwards 
became a professor there. The Belvedere possesses 
a ' Vase of Flowers' by him (183.S). 

PETTIE, John, the son of Alexander Pettie, a 
tradesman, was born at Edinburgh on March 17, 
1839, and a few years later removed with his parents 
to East Linton, in Haddingtonshire. As a boy in 
the village school he showed an early predilection 
for figure subjects in preference to landscape, and 
was continually drawing portraits of himself and 
his relations, and sketching the local celebrities. 
His resolve to become an artist was encouraged 
by his parents, and he was sent to Edinburgh to 
reside with his uncle, Robert Frier, a well-known 
teacher of drawing. At the age of seventeen he 
entered the Trustees' Academy, then under the 

care of Robert Scott Lauder, and among his 
fellow-students were W. Q. Orchardson, J. Mac- 
Whirter, Peter Graham, Tom Graham, G. Paul 
Chalmers, and W. MacTaggart. Pettie's first ex- 
hibited picture, ' The Prison Pet,' appeared at the 
Royal Scottish Academy in 1858, and among his 
other early paintings in Edinburgh were : ' False 
Dice," Convent Hospitality,' 'Distressed Cavaliers,' 
' Morning Prayer,' and ' Evening Prayer.' In 1860 
' The Armourers ' was hung on the line at the 
Royal Academy, and in the following year he 
was represented by 'What d'ye lack. Madam'?' 
Encouraged by this success he moved in 1862 
to London, where he shared a studio with 
Orchardson, and from that date contributed yearly 
to the Academy, exhibiting 119 pictures in all. 
Nearly the whole coterie of Scott Lauder's pupils 
had gathered about this time in London, and met 
in one another's studios once a week to renew a 
Sketch Club they had started in Edinburgh. On 
his marriage in 1865 Pettie went to live in St. 
John's Wood Road, and later built " The Lothians " 
in Fitzjohn's Avenue, where his kindly, genial and 
hospitable nature drew round him a large circle of 
friends. In 1866 he was elected A.R.A., and 
became a full member of the Academy in succes- 
sion to Sir Edwin Landseer in 1873, exhibiting 
'Jacobites, 1745,' as his diploma picture. Towards 
the end of his life he became a popular portrait 
painter, but it was in historical and genre pictures 
that he excelled. He was a keen, rapid and 
enthusiastic worker. His strong vigorous nature 
found its own expression in his pictures, which 
were always dramatic, and always characterized 
by a rich glow of colour. In his early years he 
contributed to the book illustrations for which the 
" sixties " are famous, making several drawings for 
'Good Words' from 1861 to 186,3. In 1868 and 
1869 wood-engravings after his drawings appeared 
in the ' Sunday Magazine.' He also illustrated 'The 
Postman's Bag' (along with J. MacWhirter), and 
Wordsworth's ' Poetry for the Young' in 1863. In 
1891 Pettie began to suffer from an aifection of 
the ear, produced by an abscess on the brain, which 
caused his death at Hastings on Feb. 21, 1893. He 
was buried in Paddington Cemetery on Feb. 27. 

Among his more important pictures besides 
those mentioned were: 'Terms to the Besieged' 
(1872); 'The Flag of Truce' (1873); 'The Step' 
(1876) ; 'The Sword and Dagger Fight' (1877); 
'The Death Warrant' (1879) ; ' Before his Peers' 
(1881) ; • Monmouth and James II. ' (1882) ; ' The 
Vigil' (1884) (bought under the terms of the 
Chantrey Bequest, and now in the Tate Gallery) ; 
' Challenged ' and 'Sir Peter Teazle' (1885); 'The 
Chieftain's Candlesticks' (1886) ; 'Two Strings to 
her Bow' (1887); 'The Traitor' (1889); 'The 
World went very well then' (1890); and 'The 
Ultimatum' (1892). Among his principal portraits 
are those of Bret Harte (1885) ; Sir Walter 
Besant (1887) ; Charles Wyndham as David Gar- 
rick (1888) ; the Rev. Oswald Dykes, D.D. (1889 ; 
now at Westminster College, Cambridge) ; and Sir 
August Manns (1892). In 1894-5 a selection of 
his works was included in the Winter Exhibition 
of the Royal Academy. n H. 

PETTIT, Joseph Paul, a landscape painter, who 
died at Balsall Heath near Birmingham in 1882. 
He was a member of the Society of British Artists, 
and an exhibitor at the Academy, British Institu- 
tion, and Suffolk Street Exhibitions from 1845 to 



PETTY, Robert, painter, was bom in London 
about 1740. He resided mostly at Hamburg, where 
he painted birds, fruits, and flowers in water-colours. 
He died in Holland in 1789. 

PETZHOLDT, Ernst Christian Frederik, 
landscape painter, was born at Copenhagen in 
1805, and studied from 1825 at the Academy and 
under Eckersberg. He won medals in 1827 and 
1828, and in the following year travelled in the 
Harz mountains. From 1830 to 1835 he was 
occupied in a visit to Italy and Sicily, and went in 
1836 to Munich, and thence to Italy a second time, 
and to Greece, where he died suddenly at Patras in 
1839. Among his best paintings are : 

Sketch at Capri. 

Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli. (Copenhaijen Gallery.) 

View from the Villa Pamfili. 

View on the Pontine Marshes. 

PETZL, Joseph, genre painter, was born at 
Munich in 1803. After studying under Langer in 
the Munich Academy, he placed himself under 
Begas in Berlin, and afterwards set off on a journey 
through Bohemia, Saxony, Hanover, Schleswig, 
and Sweden. In 1832-4 he went to Rome, and, in 
the suite of the King of Greece, to Constantinople. 
He afterwards spent two years at Venice. He died 
at Munich in 1871. His principal pictures are : 

Greek Chieftains. (In possession of H. Jdnisch, Hamburg.) 

Greek Wedding. 

The Division of au Inheritance. 

The runaway Daughter among Actors. 

Slaye-dealer and Eunuchs bringing Female Slaves be- 
fore the Pacha. (Kosenstein, tituttgart.) 

The Novice {enyraved hy Bald). 

Scene in an Inn {lithoi/raphed by Letter). 

Tyrolese Fugitives [h'thoifraphed by Ziinmermann). 

The Invalid (lithoqraphed In/ Jlohe). 

The Crack Shot [lithographed by Btrgmann). 

PEUTEMAN, PiETER, (or Nicolaas,) was bom 
at Rotterdam in 1650 or 1657. He excelled in 
painting objects of still-life, such as musical instru- 
ments, books, vases, &c. Balkema attributes his- 
torical works also to him. His death is said to 
have been occasioned by terror. One day in 1692 
Peuteman fell asleep in the dissecting room of the 
Rotterdam Hospital, where he was studying 
anatomy. He was awakened by a movement a- 
uiong the bones and skeletons in the room, which 
had been set in motion by a sudden earthquake. 
From the fright thus caused he never recovered. 
Peuteman engraved many of his own works. 

PEYNAUD, Jacques Franqois, was born at 
La Fert^ St. Aubin in 1771. He was a pupil of the 
Academy of Orleans, and of Girodet and Aubry, 
and for eighteen years was director of the free 
school of design at St. Malo. His principal works 
are, the ' Martyrdom of St. Clement,' at Caucales ; 
' Souls in Purgatory,' at Pleustuis ; and a portrait of 
Maupertuis, now at St. Malo. He died at St. Malo 
in 1829. 

PEYRANNE, Philippe, a French painter who 
flourished at Toulouse about 1780. He was a 
pupil of Suau.joere, and of David, and painted hi.s- 
torical and still-life pictures. Works : 

Young Girls studying Art. 

Martyrdom of St. Stephen. (3Iouchy.) 

PEYRE, Antoine Francjois, an architect, and 
brother of Mathieu Joseph Peyre ; he painted a few 
pictures. He was born in 1739 ; died in 1823. 

PEYROL, Juliette Bonheur, French painter ; 
born July 19, 1831, in Paris ; she was a sister of the 
famous Rosa Bonheur ; studied with her father, 
Raymond Bonheur ; made her debut with pictures of 


still-life, but soon devoted her attention to animals, 
her studies of sheep being specially noteworthy. 
Her work was often shown at London Exhibitions 
of French art, as, for instance, at the French Gallery, 
Pall Mall. She married the French artist Peyrol, 
and became the Directress of an Art School in 
Paris. Here she died in 1891. 

PEYRON, Jean FRANgois Pierre, a French his- 
torical painter and engraver, was bom at Aix in 
1744, and died in Paris in 1820. He was a scholar 
of Arnulfi and of the elder Lagrenee. His subjects 
are from the ancient poets, and from Greek and 
Roman history, occasionally also from events oc- 
curring in his own time, such as the death of 
General Walhubert at the battle of Austerlitz.^ In 
1773 he obtained with his ' Death of Seneca ' the 
Grand Prix de Rome, and accordingly went to that 
city, where he studied from the antique and from 
nature; painting also his pictureof'Cimon allowing 
himself to be taken Prisoner in order to see after 
his Father's Funeral.' In 1781 he returned to 
Paris, and was in 1787 admitted a member of the 
Academy, with a picture of ' Dentatus,' now at 
Fontainebleau. The greater number of his pictures 
were executed between 1780 and 1800, but he con- 
tinued to exhibit till 1812. He engraved several 
subjects after Raphael, Poussin, and after his own 
designs. He was director of the Gobelins Manu- 
factory in 1787, and executed many cartoons for 
that establishment. Tlie Revolution caused hira 
much privation and suffering, which he bore with 
exemplary patience. Works : 

The Funeral of Miltiades. (Paris. 

Alcestis and Admi-tus. 

Paul Emihus, the conqueror of Perseus. 

PFANNSCHMIDT, Karl Gottfried, German 
painter ; born September 15, 1819, at Miihlhausen, 
and was a pupil of Cornelius and Dage at Berlin ; 
he afterwards travelled much in Italy. He became 
Professor at the Berlin Academy, his art being, as 
it were, an echo of the classic school prevalent 
in the first half of the 19th century. Of his 
works we may mention ' Caritas,' ' Abendmahl,' 
and 'Altar' (in St. Paul's Church, Schwerin). Many 
of his drawings were published. He obtained the 
P.erlin gold medal in 1884, and also the Red 
Eagle of the fourth class. He died July 5, 1887, at 

PFAKSTILL, LUDWIG, (Pfanstil, or Pfannen- 
STIL,) a painter and engraver who was born at 
Vienna at the beginning of the 17th century, and 
died at Frankfort in 1665. He painted portraits 
and allegories, and engraved a ' Pieta ' in mezzotint. 

PFEFFEL, JoHANN Andreas, a German en- 
graver, was born at Bischoffingen in 1674. He re- 
sided at Vienna, where he produced among other 
plates a portrait of the Emperor Leopold. He after- 
wards removed to Augsburg, where he followed 
the business of a printseller. His works, as an 
engraver, were chiefly confined to architecture and 
ornamental foliage, which he executed in a neat 
style. In conjunction with C. Engelbrecht, he en- 
graved a set of plates of jewellery ornaments, from 
the designs of A. Morison ; and executed part of 
the plates for the ' History of Architecture,' pub- 
lished at Vienna in 1721 by John Henhard Fischers. 
Scheuchzer's Bible was one of the works issued 
from his establishment at Augsburg. Finally he 
became Court engraver at Vienna, where he died 
in 1750. His son Johann Andreas Pfeffel the 
younger was born at Augsburg in 1715, and died 


in 1768. He also worked upon the plates of 
Scheuchzer's Bible. 

PFEIFFER, Francois Joseph, a portrait painter 
and engraver, born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1741. 
He practised for many years at Amsterdam, but 
late in life he settled at Brussels, where he died in 

PFEIFFER, Franqois Joseph, a designer, en- 
graver, and lithographer, the son of the preceding, 
was born at Liege in 1778. For several years he 
was engaged as a scene-painter at Amsterdam. 
He died at Terburg in 1835. 

PFEIFFER, Karl Hermann, an engraver, was 
born at Frankfort in 1769. He studied at the 
Royal Academy at Vienna, under the Professor Cli. 
Brand. He worked with point and burin, in tlie 
English manner, and was a very industrious artist. 
He died at Vienna in 1829. His engravings are 
numerous, particularly of portraits, which are 
cliiefly of German nobility, and persons of science 
and letters, of his time. He also engraved after 
some of the older Italian and other painters, such as 
Raphael, Correggio, Fra Bartolommeo, Giuliano da 
Parma, Sassoferrato, Rubens, Lampi, Oelenhainz, 
and Fiiger. Among his plates we may mention : 

Virgin with the Child and St. John ; after Raphael. 
VcQus and Cupid ; after Correggio. 
Kubens's Portrait ; after Kuliens. 

_ PFENNINGER, Elizabeth, the niece of Hein- 
rich Pfenninger, was born at Zurich in 1772, and 
died after 1836. She was a miniature painter, and 
studied in Geneva under Boileau and Bouvier, and 
in Paris under Renault and Augustin. Her minia- 
tures are well-handled. 

PFENNINGER, Heinrich, a Swiss painter and 
engraver, born at Zurich in 1749. He was a scholar 
of Jan Balthasar Bullinger, under whom he spent 
five years, and afterwards went to Dresden, where 
he worked under Zingg and Graf, and by virtue of 
his access to the Electoral Gallery, devoted himself 
to a study of the best masters, particularly Van 
Dyck and Rembrandt. On his return to Switzer- 
land, he was engaged by Lavater to make the 
designs and engrave some of the plates for his work 
on Physiognomy. In 1795 he visited Paris, and 
in 1808 Hungary. He died in 1815. He was 
much employed as a portrait painter, and has 
etched a great number of plates of portraits and 
views in Switzerland. He engraved some of the 
portraits for Fiissli's ' Supplement to the Lives of 
the Swiss Painters.' We have also the following 
by him : 

A set of seventy-five Portraits of Illustrious Personages 
of Switzerland, accompanied with an abridged history 
of their Uves by Leonard Meister. 1T81. 

Thirty-four Portraits of the most celebrated German 
Poets, with their characters, by L. Meister. 1785. 

A set of six Views in Switzerland. 

He signed his work if. iy. ; H. Ff. fecit; Heinr. 
Pf.; and Ff en. fee. 

PFENNINGER, Johannes, painter and engraver, 
was born at Stafa, by Lake Zurich, in 1765. He 
learnt engraving under H. von Mechel in Basle, 
and painting in Rome (1794-9). After this he re- 
turned to Zurich and occupied himself on portraits, 
principally miniatures in water-colour. He died 
at Zurich in 1825. Among his works are : 

The first Navigator {engraved by Hegi). 

The Laocoon Group, in sepia. 

The Dismissal of Hagar ; the same. 

The Crucifixion ; after Michelangeh ; in Indian ink. 

PFLUG, Johann Baptist, genre painter, was 
bom at Biberach in 1785, and studied at the Munich 
Academy in 1805-9. After this he became a 
teacher of drawing in his native town, and devoted 
himself to painting humorous scenes from the 
popular life of Upper Swabia, and also military 
pictures and a few portraits. He died at Biberach 
in 1865. Several of his works are at the Rosenstein, 
near Stuttgart. Noticeable among his productions 
are : 

A Peasants' "Wedding. 

The Gipsy Family. 

The Gamesters. 

The Village Alehouse. 

"Washing Day. 

The Battle of Stockach. 1842. 

Distribution of Medals to Veterans. 1843. 

Austrian Hussars. 1844. 

March of the Kussians from the Waldsee. 

PFORR, Franz, historical painter, was born at 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine in 1788. He was the son 
of the better known Johann Georg Pforr. His 
first master was his uncle, Tischbein, the in- 
spector of the Cassel Gallery. In 1805 he went 
to the Academy of Vienna, and studied under 
Fiiger, and it was there that he made the acquaint- 
ance of Overbeck. In 1810 he went to Rome. 
Cornelius, too, entered into friendship with Over- 
beck and Pforr, and both of these artists, who 
outlived Pforr, spoke in high terms of his talent, 
and confessed themselves indebted to the taste 
which he always displayed in his works. Pforr 
died at Albano in 1812. His subjects were taken 
from Scripture, from German legends, or from 
his own fancy. The Stadel Institute has a picture 
by him entitled ' Rudolf of Hapsburg presenting 
his Horse to an Ecclesiastic' 

PFORR, Johann Georg, animal painter and 
etcher, was born at Upfen, near Eisenach, in 1745. 
He was working at the mine at Richelsdorf, when 
the Hessian minister, Waitz, discovered his talent, 
and placed him in his own porcelain factory. In 
1777 he entered the Academy at Cassel, where in 
the following year he obtained the first prize, and 
in the next year was admitted a member. In 1781 
he settled in Frankfort, where he died in 1798. 
He had a passionate fondness for horses, which led 
him to paint them with a success hardly sur- 
passed. He worked well in sepia and Indian 
ink, and was a good etcher ; but he could not 
render the human figure with freedom. The Stadel 
Institute at Frankfort possesses eight of his pictures. 

PFRUNDT, Georg, (or Pfrdnd,) was born at 
Flachslanden, in Bavaria, in 1603, and died at 
Durlach in 1663. According to Sandrart, he en- 
graved a considerable number of architectural and 
geographical subjects. He was an engineer, 
sculptor, modeller in was, and steel engraver, and 
served the Duke of Weimar in the first of these 

PHEIDIAS, the celebrated sculptor, who was 
born at Atliens about 500 B.C., and died about 430, 
is said by Pliny to have painted at Atliens a picture 
of Pericles as the Olympian Jupiter. 

PHELPS, Richard, a portrait painter who prac- 
tised in England in the first half of the 18th century. 
J. Faber engraved after him a portrait of Bampfield 
Moore Carew. 

PHILESIUS, Rigmann, a German engraver on 
wood, resided, according to Papillon, at Strasburg 
in the beginning of the 16th century. He executed 
a set of twenty-five cuts of the Life and Passion of 



our Saviour, published at Strashuig, by John 
Knoblauch, in 1508. He was also a carver of wood. 
Zani notices hira under the names Rigman, Pki- 
lesius, and Philery, or Phillery. 

PHILIP IV. of Spain (1605-1665) was an 
amateur painter. He produced among other pic- 
tures a 'St. James with the Lamb,' 'Jesus with St. 
John,' and a ' JIagdalen in the Desert.' Philip V. 
(1683-17-16), according to Palomino, was also an 
amateur artist, drawing in pen and ink with skill 
and facility. 

PHILIPPE, Je.4N B. C. See Chatelain. 

PHILIPPE, PlETER, was a Dutch engraver, who 
flourished at the Hague about the year 1660. We 
have by hira a few plates of portraits and festivals, 
among which are the following: 


Louis Henri, Prince of Nassau ; P. Philippe fee. 
Henri Charles de la Tremouille, Prince ds Tarente ; 
ajter Van der Bank. 

The Assembly of the States-General of Holland ; after 

A grand Festival ; after the same. 
A set of Merry-makings ; after Van der Venne. 1600. 

PHILIPPI, Heixrich, was born at Cleves in 
1838, and studied in Dusseldorf, Munich, and 
Rome. He joined the German forces in 1860 and 
1870-1 as a Landwehr officer, and at Koniggratz 
was wounded in the foot. After leaving the army 
ho devoted himself entirely to art, and produced 
historical, genre, and animal pictures. An early 
death at Diisseldorf in 1874 interrupted his success- 
ful career. Among his best compositions are : 

Thusnelda in the Triumph of Germanicus. 
Scenes from the Peasant "War. 

Scenes from the Life of the Romans and Pompeians. 
Soldiers of the Landwehr retvurning home. 
Choice Ewes. 

PHILIPPOTEAUX, Henri Emmanuel Felix, a 
French battle painter, was bom in Paris in 1815. 
He studied art under Leon Cogniet. He painted 
military scenes with great success, though some- 
times with a curious dryness. Late in life he pro- 
duced one or two excellent panoramas. He died in 
Paris in 1885. Works : 

Chasseurs d'Afrique at Balaclava. 



The Death of Turenne. 

The Retreat from Moscow. 

Surrender of Antwerp. 

Henry IV. and Sully at I\Ty. 

The English Cavalry at Balaclava. 

The English squares at "Waterloo receiving the French 
Cuirassiers. {South Kensington.) 

Battle of Fontenoy. (South Kensintjton.) 

PHILIPS, Charles, an English portrait painter, 
the son of Richard Philips, was born in 1708. His 
practice was among the nobihty, and he had a 
large clientele at an early age. He married in 
1738, and lived in Great Queen Street, St. Giles's. 
His portraits are generally of a small size, and 
though well painted and good likenesses, do not 
show him to have been possessed of any high art 
qualities. This is especially evident in his portrait 
groups. Several of his portraits have been en- 
graved. He died in 1747. Works: 

Knole Park. Lady Betty Germaine. 1731. 

Knowsley Hall. Wilson, Bishop of Sodor and 


London. National \ TVarburton, Bishop of Glou- 

Portrait Gallery. J cester. 
Thornton-le- Hall. Duke of Cumberland and Lord 

Street. Cathcart. 

„ „ The Family of Lord A. Hamil- 

ton. 1731. 
Wobum Abbey. The Second Duke of Marl- 

borough. 1731. 

PHILIPS, Nathaniel George, was the youngest 
son of John Leigh Philips, Esq., of Mayfield, Jlan- 
chester, and was born on June 9, 1795. After 
leaving school he went to Edinburgh University, 
intending to adopt the medical profession, but the 
favourable encouragement he received from Sir 
William Allan and other artists caused him to 
abandon this intention and devote his time to art. 
Having a moderate competency derived from the 
property of his father, whose collection of books 
and works of art took nineteen days to dispose of 
by auction in 1814, he spent three years travelling 
and studying in Italy. In Rome his work was so 
highly appreciated that in 18:>5, on the death of 
Fuseli, he was chosen to fill the vacancy in the 
membership of the Academy of St. Luke. His 
sketches also served on one occasion to ransom 
him. from a more than ordinarily cultured band of 
brigands. On his return he settled at Liverpool, 
where he painted landscapes and exhibited as a 
member of the Liverpool Academy. His most not- 
able achievement, however, is a fine series of twenty- 
eight plates, many of them engraved by himself, 
from early drawings of old halls in Lancashire and 
Cheshire. This work was originally published in 
part between the years 1822 and 1824, before his 
Italian tour ; but it was reissued in complete form 
on a handsome scale in 1893 by Henry Gray, the 
publisher, with contributory letterpress by twenty- 
four authors, and a memoir of the artist's life. 
Philips occasionally practised etching as well as en- 
graving. His work is masterly and accurate. He 
was famous personally for his conversational gifts, 
and was an excellent musician. He died, un- 
married, at Rodney Street, Liverpool, on August 1, 

PHILIPS, Richard, an English portrait painter, 
born in 1681, who enjoyed a large practice in the 
early part of the 18th century. He died in 1741. 
Amongst his works are: 

London. Ironmongers-' \ g;^ jj ggg 

Halt. J 
■\Voburn Abbey. Unknown male Portrait. 1731. 

PHILLERY, Anton, an old engraver on wood, 
lived at Antwerp about 1630, and has left a middle- 
sized print representing two soldiers standing 
before a woman, who is seated, holding a dog 
upon her lap. It bears the following inscription 
in old Flemish characters, (Sfttprint t'antlDerptn bn 
mp ^pijillctn Br figursniBcr, printed at A^ittverp, by 
me Phillery, the figure-cxMer. There is also known 
a 'Genealogia illustrissimas Domus Austriie' by 

PHILLIP, John, was born at Aberdeen April 
19th, 1817. His parents were of humble condition, 
but from his youngest days he showed a strong 
inclination for art. He was apprenticed early in life 
to a house painter, where he made his first effort 
in art by trying to copy a portrait of Wallace 
from a sign-board which hung on the opposite side 
of the street. He is said to have received some 
instruction from Mr. Forbes, a local portrait painter, 
but in 1834 he went to London as a stow-away on 



a brig belonging to a friend of liis father. On 
arriving in London he was kept hard at work, but 
contrived to visit the exhibition of the Royal 
Academy at Somerset House. He attracted the 
notice of a Major Pryse Gordon, who recommended 
him to Lord Panmure, by whose generosity he was 
placed as a pupil with T. M. Joy. In 1837 he 
entered the Academy as a student, and in 1839 he 
exhibited two pictures, 'A Moor' and a portrait. 
In 1840 he exhibited his finst subject picture, 
'Tasso in disguise, relating his persecutions to 
his Sister,' and in the same year he returned to 
Aberdeen, where he was principally employed in 
painting portraits. In 1846 he again sought Lon- 
don, where he continued to have his domicile till 
his death. In 1847 he exhibited at the Academy 
'A Presbyterian Catechising,' and at the British 
Institution 'Courtship' and 'The Grandfather.' 
In 1848 he exhibited a 'Scotch Fair'; m 1849, 
' Drawing for the Militia ' ; in 1850, ' Baptism in 
Scotland,' and in 1851, 'Scotch Washing,' 'The 
Spae Wife,' and ' A Sunbeam.' In this year_ he 
went to Spain and lived for a time at Seville, 
where he made numerous sketches, and began 
several pictures, one of which, ' The Spanish Gipsy 
Mother,' was purchased by the Queen on the 
recommendation of Sir E. Landseer. He also 
painted for Her Majesty 'The Letter- Writer of 
Seville.' In 1856-57', in company with his friend 
Richard Ansdell, he made a tour through Spam, 
and in 1857 sent home to the Academy 'Charity' 
and 'The Prison Window'; and in the same year 
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy. 
In the year 1858 he painted ' Spanisli Contraban- 
distas' for the Queen, a portrait of the Prince 
Consort for the city of Aberdeen, ' El Cortejo,' and 
'Youth in Seville." In 1859 he became a full 
Academician, and exhibited ' Huff,' and a portrait 
of A. L. Egg, R.A. In 1860 was exhibited his 
picture of '"ihe Marriage of the Princess Royal,' 
ordered by the Queen, and ' Prayer,' his diploma 
picture ; and in the autumn of the same year he 
was again in Spain. In 1861 he exhibited ' Gossips 
at a Well ' ; in 1862 ' Doubtful Fortune,' or ' The 
Fortune-Teller.' ' A Spanish Volunteer,' ' Water 
Drinkers,' and ' Dolores.' In 1863 was exhibited 
his ' House of Commons,' painted for the Speaker, 
Mr. Denison, afterwards Viscount Ossington, repre- 
senting a debate on the French Treaty, 1860 ; and 
' Agua Bendita.' In 1864 appeared 'La Gloria— a 
Spanish Wake,' bought for the Scottish National 
Gallery, Edinburgh, in 1897, for 5250!., and a 
portrait of the Earl of Dalhousie ; and in 1865 
' The Early Career of Murillo, 1634." In 1866 lie 
produced a portrait of Duncan McNeill, of Colonsay, 
Lord Justice of Scotland, and ' A Chat round the 
Brasiero.' In the spring of this year he went to 
Rome, for the winter, but ill health brought him 
back to London, where he was attacked by paralysis, 
and died February 27, 1867. Phillip married a sister 
of Mr. Richard Dadd. A large collection of his 
works was exhibited at the London International 
Exhibition in 1873. Besides those already men- 
tioned we may name : 

The Brig Manly. 1834. 

Portrait of himself at the age of twenty-three. 1840. 

Sketch portrait of Sir J. E. Millais, Bt., lUA. 1843. 

(T. Oldham Barhiv, Esq., R.A.) 
The Miller's Daughter. 1847. 
Girl tending Cattle. 1850. 
The Gipsy Queen. 1853. 
The Highlander's Home. 1855. 

Richard Ansdell, R.A. 1358. 

S. Bough, A.R.S.A. 1856. 

The Evil Eye. 1858. 

H.R.H. The Princess Beatrice. 1860. 

The Toilet. 1860. 

A Spanish Widow. 1861. 

La Bomba, or the Wine-Drinkers. 

The Grape-Seller. Seville. 1862. 

La Loteria Nacional. 1S62. 

Breakfast in the Highlands. 1865. 

A large number of his unfinished pictures were sold 
after his death ; among them : 
Spanish Boys playing at BuU-Fighting. {Scottish 

National Gallery.) 

PHILLIPS, Charles, a mezzotint engraver, was 
born in 1737. He studied in London, and was in 
1765 employed by Boydell. The latest date known 
on his works is 1770. He worked also in the dot 
manner. We have, among others, the following 
prints by him : 

Portrait of the Daughter of N. Hone, R.A. 

A Boy holding a Pigeon ; after Mola. 

A Woman plucking a Fowl ; after Kemlrandt. 

The Philosopher ; after the same. 

Tlie Holy Family ; 'after Farmigiano. 

Venus and Cupid ; after Salviati. 

Isaac blessing Jacob ; after Spac/iioletto. 

And others, after Loutherboury and Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

PHILLIPS, Giles Firman, an English landscape 
painter, born in 1780. His practice was confined 
to river scenes, and, living at Greenwich, these 
were chiefly furnished by the Thames. He ex- 
hibited at the Academy from 1836 to 1858, and 
published ' Principles of Effect and Colour' (1838), 
and 'Practical Treatise on Drawing' (1839). He 
died March 31, 1867. 

PHILLIPS, Henry Wyndham, an English por- 
trait painter, born in 1820. He received his art 
instruction from his father, T. Phillips, R.A., and 
exhibited at the Academy from 1839 to 1868. 
Though his works were chiefly portraits and he 
had a large circle of sitters, he painted a few 
Scriptural subjects. For several years he was 
secretary to the Artists' Benevolent Institution. He 
died December 5, 1868. Amongst his works are : 
London. Garrick Club. Charles Kean as Louis XI. 
Royal College } p^ p^^^j 
of Physicians. ) 

'Institution of ) jj^bert Stephenson. 1866. 
Civil Engineers. S 
PHILLIPS, S., an English engraver, practising 
in London at the close of the 18th century. Amongst 
his plates are : 
The Birth of Shakespeare ; after Westall. 
The Guardian Angel ; after Maria Coswtiy. 
PHILLIPS, Thomas, a well-known portrait 
painter, was born at Dudley, in Warwickshire, in 
1770. He was placed with Eginton, the glass 
jiainter, at Birmingham, and came to London in 
1790 with a letter of introduction to Benjamin West, 
who employed him on the windows in St. George's 
Chapel at Windsor. In 17'J2 he commenced as an 
exhibitor, with a ' View of Windsor Castle ' ; and in 
the two following years he exhibited the ' Death of 
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury-, at the battle of Cas- 
sillon,' ' Ruth and Naomi,' ' Elijah restoring the 
Widow's Son,' ' Cupid disarmed by Euphrosj-ne,' 
and other subject pictures. Soon afterwards he 
devoted himself chiefly to portrait painting. Not- 
withstanding that he had to compete with Hoppner, 
Owen. Jackson, Lawrence, and Beechey, he kept 
steadily progressing in public favour, and seemed 
to be the selected painter for men of genius and 


talent. In 1804 he was elected an AsBociate of the 
Academy. In 1806 he painted the Prince of 
Wales, Lord Egremont, the Marquis of Staiford, 
and the Stafford Family. In 1808 he became an 
K.A., and in 1824 succeeded Henry Fuseli in the 
professorship of painting, which office he held till 
1832. On his appointment to the professorship lie 
made a tour in Italy, in the company of Hilton, in 
order to enable him to discharge the duties of the 
office more efficiently. He delivered ten ' Lectures 
on the History and Principles of Painting,' which 
he afterwards published in one volume (in 1833). 
These lectures are clear and simple in their style, 
and instructive in substance and arrangement, 
especially in those parts where he gives an exposi- 
tion of his views of the principles of art. He died 
in London, April 20, 1845. In 1802 he painted by 
stealth, but with the connivance of Josephine, a 
portrait of Napoleon which is now at Petworth ; 
it has been engiaved. Phillips wrote many of the 
articles on the tine arts in Rees's Cyclopsedia, and 
in other publications. He was one of the great pro- 
moters of the Artists' General Benevolent Institu- 
tion. His Diploma picture at Burlington House is a 
' Venus and Adonis.' The following portraits were 
painted nearly in the order in which we give them. 

Lord Thurlow. 

"William Blake (engraved by Scliiavonetti). 

Lord Byron (twice). 

Count Platoff. 

The poet Crabbe. 

Earl Grey. 

Lord Brougham. 

Sir Joseph liauks. 

Joshua Brookes, the celebrated lecturer on surgery. 

Major Deuliam, the African traveller. 

Lord Stowell. 

Sir E. Parry. 

Sir J. Brunell. 

David Wilkie. (Xatioiuil Gallery.) 

Sir F. Burdett. 

Lord Lyndhurst. 

Dr. Arnold. 

The Duke of Sussex. 

Sir Nicholas Tindal, Chief Justice of the Common 

Dr. Shuttleworth, Bishop of Chichester. 
Sir Walter Scott, Thomas Moore, Thomas Campbell, 

Southey , and Coleridge, for Mr. Murray. 
Dr. Buckland. 
Professor Sedgwick. 
I>avies Gilbert. 
Mrs. Somerville. 
Mr. Hallam, the historian. 
Francis Baily, the astronomer. 
Michael Faraday. 
Sir Humphrey Davy. 

was one of the last of tlie Greek painters previous 
to the decline of the art in the 3rd century B.C. 
Another painter of the same name is mentioned by 
Pliny as the author, about 50 B.C., of a 'Glaucon 
and his Son,' for the comitia. 

PHILOXENES, a native of Eretria, was a dis- 
ciple of Nicomachus, and adopted the expeditious 
style of his instructor. According to Pliny, he 
painted for Cassander a picture representing the 
■ Defeat of Darius bj* Alexander,' which was con- 
sidered one of his most important works. 

PHILP, James George, painter, was a native 
of Falmouth, and was bom in 1816. He first ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1846, his contri- 
butions being two landscapes in oils. He after- 
wards successfully devoted himself to painting in 
water-colour, and in 1856 became a member of the 


New Society of Painters in Water-Colours. Ho 
died April 11, 1885. 

PHKYLUS, an ancient Greek painter of some 
repute, is mentioned by Pliny as a contemporary 
of Aglaophon the younger, Cephisodotus, and 
Evenor. He flourished about 420 B.C. 

PIACENZA, Bartolino DA. This name isfound on 
some wall-paintings, executed in the 14th century, 
in the Baptistery at Parma. The town of Piacenza 
also possesses some works attributed to thesarae man. 

PIAGALI, Francesco, a native of Saragossa, 
who flourished in the 17th century, and is placed 
by Palomino among the good Valencian painters. 

PIAGGIA, Teramo, (or Ebasmo da Zoagli,) was 
a native of Zoagli, in the Genoese state, and flour- 
ished about the year 1547. He was a disciple of 
Lodovico Brea. In conjunction with Antonio 
Semini, he painted several works for the churches 
at Genoa, of which one of the best was a ' Martyr- 
dom of St. Andrew.' 

PIANE, Giovanni Maria dalle, a painter called 
Molinaretto, was born at Genoa in 1660. He 
studied at Rome under G. B. Gaulli, and painted 
historical pictures and portraits. He visited Parma 
and Piacenza, and Charles Bourbon of Naples 
appointed him court painter. He died in 1745. 

PIANORO, II. See Morelli, Bartolommeo. 

PIASTRINI, Giovanni Domenico, was an his- 
torical painter of Pistoia, and flourished at the 
beginning of the 18th century. He was a pupil of 
Luti. He painted several frescoes in the porch of 
the Madonna della Umilta, at Pistoia, aud also 
worked in S. Maria in Via Lata, at Rome. 

PIATTI, Francesco, is said by Fuessli, in his 
Supplement, to have been bom at Teglio, in the 
Valteline, in 1650. He does not acquamt us by 
whom he was instructed, but informs us that he 
painted a great number of altar-pieces and pictures 
for the churches and galleries of the neighbourliood, 
and highly commends a picture of ' Cleopatra,' by 
him, in the possession of a noble family at Delebio. 
Zani says he was living in 1690. 

PIATTOLI, Gaetano, a Florentine painter, was 
born in 170.3. He was a pupil of Riviere, a French 
painter, and painted portraits and mythological 
scenes. He died about 1770. His wife Anna was 
also a portrait painter, and died in 1788. 

PIAZZA, Albertino, (called Toccagni,) bom at 
Lodi about 1450, died before 1529 ; son of a 
painter, Berlino, by whom no works are known, 
and probably a pupil of Borgognone. Conjointly 
with his brother, Martino Piazza, he painted many 
altar-pieces, the two brothers being the chief repre- 
sentatives of the local school of Lodi. Albertino 
was, however, an artist of greater distinction and 
finer fibre than his brother, though with strongly 
eclectic tendencies. In many of liis later works 
he shows himself a close follower of the school 
of Leonardo, as exemplified more especially by 
Cesare da Sesto, while in others a strain of 
Raphaelesque feeling is apparent. Among his 
principal paintings are the following : 

Bergamo. Lochis CoU. Marriage of St. Catherine. 
„ Sigmr Frh^^i j j,^^^^„^ ^j j^e Magi. 

Castiglione S. Maria Altar-piece (joint work with 
d'Adda. ddl' Jnco- Martino) : Madonna and 
ronata. Child, with SS. Eoch and 
John Baptist ; CVucidxion, 
with Saints ; and above, tb« 
Annunciation. Predella: the 
twelve Apostles. 


Walker and Cockerell photo] [Nalional Portrait Gallery 




Jncar&nata (Be- 

rinzaghi Chapel). 




Borrovieo Coll. 

,, Crespi Coll. 

„ Marckese Vis* 

conii Venosta. 

Padua. Gallery. 

Verona. Gallery. 

Lodi. S. Agnese. Altar-piece {joint work, dated 

1520) : St. Augustine en- 
throned, with Saints ; Ma- 
donna and Child, with 
Saints and the donor, Nic- 
colo Galliaui. 

The Assumption. 

Altar-piece (after 1513, joint 
iDork): Madouna and Child, 
with St. Anthony (who pre- 
sents Albertino Berinzaghi) 
and other Saints ; above, 
Crucifixion, with Saints. 
SS. AppoUonia and Catherine 
{lunette fresco). 

The Coronation of the Virgin 

Christ and the Apostles {pre- 

Madonna and Child. 

Triptych, with several Saints. 

I Pieta {predella). 

Christ with SS. Peter and John. 

Holy Family {ascribed to 

Haphael). C. J. Pf. 

PIAZZA, Cavaliere Andrea, was the nephew of 
Cosimo Piazza, by whom he was instructed in the 
art, and he accompanied his uncle to Rome, where 
he had the advantage of studying after the great 
masters. He passed some years in the service of 
the Duke of Lorraine, and on bis return to Venice 
painted a large picture of the ' Marriage at Cana,' 
for the Church of Santa Maria, which, according 
to Lanzi, is his most celebrated work. He died at 
Venice in 1670. There is a picture by him dated 

PIAZZA, Bertino, a painter of Lodi in the 15th 
century, the father of Albertino and Martino Piazza, 
and grandfather of Calisto da Lodi. No works by 
him are known, but he is probably the painter 
who, according to Lomazzo, was summoned by 
Francesco Sforza to decorate with frescoes the 
courtyard of the Palazzo dell' Arengo at Milan, 
where he was associated with Bonifazio Bembo 
and other distinguished masters of the day. 

PIAZZA, Calisto, (usually called Calisto da 
Lodi,) bom before 1505, died after 1561 ; the 
son of Martino Piazza according to a contract 
of 1529, in which Calisto and his brothers are 
mentioned as receiving payment for completing a 
picture left unfinished by their uncle Albertino. 
His principal master was Romanino of Brescia, 
whom he often approaches closely, and he must 
also have been intimately associated with Ales- 
sandro Moretto, who was his fellow-pupil in the 
workshop of Romanino. Calisto was employed for 
some years at Brescia and in the Val Camonica, 
but returned to Lodi in 1529, where, in company 
with his brothers Scipione and Cesare, he decorated 
several chapels in the Church of the Incoronata, 
some of these paintings being valued in 1532 by 
Civerchio and other artists. In 1539 he visited 
Spain and Portugal, and is known to have executed 
a fresco in the Escurial. About 1544 he settled at 
Milan, and did much good work in the Churches 
of S. Maurizio, S. Francesco, S. Nazzaro e Celso, 
&c. Calisto was a very prolific painter, and 
though many works which he is known to have 
executed have disappeared, he is still well repre- 
sented in North Italy. In 1562 his son Fabio, a 
very feeble painter, was ordered to complete the 
work in the Incoronata at Lodi which Calisto had 
left unfinished at his death. The archives of this 
church contain many records of payments made to 

the three brothers, Calisto, Cesare, and Scipione, 
between the years 1529 and 1549. By the last- 
named painter, who died in 1551, there is a signed 
work in the Church of S. Spirito at Bergamo. 
Among the best works of Calisto are the following ; 

Breno. (ValCanonica). The Madonna and Child, with 


„ ,, The Deposition. i 

Brescia. S. Clemente, The Annunciation, with Saints. 

„ S. Maria in The Visitation {sitjiied and 

Calchera. dated 1521). 
„ Gallery. The Nativity {signed and dated 

Cividate. ( Val Madonna and Child, with Saints 

Canonica.) {signed). 
Codogno. The Assumption, with portraits 

of the Tiividzio family 
Crema. Church of the Madonna and Child, with 
Trinitii. Saints {signed and dated 
Edolo. {Val Canonica.) Frescoes: History of St. John 
Baptist, and the Cracifixion. {ValCanonica.) Frescoes: St. George ; Death of 
St. John Baptist; and the 
Esine. {ValCanonica.) Pieta, with Two Angels, and 
seven other figures {signed 
and dated 1521). 
Lodi. Cathedral. Altar-piece: Madonna and Child, 

with Saints ; Massacre of the 
Innocents {left uufiitished by 
Albertino, compUted by Ca- 
listo and his brothers). 
„ Incoronata. Beheading of St. John Baptist 

{signed and dated 1530). 
„ „ Scenes from the History of the 

„ „ Deposition {signed and dated 

., „ Scenes from the Passion. 

„ „ Scenes from the History of 

Joachim and Anna. 
Milan. Brera. Madonna and Child, with 

Saints and an Angel mu- 
sician (1530). 
„ „ Baptism of Clirist. 

„ „ St. Stephen, with two Saints 

^ ,, Portrait of Lodovico Vistarini. 

\, (Stairs leading The Marriage in Cana, and 

to the Library). medallions of Apostles. 1545 
{from the refectory of S. 
St. Peters- M. Paul Madonna and Child {copy of a 
burg. Delaroff. picture by Moretto in the 

Layard Collection, Venice). 
Verona. Gallery. The Daughter of Herodias. 

Vienna. Gallery. The Daughter of Herodias 

(dated 1526). C. J. Ff. 

PIAZZA, Martino, of Lodi, died about 1527 ; 
father of the above, and brother of Albertino, with 
whom, as already noted, he executed many large 
altar-pieces for the churches of Lodi and elsewhere. 
He was probably a pupil of Borgognone, and later 
followed the Leonardesque painters. As a colour- 
ist he often attained to great excellence, and his 
landscapes are of peculiar charm. The name of 
Martino Piazza has been connected with several 
pictures in private collections in England and in 
North Italy. In addition to the works already 
mentioned, which he executed conjointly with his 
brother, the following may be ascribed with 
certainty to Martino alone: 

London. Nat. Gallery. St. John Baptist {signed with a 

Milan. Amhrosiana. Adoration of the Magi {vfith a 
monogram similar to the pre- 



Milan. Brera. St. John Baptist (dated 1519). 

Sessa Coll. Nativity (1520). 
Eome. Collection of Madonna and Child, with the 

Miss Hertz. little St. John and a lamb. 

C. J. Ff. 

PIAZZA, Paolo, called Fka Cosimo, born at 
Castelfranco, 1577, died at Venice, 1663. Studied 
at Venice, and acquired some reputation for his 
painting in S. Giovanni e Paolo over the tomb of 
Marc Antonio Bragadino, the defender of Fama- 
gosta. He was employed later by the Capuchins 
of his native place, and entered the Order, taking 
the name of Fra Cosimo. Subsequently he worked 
at the Court of the Emperor Rudolph II., and went 
to Rome, where he enjoyed the favour of Pope 
Paul V. and of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, for 
both of whom he executed numerous works. On 
his return to Venice he painted prophets and 
sibyls in the Church of the Redentore, and was 
commissioned by the Doge Antonio Priuli to exe- 
cute frescoes in the Ducal Palace, but he died 
before completing the work. C, J.- Ff. 

PIAZZETTA, Giovanni Battista, born at Pie- 
trarossa, near Treviso, 1682, died at Venice, 1754. 
Pupil of Antonio Molinari. Went to Bologna, 
where he was influenced by Giuseppe Maria 
Crespi, and more especially by the works of 
Guercino. He became first Director of the Aca- 
demy of Venice in 1750, and was enrolled an 
honorary member of the Clementina Academy at 
Bologna. Among his best works are : frescoes in 
S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice ; the ' Decollation of 
S. John,' in the Church of the Santo, Padua ; the 
' Standard-Bearer,' Dresden Gallery, and the ' As- 
sumption,' Lille. Other works by him at Dresden, 
Cassel, and Brunswick. Pitteri and others have 
engraved after him, and mention is made by Nagler 
of two etchings by himself. Piazzetta enjoys the 
distinction of having exercised some influence 
over the development of Giovanni Battista 
Tiepolo, the greatest Venetian master of the 18tli 
century. C. J. Ff. 

PICARD, Alexandre Noel, a French painter, 
born in Paris in 1813. He chiefly painted land- 
scapes. He died in 1869. 

PICARD, HUGDES, French painter, bom in 1840 
at Voreppe (dep. Isfere). Studied first at Grenoble, 
and subsequently in Paris under Boulanger and 
Leffebvre. Painted portraits and landscapes, also 
genre scenes, such as ' La legon de Chant,' ' La 
. U'9on au Convent,' &c. He was also a prolific 
illustrator. He died in Paris, January 16, 1900. 

PICART, Bernard, an engraver, and the son of 
Etienne Picart, was born in Paris in 1673. He was 
instructed in design and engraving by his fatlier, 
but obtained further help from Le Brun and 
Jouvenet. At the age of sixteen he gained honours 
at the Academy of Paris. He distinguished him- 
self both as designer and engraver, and executed 
a vast number of plates. He used both the point 
and the burin ; but in his larger plates the exe- 
cution was not equal to the drawing, and his later 
productions were inferior to his earlier ones. His 
works chiefly consist of plates for books, and other 
ornamental engravings. In 1710 he left Paris, and 
settled at Amsterdam, where he was greatly em- 
ployed by the booksellers, and died there in 1733. 
He engraved a set of seventy-eight plates in 
imitation of the different styles of the old engravers, 
which were published after his death, in 1738, in 
one volume, entitled 'Les Impostures Innooentes.' 
The following are his most esteemed works : 



Chadesl.; after VanDyck. 1724. 

Charles II. ; after Kneller. 1724. 

James II. ; after Largilliire. 1724. 

William III. ; after Van der We)f. 

George I. ; after Kneller. 

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon ; after Zoust. 1724. 

William, Lord KusseU ; after Kneller. 1724. 

Frederick, Duke of Schomberg ; after the same. 1724. 

Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury ; after Hoadly. 1724. 

Eugene Francois, Prince of Savoy ; after Van Schuppen. 

Don Luis, Prince of the Asturias. 
Jan de Wit, Grand Pensionary of Holland. 1727. 
Fran(;ois Pierre, Cardinal de Foix. 1713. 
Philip, Duke of Orleans, supported by Minerva and 

Apollo ; after A. Coypel. 1706. 
Etienne Picart, the Roman, Engraver to the King. 
Roger de Piles ; ipse pinx. B. Ficart fee. aqua forti. 1704. 


The Murder of the Innocents. The first impressions are 
before the crown was placed upon the head of Herod. 

A set of twelve Prints, called the Epithalamia. 

Truth, the Research of Philosophy ; a Thesis in honour 
of Descartes. 

The Triumph of Painting. 

The Death of Niobe's Children. 

The Feast of the Gods and the Ccesars. 

A set of Prints for the Annals of the Dutch Republic. 

The Frontispieces to • Ceremonies Religieuses,' 11 vols. 
1723 — 1743 ; and to various other works. 


Time discovering Truth ; after the picture by Poussin, iu 

the Louvre. 
Au Allegory on human Life ; after the same. 
Arcadia ; after the same. 

Two Muses, Calliope and Terpsichore; after Le Sueur. 
Abraham dismissing Hagar ; after Le Brun. 
The Discovery of Calisto's shame ; after Ann. Carracci. 
Neptune calming the Sea ; after A n. Coypel. 

PICART, Charles, an English engraver and 
draughtsman, bom about 1780. He practised in 
London, and died about 1837. Specimens of his 
work will be found in : 

Dibdiu's ' Decameron.' 

' Description of the Ancient Marbles iu the British 

Lodge's ' Portraits.' 

He also engraved several dramatic portraits after 
Clint and Wivell. 

PICART, Etienne, called ' Le Romain,' was born 
in Paris in 1632. After a long sojourn in Rome 
he was employed, with several other artists, to 
engrave the pictures in the King of France's col- 
lection. His plates are sometimes executed with 
the burin only, in the style of Poilly ; but he also 
engraved a few in which the point is predominant. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1721. His prints are 
extremely numerous ; the following are the most 
deserving of notice : 



Jean Francois Paul Gaudy, Cardinal de Retz. 
Bust of Cardinal Fachenettus ; after Morand. 
Melchisedeck de Thevenot, the traveller ; after Chaveau. 
Nicolas Choart de Busenval, Bishop of Beauvais. 
Claude de Brion, President of the Parliament. 
Pierre Loisel, Doctor of the Sorbonue. 
Franijoise Athenais de Eochechouart, Marquise de 


The Ecce Homo, with three Angels ; after Alhani. 

The Birth of the Virgin ; after Guido. 

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correggio. 


Triumph of Virtue ; after the same. 

Triumph of Vice ; after the same, 

St. Cecilia ; after Domenichino. 

A Concert of Music ; after the same. 

The Infant Jesus sleeping, with the Virgin holding up 

her finger to St. John ; called ' Silenzio ' ; after Aim. 

The Holy Family ; after Palma. 
The Parting of SS. Peter and Paul ; after Lanfranco. 
The Plague among the Philistines ; after N. Foussin. 
Christ curing the BUnd ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of SS. Gervais and Protais ; after Le 

St. Paul burning the Books of the Ephesians ; after the 

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after Le Bmn. 
The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Courtois. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after Noel Coypel. 
St. Anthony of Padua adoring the Infant Jesus ; after 

Van Dyck. 

PICART, Jean, was a French engraver, who 
resided in Paris about the year 1640. He is sup- 
posed to have been a pupil of Crispin van de Pass, 
as he engraved from the designs of that master, 
and imitated his style, though not very success- 
fully. He appears to have been principally em- 
ployed in engraving ornaments for books, and a 
few portraits. We have by him a portrait of 
Edward, prince of Portugal, a half-length, with 
emblems ; that of Erasmus, a whole-length, forming 
the frontispiece to an edition of part of his works, 
published in Paris in 1639 ; and several other plates 
for books, &c. 

PICART, Jean Michel, was a Flemish painter, 
bom about 1600. He painted flowers and land- 
scapes, but his chief employment was selling 
pictures. He established himself in Paris, where 
he employed many young artists to make copies 
which he sold as originals. He died in 1682. 

PICAULT. Pierre, a French engraver, was bom 
at Blois in 1680. It is probable that he was a pupil 
of Gerard Audran, as he copied, on a small scale, 
the celebrated ' Battles of Alexander,' from the 
plates engraved by that artist, after Le Brun. He 
also engraved some portraits, and the ' Visitation 
of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth,' after Carlo Maratti. 
He died young in 1711. He usually signed his 
plates P. Picault, Blesensis, sculp- 

PICCHl, Giorgio, a painter of Castel-Durante, 
who flourished about 1559. He sojourned for a 
time in Rome, where he was employed in the 
Vatican. He worked in the manner of Baroccio. 

PICCHIANTI, Giovanni Domenico, an Italian 
designer and engraver, was bom at Florence about 
1670. He was taught the rudiments of drawing 
by G. B. Foggini, a sculptor, and applied himseff 
to engraving, both with the point and the burin. 
In conjunction with Lorenzini, Mogalli, and other 
artists, he executed several plates from the pictures 
in the Gallery of Florence. We have, among 
others, the following prints by him : 


Sebastiano del Piombo ; after Titian. 
Cardinal Bentevoglio ; after Tan Dyck. 
Pope Leo X. with the Cardinals Rossi and Giulio de' 
Medici ; after Raphael. 


The Madonna della Seggiola ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. John ; after Ann 

The Tribute Money ; after Titian. 


The Virgin and Child ; after the same. 

Abraham sendiug away Hagar ; after Pietro da Cortona 

PICCINI, GiACOMo, an engraver, was bom at 
Venice in 1617, but it is not known hy what master 
he was instructed. Zani says he was still working 
in 1669 ; but the latest date on his prints is 1655. 
We have several plates by him, executed in a stiff, 
disagreeable style ; among them a set of thirty 
portraits of the principal painters of the Venetian 
school for the account of their Lives published by 
Ridolfi in 1648. We have also the following prints 
by him : 

The Portrait of Alessandro Farnese. 

Diogenes, with his Lantern ; after P. Liheri. 

The Holy Family : after the same. 

Judith, with the Head of Holofernes at her feet ; after 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 

PICCINI, GuGLiELMo, was the brother of Giacomo 
Piccini, and among other prints etched a plate after 
a ' Pieti,' l)y Rubens. He had a daughter, Isabella 
Piccini, who was a nun, and engraved a set of 
portraits of the illustrious personages of Italy, for 
the ' Conchilia Celeste ' of G. B. Fabri. 

PICCININO; NICC0L6, an obscure Milanese 
painter, who was at work at Milan about 1500. 

PICCIONI, Matteo, an Italian painter and en- 
graver, was born at Ancona probably in or about 
1615. Of his works as a painter little is known; 
but he was made a member of the Academy of St. 
Luke in 1655. We have a few spirited etchings by 
him, two of which are dated 1641. The following 
are among them : 

St. Luke painting the Virgin ; after Raphael. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds' ; after Paolo Veronese. 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 

The Virgin and the Infant Jesus, with St. John ; after 

A. Camassei. 
Moses exposed on the Nile ; after the same. 

PICCOLA, Niccola La, a native of Crotona, in 
Calabria. He was born in 1730, and worked in 
Rome, where he painted some decorative pictures 
in the Vatican, which have since been copied in 
mosaic. Some of his work is also to be seen at 

PICENARDI, Carlo. Two artists of this name 
painted in Cremona early in the 17th century. One 
was a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, and painted 
church pictures and burlesque histories. These 
were imitated by the other Picenardi, who, however, 
died young. 

PICHIO, Ernest, (also called Picq,) French 
painter ; born in Paris in 1840 ; a pupil of Augusts 
Couder ; his historical pictures achieved consider- 
able success, notably ' Charles IX. et Cath(5rine de 
Medicis le Matin de la St. Barthelemy' (Salon 
1866). Better known yet was the ' Mort d'Alphonse 
Baudin,' which the Paris Municipal Council caused 
to be engraved at its own expense. His death 
occurred in Paris in August 1893. 

PICHLER, Johann, gem-cutter, painter and en- 
graver, was born at Naples in 1734. He was a 
pupil of his father, Anton Pichler, and the painter 
Corvi. In 1761 he painted several pictures for 
the Franciscans and Augustinians, and made ex- 
periments in encaustic and mosaic. In 1763 he 
joined his father at Rome, after which he visited 
England, returning to Rome in 1775. _ Most of his 
time was given to gem-cutting, in which he rose to 
such excellence that many of his intaglios were 
sold as antiques. It is said that even Winkelmann 
was deceived by them. He died at Rome in 1791. 



PICHLER, JoHANN Peter, mezzotint engraver, 
■was born at Botzen in 1765, and studied at Vienna 
under Professor Jakobe. He worked for the Prince 
of Anlialt Dessau at Dresden, and died at Vienna 
in 1806. Among his best plates are : 

Portrait of the King of Poland ; after Lampi. 

The Fruit Girl ; after Murillo. 

Venus ; after Titian. 

Omphale; after Domenichino, 

Perseus and Andromeda. 

Magdalene and St. John ; after Batoni, 

Rembrandt's portrait of himself. 

PICHON, Pierre Augostb, French painter; 
born at Soreze (Tarn), December 6, 1805 ; a pupil 
of Ingres ; was a fashionable portrait-painter 
during the reign of Louis Philippe ; obtained a 
third-class medal in 184.3, a second-class medal 
in 1844, a first-class medal in 1846, a rappel in 
1857, and a like distinction in 1861, when he 
received the Legion of Honour. He died in Paris, 
October 1900. 

PICKAERT, PiETER, who was probably a 
native of Holland, has left a set of coarse etchings, 
published in Holland, and representing tlie flight 
of James II. from England. They are probably 
from his own designs, as he adds the word fecit to 
his name. Neither the time of his birth nor death 
are recorded, but he must apparently have been 
living in 1688. 

PICKEN, Andrew, an English lithographer, 
born in 1815. He was a pupil of Louis Hagln-, 
and had much employment in illustrating books of 
travel. Through ill-health he made two sojourns 
in Madeira, and published a fine work, ' Madeira 
Illustrated.' In 1835 he exhibited at the Academy 
a ' Tomb in Narboime Cathedral.' He died in 
London, amid much promise, in 1845. 

PICKENOY, Nicolas Elias, called Elias, a 
little-known Dutch painter, who is, however, the 
reputed master of Van der Heist, was born at 
Amsterdam about 1590. There are twelve pictures 
by him in the Kijks Museum at Amsterdam, which 
sliow him to have been an excellent portraitist. 
He died, probably at Amsterdam, between 1646 
and 1656. 

PICKERING, George, a drawing-master of 
Chester, who h;id an important local renown for 
the beauty of his work in water-colour. He was 
a Yorkshire man, who resided for many j'ears at 
Chester, and later on at Liverpool. He exhibited 
largely at the Liverpool Academy, and his pictures 
were very highly esteemed. He also drew for the 
engraver many views in Lancashire, and is believed 
to have done work with the graver himself. He 
died at Birkenhead in 1857, and his loss was much 
lamented by his hosts of pupils, who had found in 
him not only an admirable teacher but a refined 
and most estimable friend. 

PICKERING, Henry, an English portrait painter 
in the early part of the 18th century. He was a 
follower of Kneller, and painted portraits " in 

PICKERSGILL, Frederick Richard, a nephew 
of H. W. Pickersgill, R.A., was born in London 
in 1820. His tastes were early shown, and, after 
instruction from his maternal uncle, F. Withering- 
ton, he entered the Academy schools. His first 
exhibited picture, 'The Brazen Age' (18.39), 
his ' Combat between Hercules and Achelous ' 
(1840), and again, his ' Amoret's Deliverance 
from the Enchanter' (1841), showed hie peculiar 


talent and predilections, his chief pictures being 
based on his loving study of Spenser, Milton, 
Shakespeare, and the romantic episodes of history. 
In 1843 he gained a £100 prize in the Westminster 
Hall competition by his cartoon of ' The Death of 
King Lear.' In 1847 he followed up this success 
by gaining the first prize for his ' Burial of Harold 
at Waltham Abbey,' which was purchased for 
.£500 for the decoration of the new Houses of 
Parliament. This brought him into prominence, 
and he was elected in that year an Associate of the 
Royal Academy at the unusually early age of 
twenty-seven. In 1857 he became full Academi- 
cian, his diploma picture being a Spanish subject, 
'The Bribe,' and the Prince Consort bought his 
' Death of Francesco Foscari.' His ' Birth of 
Christianity ' is in the South Kensington Museum 
(Jones Bequest), as are also the sketch and com- 
pleted design for 'The Industrial Arts in Time of 
Peace,' designed for a lunette in fresco but not 
carried out. In the Glasgow Gallery there hangs 
(on loan from the National Gallery) 'Amoret, 
iEmylia and Prince Arthur in the Cottage of 
Slander.' He was strongly influenced by W. 
Etty ; his colour was sound and often brilliant, and 
his drawing and composition correct though some- 
what formal and academic. He exhibited 50 
pictures in all at the Royal Academy, and six at 
the British Institution (1841-1847). He also illus- 
trated Milton's ' Comus,' Poe's poems, Mas- 
singer's 'Virgin Martyr,' and certain Biblical sub- 
jects ('The Life of Clirist,' 'The Lord's Prayer'). 
These were engraved on wood by Dalziel, and 
some designs appeared in Dalziel's Bible Gallery 
in 1881. He was chosen as Trustee and Keeper 
of the Academy in 1873, but resigned these 
posts in 1887, retiring finally from the Academy 
in 1888. He died in the Isle of Wight in 

PICKERSGILL, Henry Hall, an English sub- 
ject and portrait painter, the eldest son of H. W. 
Pickersgill, R.A. His studies were completed in 
the Netherlands and Italy, and he first exhibited at 
the Academy in 1834. About 1844 he spent two 
years in Russia, which furnished him with subjects 
for some pictures. On his return he practised as a 
portrait painter in the midland counties. He died 
m 1861. His picture 'The Right of Sanctuary ' is 
£t South Kensington. Other works : 

The Troubadours. 

Holy Water. 


Fishermen of Rabatsky, on the Neva. 

Ferry on the Neva. 

Cupid and Psyche. 

Finding of Moses. 

Romeo and Juliet. 

PICKERSGILL, Henry William, an English 
portrait and subject painter, born in London in 
1782. He was originally intended for a silk manu- 
facturer. Preferring art, he became a pupil of George 
Arnald, A.R.A.,and in 1805 entered theschools of the 
Academy. Here he first exhibited in the following 
year, and was elected an Associate in 1822, and a 
full member in 1826. His practice became very 
large, and most of the eminent persons of the day 
sat to him. Up to 1872, when he retired from 
work, he exhibited no less than 363 pictures at the 
Academy. These were chiefly portraits, with the 
exception of a few landscapes and fancy subjects. 
He died at Barnes April 21, 1875. Amongst his 
works are : 


H alkcr and Cockcrell phoio\ {^National Porii ait Cmllery 



Bowood. Lady playing Guitar. 

London. Nat. Gallery. Portrait of K. Vernon. 1846. 
„ ., A Syrian Maid. 1837. 

„ „ The Nun. 

„ National Fortrait Portraits of AVordsworth, 

Galltry. Jeremy Beutham, Hannah 

More, W. Godwin, ' Monlj' 

Lewis, G. Stephenson, and 

Sir T. Taltourd. 

Incorporated } ^ord Chancellor Truro. 
Law iioctdy. j 
„ Moyal Institution. Professor Faraday. 
„ „ Dr. Braude. 

Lougleat. Portrait of second Marquis of 

Windsor Castle. Portrait of Lord Hill. 

PICKNELL, William Lucian, American painter; 
born 185-t at Boston ; ii, pupil of Innes at Rome, 
and of Gerome at the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; he 
also studied in Brittany with R. Wylie ; returned 
to America in 1882, and settled in New York ; 
examples of his work are in the Museums of New 
York, Philadelphia, Boston and Liverpool ; he 
obtained an honourable mention at the Paris 
Salon of 1880, and the Boston gold medal. He 
died at Boston in 1807. 

PICOLET, CoRNKLis, a painter of portraits and 
conversations, flourished at Rotterdam from about 
1670 to 1690. His reputation rests rather on the 
circumstance of his having been the first instructor 
of Adrian van der Werf than on any particular 
work that can be with certainty ascribed to himself. 

PICOT, Francois Edohard, a French historical 
painter, born in Paris in 1786. He studied under 
Vincent, and in 1811 obtained the second ' Prix de 
Rome' for his 'Lycurgus.' In 1813 he obtained 
the same award by his ' Death of Jacob.' As he 
could not be sent to Rome, he was awarded a pnze 
of 3000 francs. Many commissions for decorative 
works were entrusted to him : the cliief of these 
were for the Louvre, for Versailles, and for the 
churches of St. Vincent de Paul (in conjunction with 
Flandrin) and St. Glotilde. He was elected to 
the Institute in 1856. He died in Paris in 1868. 
Amongst his works u re : 

Amiens. Museum. Cephalus and Procris. 1824. 

Brussels. JIuseum. jEneas and Venus. 1815. 

Grenoble. Museum. The Plague at Florence. 1839. 

Paris. Louvre. Orestes and Electra. 1822. 

„ Comedie Franqaise. Portrait of Talma. 

„ JV. D. de Lorette. Coronation of the Virgin. 

„ «S'. Suljiice. Death of Sapphira. 1819. 

Versailles. Siege of Calais. 1838. 

PICOT, Victor Marie, a French engraver, was 
born at Abbeville in 1744, and studied in Paris. 
He came to London in the year 1766 with Wynne 
Ryland, and about 1770 he was living with Ravenet, 
whose only daughter, Angelica, he married. In 
1766 he was elected a member of the Incorporated 
Society of Artists. He engraved several plates after 
Serres, Barralet, Loutherbourg, and others, some of 
which were for the collection of Boydell. He re- 
turned to France in 1790, and died about 1805. We 
have, among others, the following prints by him : 

The Four Evangelists ; after Suiens. 

Diana and her Nymphs ; after'the same. 

The Nurse and Child ; after Schedone. 

A young Man holding a Flute ; after B. Luti. 

Apollo holdiug a Branch of Laurel ; after S. Cantarini. 

A Landscape and Figures ; after Zuccarelli. 

Two Sea-pieces ; after V. Serres. 

Two Landscapes, Morning and Evening ; after Barrcdet. 

Several other subjects ; after the same. 

PICOU, Henri Pierre, French painter of his- 
torical and allegorical subjects ; born at Nantes, 
I 2 

February 27, 1822 ; a pupil of Delaroche and 
Gleyre; made his debut at the Salon in 1847; 
obtained second-class medal in 1848, and a rappel 
in 1857 ; in 1853 won the second Prix de Rome ; 
was considered the fashionable painter towards 
the close of the Second Empire. Among his chief 
works we may mention : ' Cleopatre et Antoine sur 
le Cydnus,' ' Le Passage du Styx,' ' L'fitoile du Soir," 
' Une Nuit de Cleopatre,' and ' Psyche aux enfers.' 
He died at Nantes, July 17, 1895. 

PICOU, Robert, (orPiQuOT,)a French engraver, 
was, according to MaroUes, a native of Tours, and 
flourished about the year 1630. He enjoyed the 
title of Peintre du Roi ; he visited Italy, and re- 
mained some time at Rome. Dumesnil describes 
seven rare prints by him, of which the last, 
executed from a picture by Jacopo Ba,ssano, is the 
best ; the others are evidently from his own de- 
signs. Tliey are executed partly witli the point, 
partly with tlie burin. We have also several frontis- 
pieces and other book ornaments by him, from his 
own designs. The following are the titles of the 
seven plates above alluded to : 

Love asleep ; E. Picou.fe. 

Two Cupids caressing; R. Picou.fe. Romce. 

Two Infants; R. Picou.fe. Roma. 

Three Infants ; R. Picou.fe. 

The little Wrestlers ; R. Picou. fecit. 

Two couples of Infants ; E. P. ^c. 

Jesus Christ delivered to His Enemies. On the margin 
to the left inscribed Jacohus de poto Bassaii pinxit, R. 
Picou sculpsit ; and on the right, dartres formis Cum 
Priuilegio. In a second impression, dartres formis 
is erased, and JIariette Excudit substituted. 

PICQDB, Charles, a Flemish painter, born at 
Deynze in 1799. He painted portraits, still-life, 
and historical pictures. He died at Brussels in 1869. 

PICQUET, J. In Dubrayet's drawing-book there 
is a print by this artist, representing ' Juno, Pallas, 
and Venus,' half-length figures, executed with the 
graver. It is inscribed Joan Picquetft. 

PICQUET, Thomas, a French painter of the 17th 
century, quoted by Marolles. 

PICQUOT, Henri, supposed to be the brother 
of Thomas Picquot, was a scholar of Simon Vouet, 
at Paris, and flourished about 1640, as appears by 
that date on one of his prints. Dumesnil describes 
three prints by him ; the first two after Chapron, 
etched with the point in a style analogous to that 
of Michel Dorigny, the other from his own design, 
also with the point, in a very light and spirited 

The young Virgin ascending the steps of the Temple ; 
a composition of many figures, with a glory of angels 
and cherubim above ; diappron jnuen. et pinxit ; H. 
Picquot jncidit Cum Priuileyiu Regis. 1640. In a 
second impression, Coypel,ex. avec piHvilege^ was sub- 

The Virgin giving the breast to the Infant Jesus ; 
Joseph, Elisabeth, and the infant St. John are intro- 
duced. Although this print bears the name of Gueri' 
neau, and not of H. Picquot, Dumesnil is of opinion 
that it is by the latter. 

A sick Frog attended by others ; one acts as a physician, 
two seem to pray, another is bringing a potion, and 
four frogs are dancing to the sound of a violin. lu 
the margin are six lines of French verse, moralizing on 
the brutalizing propensities of man. M. Picquot jnven. 
et fecit. F. L. D. dartres excudit avec Privileqe du 

PICQUOT, Thomas, an engraver of goldsmiths' 
work, designs for embroidery, damascening, and 
other ornaments, flourished, according to Zani, 
from 1623 to 1645. Dumesnil conjectures that he 
was a scholar of Marin le Bourgeois, painter and 



valet de chambre to Henry IV. and Louis XIII., 
and describes fourteen prints by liim, the first of 
which is a portrait of the aforesaid Marin le Bour- 
geois ; the others consist of arabesque designs for 
goldsmiths' and armourers' work, book and other 
decorations. The portrait is etched in the manner 
of a painter, and is the best piece ; the ornaments 
are etched with an extremely delicate point, and 
appear in white on a dark ground. 

BIDDING, Henry J., an English subject painter, 
born in 1797. He was the son of a Cornish lottery- 
office keeper, and studied under Aglio. His works ■ 
appeared at the Academy from 1824 onwards, and 
also at the Society of British Artists, of which latter 
body he was elected a member in 184.3. He fre- 
quently chose humorous subjects, and some of liis 
pictures enjoyed considerable popularity. He died 
at Greenwich in 1864. His best-known works are : 

The Gaming Room at Homburg. 1860. 
The Fair Peniteut. 
Negro in the Stocks. 

Greenwich Pensioners re-fighting the battle of the Nile. 
{U'ohurn Abbey.) 

The two last-named were engraved by himself. 

PIDGEON, Henry Clark, painter in watpr- 
colours, was born in 1807. He was originally 
intended for the Church, but abandoning this, 
took first to literature and then to art. He was 
for some time a teacher of drawing in London, but 
in 1847 removed to Liverpool as Professor of the 
School of Drawing at the Institute there. He liad 
a strong antiquarian bent, and made many sketches 
of old local buildings. In 1848 he was associated 
with Mr. .Joseph ilayer and Mr. Abraham Hume 
in founding the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, to the Proceedings of which lie con- 
tributed numerous lithographs and etchings. On 
his arrival in Liverpool he was elected a member 
of the Liverpool Academy, and held the post of 
Secretary in 1860. He contributed some fifty works 
to the Liverpool Academy Exhibitions. He was 
elected an Associate of the Institution of Painters 
in Water-Colours in 1846, and a full member in 
1861. He was also President of the Sketching 
Club. He exhibited four times at the Royal 
Academy and twice at the British Institute, 
besides numerous pictures at the Suffolk Street 
Galleries and the Manchester Institution. His 
work is accurate in draughtsmanship, broad in 
treatment, and in colour somewhat after the style 
of Varley. He died in Fitzroy Street, Regent's 
Park, on August 6, 1880. E. G. D. 

PIDOLL, Karl von, German painter, born 
January 7, 1847, at Vienna ; was a pupil of 
Arnold Bocklin and H. von Maries. For a long 
period he lived in Paris, and afterwards at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Maine, where he obtained some distinc- 
tion as a portrait-painter. Among other works he 
published a series of seven pen-drawings in litho- 
graph, representing views of Gelnhausen. He 
died in 1901. 

PIEMANS, an obscure Dutch artist of the 17th 
centuiy. He painted somewhat in the manner of 
"Velvet" Breughel, and formed one pupil, his 
nephew, Jan de Baan. 

PIEMONT, NicoLAAs, called Opgang, was bom 
at Amsterdam in 1659. He at first passed some 
time under Marten Zaagmolen, an obscure artist, 
but he afterwards became a scholar of Nicolaas 
Molenaer. He visited Italy, where he passed seven- 
teen years, and improved his talents for landscape 
painting, by designing from nature in that country. 

116 ■ 

From Rome he returned to Holland, where he 
painted pictures from his Italian sketches and 
gained a great reputation. His landscapes bear a 
strong resemblance to the works of Jan Both. He 
died at VoUenhove in 1709. The sobriquet 'Opgang' 
(up-going) was bestowed upon him in consequence 
of his marriage with the landlady of the Guild. 

PIENE, A. DE, a French engraver, produced, 
among other plates, a portrait of the ' Duchess of 
Savoy,' after Sacchetti, for a book published in 1672. 

PIENEMAN, Jan Willem, a Dutch historical, 
portrait, and landscape painter, born at Abcoude 
in 1779. He was a pupil of the Amsterdam 
Academy, and subsequently taught drawing in the 
military school at Delft. The appointments of 
Director of the Hague Museum and of the Amster- 
dam Academy were afterwards conferred upon 
him. He died at Amsterdam in 1853. The follow- 
ing pictures by him are in the Rijks Museum, 
Amsterdam : 

An Arcadian Landscape. 

Portrait of Joanna Cornelia Ziesenis. 

„ „ „ „ as Agrippina. 

„ Andries Snoek. 

„ Albertus Bernardus Boothaan and Louis 


Battle of Waterloo. (Signed J. W. Pieneman, a.d. 1824.) 

PIENEMAN, Nicolas, a Dutch historical painter, 
the son and pujiil of J. W. Pieneman, was born at 
Amersfoortin 1809. He died at Amsterdam in 1860. 
Amongst Ids chief works are : 

The Death of Admiral De Ruyter. 

"William I. of Orange wounded by Jaurequi. 

The Condemnation of Bameveldt. 

Portrait of J. AV. Pieneman. [Haarlem Pavilion.) 

J. S. de Ryk in presence of Kequessens. 

The Death of Archimedes. 

Portrait of William III. 

Portrait of C. J. Fodor. (Fodor Museum^ Amsterdam.) 

PIEPENHAGEN, AronsT, landscape pamter, 
was born at Soldin, in Prussia, in 1792. He was 
originally a button-maker, but raised himself, by 
no other assistance than the diligent study of 
nature, to a distinguished rank in art. He died at 
Prague in 1868. Three of his best pictures are : 

AVinter Landscape. 

Landscape in a Storm. 

Sketch of Forest Scenery. 

PIERA, P., a Dutch painter, and a native of 
Amsterdam. He painted landscapes and portraits, 
and had two sons who followed in their father's 
steps. He died in 1784. 

PIERCE, Edward, was an English artist, who 
flourished in the reigns of Charles I. and II. He 
was eminent as a painter both of history and of 
landscapes, and also excelled in architectural and 
perspective views. For some time he was an 
assistant to Van Dyck, and after the Restoration 
he was employed to repair the altar-pieces and 
ceilings in London churches, damaged by the 
Puritans. He died soon afterwards, and was 
buried at Stamford. Few of Pierce's works now 
remain, the far greater part being destroyed in the 
fire of London in 1666. Lord Orford attributes to 
him a set of friezes, in eight plates, etched in 1640. 
His son John is said to have attained some eminence. 
Another son, Edward, became a successful sculptor. 

FIERI, Antonio di, called Lo Toppo, was a 
native of Vicenza. He worked about 1738, and 
painted landscapes and frescoes. 

FIERI, Stefano, was a native of Florence, and 
a disciple of Battista Naldini. Zaci places his 
birth in 1513, and his death in 1600. According 


to Baglione, lie visited Rome in the pontificate of 
Clement VIII., and was taken under the protection 
of Cardinal Aiessandrode' Medici, by whom he was 
employed in the church of San Prassede, where he 
painted some pictures of the Apostles, and an 'An- 
nunciation.' In Santa Maria in Via Lata is a picture 
by him of the ' Assumption of the Virgin.' He 
assisted Giorgio Vasari in the Cupola of Santa 
Maria del Fiore, at Florence, and painted for the 
Palazzo Pitti the 'Sacrifice of Isaac,' one of his 
best works. 

PIERINO DEL Vaga. See Buonaccorsi. 

PIERINO DE Nova. See Nova. 

PIERO, Giovanni di. See Giovanni. 

PIERO DI LORENZO, the son of Lorenzo di 
Piero, was born at Florence in 1462. He became 
an assistant to Cosimo Roselli, and accompanied 
the latter when he was summoned to Rome by 
Sxtus IV. Hence the name Piero di Cosimo, 
by which he is known. In 1485 he returned to 
Florence, and was employed with Fra Bartolommeo 
in the Convent of Sant Ambrogio. The connection 
with Roselli, however, seems to have lasted till the 
death of the latter, which took place in 1506, and 
BO Piero may be considered to have taken a share 
in several altar-pieces in S. Spirito at Florence, 
and other works of Roselli. Piero did not confine 
himself to sacred subjects, but took pleasure in 
classic fable, especially when he was able to dis- 
play animal life in natural or fantastic shapes. 
This may be seen in 'The Wedding of Perseus 
disturbed,' ' Sacrifice to Jove for the Safety of 
Andromeda,' and two ' Rescues of Andromeda,' in 
the UfEzi, and in a splendid ' Death of Procris ' 
in the National Gallery. A picture by him of 
'Venus playing with Cupid and a sleeping Mars' 
is in the Berlin Museum. He was the inventor of 
the strange masque called ' The Triumph of Death,' 
which became the fashion in the Carnival at 
Florence. Besides the picture already named, 
which is, perhaps, Piero's master-piece, the 
National Gallery possesses, according to the best 
connoisseurs, a second example of him, in a 
picture now ascribed to Lorenzo Costa, and called 
the portrait of Francesco Ferrucci. This is a 
work of much power, and besides its undoubted 
affinity with the acknowledged productions of 
Piero, it ofiers a curious confirmation of his 
asserted authorship, in the introduction of the 
Palazzo Vecchio, with Michelangelo's David at its 
portal, into the background. For Piero di Cosimo 
■was a member of the committee appointed in 1504 
by the Signory of Florence to choose a site for that 
statue. Many of his pictures, most of them, per- 
haps, pass under other names. The ' Vierge au 
Pigeon,' in the Louvre, and two fine Holy Families, 
both ' tondos,' at Dresden and in the Borghese 
Gallery, Rome, are among the best of these. Piero 
was a man of curious interests and habits, caring 
much more for the strange traditions of the pagan 
mythology than for the tales of his own Church. 
He was the master of Andrea del Sarto. He died 
at Florence in 1521. 

PIERO DA PERUGIA, a miniaturist of the 15th 
century, many of whose works are preserved in the 
Duomo at Siena. 

PIERO DI RIDOLFO, an obscure painter who 
flourished in Tuscany at the close of the 16th 

PIERON, GusTAVE, a Flemish landscape painter, 
who studied at the Antwerp Academy, and resided 
in that city. He died in 1864. 

PIERONI, Adhlfo, painter, engraver, and medal- 
list, was born at Lucca in 1832. He studied under 
Onestini and Casale, though he was best known as 
a medallist. He died at Florence in 1875. 

PIERRE, a native of Troyes, who designed and 
painted the fine series of windows in the cathedral 
dealing with the parable of the Prodigal Son. 

PIERRE. A painter of this name is mentioned in 
the Belgian archives as the author of a portrait, 
painted in 1417 or 1418, of Margaret of Burgundy, 
the eldest daughter of Philip the Bold and the wife 
of William IV., Count of Hainault. In 1418 this 
portrait was placed in the Chapel of St. Anthony in 
Barbefosse, near Mons. 

PIERRE, maitre, a painter of this name was at 
work in 1486 in the Monastery of the Cordeliers, at 
Nancy. He was a native of Strasbourg. 

PIERRE, AndrS, a native of Blois, who, in 1472, 
painted a large ' Nativity ' for the chapel of the 
Chateau de Montilz. 

PIERRE DE COMPIEGNE a native of Com- 
piegne, (?)who\vas at work on miniatures and illum- 
inations for the Chapter of Troyes in the year 1387. 

PIERRE DE COPIAC, a glass-painter, who 
painted the windows in the Cathedral of Montpellier, 
his native place. 

PIERRE DEST. CATHERINE, a native of Lille, 
who painted in the year 1365 an altar-piece for the 
church of St. Maurice in that city. 

PIERRE, Dieddonne, the son of Etienne Pieebe, 
a fruit and flower painter, was born at Nancy in 
1807. He was a pupil of Hersent, and painted 
historical subjects. In the Museum of Nancy there 
is a ' Christ in the Garden of Olives ' by him. He 
died in 1838. 

PIERRE, Jean Baptiste Marie, was born in 
Paris in 1714 (or 171.3). He was at first a pupil 
of Natoire, but went to Italy when j'oung, and 
studied some years at Rome under De Troy. On 
his return to Paris he distinguished himself as a 
painter of history, and was employed for some of 
tlie public buildings, partioularl}' on a large ceiling 
in the chapel of the Virgin at St. Roch. He painted 
an excellent picture of ' St. Nicholas and St. Francis,' 
for the church of St. Sulpice, which has been en- 
graved by Nicolas Dupuis. He was made director 
of the Academy in Paris, and was appointed prin- 
cipal painter to the Duke of Orleans and to the 
king. He died in Paris in 1789. Among his best 
paintings are, ' Peter curing the Lame Man,' and 
' The Death of Herod ' (in St. Germain des Pres). 
Pierre left several etchings, among which we may 
name the following : 

The Village Entertainment ; after his own design. 
Several Studies of Heads ; made by him in Italy. 
Some Plates of subjects from ' Fontaine's Fables ' ; after 
designs by Sithleyras. 

PIERSON, Christoph, was born at the Hague 
in 1631, and was destined by his parents for mer- 
cantile pursuits, but became a scholar of Bar- 
tholomaus Meyburg, whom after some time he 
accompanied to Germanj', but after an absence of 
three years returned to Holland, and established 
himself at Gouda, where he met with immediate 
employment as a painter of history and portraits. 
Notwithstanding the reputation he had acquired, 
the encouragement given to the pictures of Lee- 
mens, a painter of dead game, guns, &o., induced 
him to adopt similar subjects, in which he sur- 
passed his model. He died at Gorcum in 1714. 

PIET, — , was a native of the Low Countries, 
and flourished about the year 1600. He engraved 



the plates for a work entitled ' Le Maniement 
d'Arraes de Nassau,' &c., by Adam V. Brien, pub- 
Uehed in 1608. 

PIETERS, Geertje, or Gertrude, was a fruit 
and flower painter, and was working at Delft at 
the beginning of the 18th century. She was a 
pupil of Maria van Oosterwyck, and was of good 
repute in lier day, though most of her productions 
have been attributed to De Heem. The Suermondt 
Collection had a ' Piateof Fruit ' by her, dated 1680. 

PIETERS, Gj5rard, a Flemish historical painter, 
who was a native of Bruges. He was received as 
master painter in 1562, but in 1590 he left Bruges 
and settled at Ghent, where he was often employed 
by the town authorities. He died in 1612. His 
son Pierre worked with his father. 

PIETERS, Jan, or John, was born at Antwerp 
in 1667, and was a scholar of Pieter Eyckens. He 
came to England in 1685, when he was eighteen 
years of ago, and finding no employment for a 
painter of history, he offered his services to Sir 
Godfrey Kneller, wlio employed liim to paint the 
draperies and backgrounds of his portraits. He 
excelled in copying the works of Rubens. He died 
in London in 1727, and was buried in the church- 
yard of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

PIETERS, Pierre, the son of Gerard Pieters, 
accompanied his father to Ghent in 1590, and was 
admitted to the freedom of that city. In 1609 he 
was at work for the magistracy of Ghent, but must 
have been already dead in 1612, for in that year his 
wife is spoken of as a widow, in a document still 

PIETERS, Simon, a Flemish historical painter, 
received as master painter at Bruges in 1521. He 
was Dean of St. Luke's Guild in 1549. In 1553 he 
restored the 'Last Judgment' of Walens, and painted 
several pictures for the city. He died in 1556. 

PIETERSZ, RoELOF, an obscure painter who 
worked at Utrecht about 1517. 

PIETERZEN, Abraham, a Dutch painter who 
flourished at Middelburg early in the present 
century. He was a pupil of Van Regemorter, at 

PIETERSZBN, Aert, the son of Pieter Aertszen 
(known as Lange Peer), was born at Amsterdam 
in 1550. He deserves great praise for his picture 
of the ' Lesson of Anatomy,' which hangs in the 
same room as the world-famous picture of the same 
subject by Rembrandt, in the Surgeons' Guild-Hall 
at the Hague. It represents the professor Sebastiaen 
Egberts lecturing over a dead body to twenty-eight 
eager listeners, much in the same way as Rembrandt 
has depicted Tulp. It is now in the Rijks Museum, 
Amsterdam. Pieterszen's picture is vigorously exe- 
cuted in a brown tone, and exhibits, more especially 
in the countenances, much vivacity, facility of 
drawing, and genera! truth to nature. It bears the 
painter's monogram of A. P. and the date 1603, 
which is twenty-nine years earlier than Rembrandt's 
work. Besides this, the Rijks Museum possesses 
two more excellent examples of Pieterszen, both 
groups of portraits. Pieterszen died at Amster- 
dam, and was buried there on the 12th June, 1612. 

PIETERSZEN, Gerrit, (Pietees, or Peeters,) 
was a painter and etcher, who flourished at Amster- 
dam at the end of the 16th century and beginning 
of the 17th. He was first instructed by Jacob 
Lenartszen and Cornells van Haarlem, and after- 
wards went to Antwerp and Rome. After a 
residence of some years in the latter city he re- 
turned to Amsterdam, where he distinguished hira- 


self as one of the ablest artists of his time. 
Unfortunately he devoted himself principally to 
portraiture, and the rapid production of small 
pictures, but his talents fitted him for liigher 
efforts. He was particularly successful with the 
nude, and is also celebrated as a painter of 
gallant assemblies and conversations, which he 
composed in a very agreeable style, and finished 
with great neatness and delicacy. According to 
Balkema he died in 1626. There is a beautiful 
landscape drawing by him in the cabinet at 
Munich. He etched several plates, among them : 

St. Cecilia, with Angels. 

St. John in the 'Wilderness. 

The three Theological Virtues. 

PIETERSZOON, Pieter, a glass-painter of 
Haarlem, who was received into the Guild of St. 
Luke in 1619, and formed a large class of scholars. 

PIETRASANTA, Angelo, a painter, was born 
at Milan in 1837. He was a pupil of Hayez, and 
worked from 1859 to 1861 in Rome and Florence, 
where he won a considerable reputation as a fresco 
painter. He painted ' The Rucellai Gardens,' the 
' Borgia Family,' and figures of ' Europe ' and 
' Science ' in the Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele, at 
Milan. His last work was the decoration of the Sanc- 
tuary of the Incoronata, at Lodi. He died in 1876. 

PiETRO BORGHESE. See Dei Franceschi. 

PIETRO DI PIETRI, an Italian painter, born at 
Novara in 1671. He was a pupil of Carlo Maratti, 
and painted historical subjects. He died in 1716. 

PIETRO, Giovanni iji. See Giovanni. 

PIETRO DI BENEDETTO. See Dei Franceschi. 

PIETROLINO, an Italian painter of the 12th 
century, who was at work at Rome, with Guido 
Guiduccio, between 1110 and 1120. In a MS, 
preserved at Venice it is stated tliat Pietrolino'a 
home was at Siena. Some remains of his work are 
said to be visible in the Church of the Santi Quattri 
Coronati, in Rome. 

PIETROWSKI. See Piotrowskt. 

PIGAL, Edm£ Jean, a French painter of still- 
life, was born in Paris in 1794. He was a pupil 
of Gros. Among his works is a 'Consultation of 
Doctors.' He died in 1872. 

PIGEON, Jean Baptiste, a Flemish painter, 
born at Biire in 1823. He was a pupil of Marinas 
Van der Haert and Mathieu, and painted portraits 
and historical subjects. His chief work is the 'In- 
stitution of the Rosary,' in the Church of Anhde, 
near Dinant. He died in 1868. 

PIGLHEIN, Elimar Ulrich Bruno, German 
painter ; born February 19, 1848, at Hamburg ; a 
pupil of Pauwels at Weimar, and of Diez at 
Munich. In 1855 he travelled through Palestine, 
and subsequently painted a remarkable panorama 
of the Crucifixion. This was destroyed bj' fire in 
1892. He was a Professor and Honorary Associate 
of the Munich Academy. He executed many 
charming and piquant pastels ; and among his 
most notable works are ; ' The Entombment of 
Christ,' 'The Blind Woman,' 'Moritur in Deo,' 
'The Krupp Family,' &c. He died at Munich, 
July 15, 1894. P. P; 

PIGNATELLI, Vicente, a Spanish amateur 
landscape painter, born about 1700. He was a 
noble. He showed a decided inclination for the 
arts, and took a prominent part in founding an 
Academy at Saragossa, of which he became the 
first President. He died in 1770. 

PIGNE, Nicolas, a French engraver, was born 
at Chalons in 1690, and is said to have been a pupil 


of Bernard Picart. He appears to have been in 
England, as there is a portrait with his name, of 
Richard Fiddes, B.D., prefixed to ' Divinity,' by 
the latter, and dated 1718. We have by this artist 
a few plates in line, among which are the following : 

The Virgin, with the Infant sleeping in a cradle, with 
St. John standing by her side, attended by foui 
angels ; aper F. Trevisani ; for the ' Crozat Collection.' 

The Woman of Canaan kneehng at the feet of Christ ; 
after Ann. Carracci. 

PIGNONE, SiMONE, was born at Florence, accord- 
ing to Oretti, in 1614. After being instructed in 
the elements of art by Domenico Gresti, he became 
a Bcholar of Francesco Furini. He afterwards lived 
for a time in Venice, where he improved his 
colour by studying the works of Titian and 
Tintoretto. On his return to Florence he painted 
several pictures for the churches, of which the 
most admired are the pictures of ' St. Michael dis- 
comfiting the Evil Spirit,' in the church of the 
Nunziata ; and ' St. Louis distributing his Wealth 
to the Poor,' in Santa Felicita. He also excelled 
in painting mythological subjects, which, however, 
he sometimes treated with too much licentiousness. 
He died in 1698. 

PIJNACKER, Adam, sometimes erroneously 
called Adriaen, was born at Pijnacker, near Delft, 
in 1621, and went when young to Rome, where for 
three years he studied the works of the most dis- 
tinguished landscape painters, and made designs of 
the most picturesque objects in the environs of 
that capital. On his return to Holland he soon 
gave proof of how much he had profited by his 
travels, and became one of the most admired and 
best employed artists of his country. It was at 
that time the practice to ornament the apartments 
of important houses with the works of the most 
eminent landscape painters ; and Pijnacker was 
much engaged in works of that description. 
His style has something in common with that of 
Jan Both. It is, however, at once more decor- 
ative and less true to nature. His composition is 
excellent, but bis colour too cold, and his texture 
metallic. In the Gotha Gallery there is a ' Land- 
scape with a Ruin ' by him, which is signed with 
the initials A. V. P. P. He was a fine draughts- 
man of trees. Almost all of his pictures contain 
men and animals. Pijnacker died at Amsterdam, 
where he was buried on March 28, 1673. Among 
his best works we may name : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Four Landscapes. 
Berlin. „ Landscape with Shepherds. 

Cassel. „ Cows and Cowherds. 

Dulwich. Gallery. An Italian Landscape. 

» n Landscape, with Sportsmen. (A 

^first-rate example.) 
Hague. Museum. ATorrent. {Very fine.) 

St. Petersburg. Her- Jg,^.,^^,^ 

milage, j 
Vienna. Academy. Mountainous Landscape. 

PILAJA, Paolo, an Italian engraver, flourished 
at Rome from 1727 to 1747. He executed a set of 
plates for a book entitled ' Storia di Volsena,' by 
the Abate Adami, published at Rome in 1737. We 
have also, among others, the following prints by 
him : 

The Portrait of Pope Benedict XIII. ; after Brughi. 
The Martyrdom of St. Fedele ; aftn- S. Conca. 
A Miracle wrought by St. Thoribio ; after the same. 
S. Liberale, with two Children ; after the same. 
Statue of the Prophet Elijah ; after the sculpture by 
Agost. Cornachini, in St. Peter's at Kome. 

PILEN Hans, an unimportant Dutch landscape 

painter, flourished toward the close of the 16th 
century. He painted somewhat in the style of 
Pieter Lastmann. 

PILES, Roger de, painter, etcher, and writer on 
art, was born at Clamecy (Nievre) in 1635, and 
died in Paris in 1709. He was a pupil of Claude 
Franfois, and travelled in Italy and Holland. His 
fame depends chiefly on his voluminous writings 
on art. 

PILGRIM, J. U. See Wechtlin. 

PILKINGTON, Sir William, Bart., an English 
amateur landscape painter, born in 1775. He suc- 
ceeded to the title as eighth baronet in 1811. His 
style was founded on that of the classic school, 
and especially that of Richard Wilson. He was 
also an amateur architect and a good scholar. 
Butterton Hall, Staffordshire, was built from his 
designs. He died at Chevet Hall, Wakefield, in 

PILLANS, R., an English marine painter, who 
practised in the second part of the 18th century. 

PILL ATI, Heinrich, Polish painter, bom at 
Warsaw in 1832 ; studied there, and afterwards at 
Munich under Kaulbach, and then worked at 
Rome. Painted historical and romantic subjects, 
' Faust and Marguerite,' &o. He died at Warsaw, 
April 14, 1894. 

PILLE, Charles Henri, French painter ; born 
at Essomes (Aisnes) in 1845 ; became a pupil of 
Felix Barrias ; began his career as a painter of 
anecdotic genre and historical subjects ; scored 
his first real success with 'Frederic de Saxe et le 
Due d'Albe ' and ' L'Automne ' in the Salon of 
1872 ; obtained a medal in 1869, a second-class 
medal in 1872, a gold medal in 1889, and the 
Legion of Honour in 1882 ; well known as a 
portrait painter and successful as an illustrator of 
' Don Quixote,' and also of the romances of Victor 
Hugo. He died in Paris, March 4, 1897. 

PILLE.MENT, Jean, was born at Lyons about 
1728 (some say 1719), and after receiving his 
education in that city, went to Paris and Vienna, 
and after 1763 to London. He painted in oil or 
pastel a few pictures of landscapes and fancy sub- 
jects, which were composed and coloured in a 
theatrical, gaudy style ; he treated similar subjects 
in pencil drawings and water-colours, which were 
finished with great neatness and labour. Between 
1773 and 1780 he occasionally exhibited at the 
Free Society of Artists, but in the former year he 
dropped for a time the practice of his art on account 
of ill-health, and returned to Avignon. He became 
painter to Marie Antoinette and to the last king 
of Poland, but finally settled again at Lyons, 
where (?) he died early in the last century (? 1808). 
Several of his designs have been engraved by 
Canot, Ravenet, WooUet, Mason, Elliot, and other 
eminent engravers. He himself etched a few plates 
of flowers, &c. 

PILLEMENT, Victor, designer and engraver, 
was born at Vienna in 1767. He was a son and 
pupil of Jean Pillement, and worked with the 
graver and point combined. He died in Paris in 
1814. Among bis best plates may be mentioned : 

The Banks of the Bosphorus ; after Melting. 
Travels in Egypt ; after Denon. 
CEdipus Colouneus ; after Valenciennes. 

PILLIARD, Jacques, French painter, born at 
Vienne (dep. Is5re) in 1814 ; became a pupil of 
Orsel and of Bonnefond, a religious painter of 
mark : his works include ' Education de la Vierge,' 



'Mort de Rachel,' ' Une Peste,' 'Le Martyre 
de St. Hippolyte,' ' Le Christ au Tombeau.' He 
obtained a tliird-class medal in 1843, and a second- 
class medal in 1844 and 1848. He lived for many 
years at Rome, and died at his birthplace, April 
10, 1898. 

PILO, Carl Gcstav, a Swedish painter, was 
born near Runtuna, in Siidermanland, in 1712 or 
1713. He first studied under his father, Oldf Pilo 
(a portrait painter), then under Crisman at Stock- 
holm, and was at Vienna from 1734 to 1736. He 
next travelled widely in Germany, and on returning 
to his own country settled for a time at Schonen, 
where he successfully practised portrait painting. 
In 1741 he went to Copenhagen, and was 
appointed drawing-master to the Cadet Corps, 
and after painting the Crown Princess Louise, was 
in 1745 made court-painter, and three years later 
professor at the old Academy. In 1771 he became 
director, but by accepting the Order of Vasa from 
his own sovereign, Gustavus III., he fell into dis- 
favour with the Danes, and returned to Sweden. 
Here, too, he was chosen a director of the Academy. 
He died at Stockholm in 1792. Among his best 
pictures we may note : 

Frederik V. of Denmark on Horseback. 
Caroliue Mathilda, his Consort. 
Coronation of Gustavus III. 
Portrait of Lieut.-General Lerche. 

PILOTTO, GiROLAMO, was a native of Venice, 
and flourished about the year 1690. He was a 
scholar of the younger Palma, and, according to 
Zanotti, a faithful follower of his style One of 
his best performances is a ' St. Biagio,' over the 
high altar of tlie Fraglia at Rovigo ; but his most 
celebrated work is the ' Marriage of tlie Adriatic by 
the Doge,' in the grand saloon in the ducal palace 
at Venice. Zani places his death in 1649. 

PILOTY, Carl Theodob von, a Bavarian painter, 
was born at Munich in 1826. After studying under 
his father he entered the Munich Academy, and be- 
came the pupil of his brother-in-law, Carl Schorn. 
In early manhood he visited Paris, England, and 
Brussels, and soon after his return to Bavaria, was 
commissioned by the king to paint, for the Blaxi- 
milianeum, ' The Elector Max adhering to the 
Catholic League in 1609.' This was completed in 
1854. Piloty formed a large class of pupils, and for 
the greater part of his life was both a member and 
a professor of the Munich Academy. Lenbach, 
Defregger, and Hans Makart were among his 
scholars. He died in 1886. Works : 

Death of Wallenstein. 
Seui before "Wallensteiu's corpse. 
Battle of the TVliite Mountain, Prague. 
Galileo in Prison. 

Wallenstein marching against Egger. 
Discovery of America. 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. 
Nero among the ruins of Eome. 

Thusnelda at the Triumph of Germanicus. (N'ew Pina- 
cotliekf 3Iunich.) 

PILOTY, Ferdinand, lithographer, was born at 
Homburg in 1785. He was instructed in painting, 
but after the invention of lithography he devoted 
himself exclusively to that art. In 1836 he asso- 
ciated himself with Joseph Lohle for the production 
of a series of copies from the Munich Pinakothek 
and the Schleissheim Gallery. After the death of 
Gottlieb Bodmer the two artists continued the 
publication of his works, and the lithographic 
establishment of Piloty and Lohle is still one of 


repute in Germany. Piloty died at Munich in 

PILOTY, Ferdinand, German painter, born Oct. 
9, 1828, at Munich ; a brother of the more famous 
Karl Piloty ; studied at the Munich Academy 
under K. Schoyn ; underwent a further course of 
study in Rome, Paris and Vienna. His works 
include five frescoes in the Munich National 
Museum ; others are in the Landsberg Town Hall ; 
he also painted ' Thomas More in Prison,' ' The 
Judgment of Solomon' (for King Ludwig II.), 
and illustrated Shakspere, Schiller's ' Bell,' &c. ; 
he was an honorary member of the Munich 
Academy and gained various decorations. He 
died Dec. 21, 1895. 

PILS, Isidore Alexandre Auguste, a French 
historical painter, born in Paris in 1813. He studied 
in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and was a pupil of 
Lethifere and Picot. In 1838 he gained the Grand 
Prix de Rome for his ' St. Peter healing the lame 
man at the gate of the Temple.' For some years 
his attention was chiefly devoted to Scriptural 
subjects, and he spent much time in travel. The 
Russian War gave a new turn to his art, and 
he henceforth painted those military subjects on 
which his reputation rests. He went to the 
Crimea, and depicted several incidents of the cam- 
paign for Napoleon III. Besides medals in 1846, 
1855, 1857, and 1861, he received the Legion of 
Honour in 1857, becoming an officer of the order 
in 1867. He became Professor of Painting at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1863, and was elected a 
member of the Institute in 1868. There are deco- 
rative painting's by him at tlie churches of Ste. 
Clotilde and St. Eustache in Paris ; but his greatest 
work of this kind is the ceiling over the grand 
staircase in the New Opera House. Pils died of 
chest disease at Douarnenez (Brittany) in 1875. 
Amongst his chief pictures are : 

Christ preaching in Simon's Boat. 1846. 

Death of the Magdalen. (1847.) 

Bacchantes and Satyrs. (1848.) 

Kouget de lisle singing the Marseillaise. 1849. 

Death of a Sister of Charity. 1850. 

Athenian Slaves at Syracuse. (1852.) 

Prayer at the Hospital. (1853.) 

A Trench before Sebastopol. 1855. {Bordeaux Museum.) 

Disembarkation of the French Army in the Crimea. 

School of Musketry, Vincennes. (1859.) 
Battle of the Alma. 1861. {Versailles Gallery^) 
Fiite to the Emperor and Empress in Algiers in 1860. 

Apollo with the Chariot of the Sun. 
Fame crowning Wisdom. 
ApoUo charming the Beasts with his Lyre. 
The City of Paris encouraging the Arts. ( This and the 

three preceding for the Stairs of the Grand Opera.) 
Portraits of Lecointe and Castelnau. 

His brother, Edouard Aisne Pils, born 1823, 
died 1852, was a pupil of the School of Art8,_ and 
from 1845 onwards painted religious and military 
subjects with some success. 

PILSBURY, R., English painter; bom at 
Burslem in 1830 ; began his career as a painter on 
china, for which he received special training ; he 
afterwards obtained a post as teacher at South 
Kensington, and finally became associated with 
Minton factories. He was one of the pioneers of 
the new development of decorative pottery, his 
talent being specially devoted to flower-painting. 
He died atLongton, September 1, 1897. 

PILSEN, Frans, was born at Ghent in 1700, 
and died in 1786. He studied painting and en- 



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graving under Robert van Auden-Aerd. We have 
among others, the following prints by him : 

The Virgin aud Infant Jesus ; after Rudens. 
The Conversion of St. Eavon ; after the same. 
The Judgment of Midas ; after the sa7ite. 
The Martyrdom of St. Blaize ; after G. de Grayer. 
St. Francis ; afttr Rubens ; inscribed F. Pilsen, sculp. 
G. 1770. 

PINACCI, Giuseppe, an obscure Italian painter, 
a native of Siena, flourished about 1642. He was 
a pupil of Borgognone, and painted historical and 
battle scenes. He resided at Naples, and after- 
wards at Florence, at the Court of Prince Ferdinand. 

PINAIGRIER, Thomas, a French landscape 
painter, born in Paris in 1616. He was received 
into the Academy in 1648, and died in 1658. 

PINAS, Jacob, was the younger brother of Jan 
Pinas, and was instructed by his brother, whose 
style he imitated. 

PINAS, Jan, was an historical painter of 
Haarlem early in the 17th century. It is not 
known under whom he learned the rudiments of 
the art, but in 1605 he travelled, in company with 
Pieter Lastman, to Italy, where he studied some 
years. On his return to Holland he distinguished 
himself as a painter of history and portraits. Of 
his historical productions, one of the most esteemed 
•wag a picture in the great church at Haarlem of 
'Joseph and his Brethren.' He was living in that 
city up to at least 1621, and in 1623 a landscape 
by him, with the story of Salmacis and Herma- 
phroditus, was engraved by Magdalen van de Pass. 

PINCHARD, P., is said by Strutt to have re- 
sided at Genoa, where he engraved several plates 
for books, about the year 1687. 

PINCON, Adolphb, French engraver, bom in 
1847 at Romorantin (Loire et Cher). His 
'Baigneuse' (after Cliaplin) was shown at the 
Salon in 1868, and to this Exhibition he was from 
that date a frequent contributor. He also completed 
lithographs of Gerard's ' Psyche et I'Amour,' Staal's 
' Invocation,' and Schenck's ' L'fli^ ' and ' L'Hiver,' 
besides several portraits. He died at Bicetre 
Hospital near Paris in 1884. 

PINE, John, an engraver, and a man of letters, 
was born in 1690. He kept a printshop in St. 
Martin's Lane, and became intimate with Hogarth, 
who introduced his portrait as the friar in his 
picture of ' Calais Gate,' from which circumstance 
he went often by the name of ' Friar Pine.' He 
brought out several handsome works illustrated 
with plates of his own engraving. The principal 
of them were a series representing the ceremonies 
used at the revival of the order of the Bath, b3' 
King George I. (published in 1725) ; also his 
prints from the tapestry in the House of Lords, 
representing the ' Destruction of the Spanish Ar- 
mada ' ; and a superb edition of ' Horace,' the text 
engraved, and illustrated with ancient bas-reliefs 
and gems. The ' Pastorals ' and ' Georgics' of Virgil 
were published by his son, after his death, orna- 
mented in a similar manner, with a printed type. 
Pine also engraved a few portraits, among which 
are an etching of himself and a mezzotint bust 
of Garrick, taken from a cast. He received the 
appointment of Blue Mantle in the Heralds' Col- 
lege, and there died May 4, 1756. Pine was one of 
the committee of artists who attempted, in 1755, to 
found a Royal Academy. 

PINE, Robert Edge, son of John Pine, was bom 
in London in 1742. It is not known by whom he 
was instructed, but he gained the premium for the 

best historic design, given by the Society of Arts, 
with his ' Surrender of Calais ' in 1760, and again 
with 'Canute and his Courtiers' in 176.S. Ho 
afterwards practised as a portrait painter, and 
occasionally exhibited at Spring Gardens and the 
Royal Academy. In 1782 he exhibited a series of 
pictures of scenes from Shakespeare. He after- 
wards went to America, and portrayed Washing- 
ton and other leaders of the revolution. He died 
at Philadelphia in 1790. His principal works are 
subjects from Shakespeare, and theatrical portraits, 
which have been engraved by M'Ardell, V. Green, 
C. Watson, Aliamet, Lomax, and Dickinson. His 
' Surrender of Calais ' was preserved in the Town- 
hall of Newbury, and mention may be made of 
the following portraits : 

George II. {at Audley End). 

The Duke of Northumberland (Middlesex Hospital). 

Garrick {National Portrait Gallery). 

PINE, Simon, an English miniature painter in 
the 18th century, the son of John Pine. He 
practised in Ireland and at Bath, and exhibited at 
Spring Gardens, and at the Academy. He died in 

PINEDA, Francisco Perez de, a Spanish painter, 
was born at Seville about the year 1640. He was 
a scholar of Murillo, whose style he followed, and 
there are several of his works in the churches and 
convents at Seville. There was also an Antonio 
Perez de Pineda, who lived about 100 years 

PINEL, Edouaed, painter, born at La Rochelle, 
was a pupil of Roqueplan and of Gudin. He en- 
joyed some repute as a landscape painter in the 
days of Louis Philippe, and was for many years 
keeper of the Museum in his native town. He died 
in 1884. 

PINELLI, Antonia BERTUCCI. See Bertucci- 


PINELLI, Bartolommeo, an Italian painter, 
etcher, and modeller, was bom at Rome in 1781. 
He studied when young at the Academy of Saint 
Luke, and then went to Bologna, where he ob- 
tained honours, after which he returned to Rome. 
He was very successful with his sketches from 
popular life, and then took to painting views at 
Rome and Tivoli in aquarelle. He also etched 
(1810-22) a number of plates illustrating Italian 
life and costumes, as well as Grecian aud Roman 
history and the works of classic authors. Be- 
sides these original designs he engraved after 
other artists. His drawings in chalk and in 
water-colours are much esteemed. The works by 
which he is best known are, ' Istoria degli Imperi- 
tori, inventata ed incisa in cento rami ' ; ' Rac- 
colta di Costumi pittoreschi' ; ' Nuova Raccolta 
di cinquanta Costumi pittoreschi'; 'Istorica Greca,' 
with 100 etchings ; ' Istorica Romana,' 152 etch- 
ings ; Illustrations to Virgil, Dante, Tasso, Aretino, 
and Cervantes ; and some others, of which the 
plates were brought to England, and printed here. 
He also engraved the frescoes painted by Pintu- 
ricchio in the cathedral of Santa Maria Maggiore ; 
the illustrations of the ' Life and Miracles of St. 
Francis di Paida,' after Marco da Faenza and 
others ; the friezes by Giulio Romano in the Far- 
nesina ; Picturesque Views of Tivoli, &c. ; and 
lithographed illustrations to Manzoni. He died at 
Rome in 1835. 

PINGO, Lewis. The exquisite drawings which 
this distinguished medallist made for the coins 
and medals which he struck were of such beauty 



as to give him full claim for recognition in this 
dictionary. He was the son of Thomas Pingo, an 
engraver, was born in 1743, became a member 
of the Free Society of Artists when 19 years of 
age, and was first of all assistant engraver and 
then chief engraver to the Royal Mint. He lived 
to be nearly 90 years of age, and died near London 
in 1830. His medals were of great merit and 
marked by much refinement. 

PINGRET, Edodard Henri Th^ophile, French 
painter and lithographer, born September 30, 1788, 
at St. Quentin (Aisne) ; became a pupil of David 
and of Regnault. He worked for some years in 
Paris, afterwards at St. Quentin. Painted many 
portraits, also historical and genre scenes, ' Voyai;e 
de Louis Philippe k Windsor,' &c. Obtained a 
second-class medal in 1824, and tlie Legion of 
Honour in 1839. Died at St. Quentin in 1875. 

PINO, Marca da, (or Marco da Siena,) a painter 
and architect, is stated to have been born at Siena 
about the year 1520. He was a pupil of Buonac- 
corsi and Ricciarelli, but chiefly followed the style 
of Michelangelo. He painted some pictures for 
the churches at Rome, of which one of the most 
esteemed was a ' Dead Christ, with the Virgin and 
St. John,' in Santa Maria di Ara Cseli. Much of his 
work in Rome was done in collaboration with 
Daniele da Volterra. From Rome he proceeded to 
Monte Casfiino, where, in 1557-8, he painted for 
the church of the Benedictines some large frescoes 
from the Lives of Christ and of SS. Maarus and 
Placidus. But the chief scene of his activity was 
Naples, where he established himself in 1560. 
During a residence of twenty-seven years, he 
decorated the principal churches with several of 
his finest works. Of these, the most famous and 
perhaps the best is a ' Deposition from the Cross,' 
in the church of San Giovanni de' Fiorentini, 
painted in 1577. In the same church is a fine 
picture of the ' Annunciation,' and in the cathedral 
an ' IncreduHty of St. Thomas' (1573). A 'Christ 
on the Cross,' an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' and 
an ' Adoration of the Magi,' in the church of San 
Severino, may also be named. Pino died in 1587. 
His art has much that is clever and energetic about 
it, but it has also the affectation and insipidity of 
the decadence. 

PINO, Paolo, an unimportant Venetian painter, 
who flourished about 1565. His style was founded 
on the followers of Bellini. There is a portrait of 
the physician Coignati by him, in the UflBzi, at 

PINO DA MESSINA. See Messina. 

PINSON, Nicolas, was born at Valence, in the 
Drome, about the year 1640. He studied at Rome, 
where he remained a considerable time, and imi- 
tated the manner of Pietro da Cortona. Scarcely 
anything more of his history, or of his works, is 
known, except that Coelemans has engraved his 
picture of ' Tobit and the Angel,' which was in 
the collection of Boyer d'Aguillee ; and that he 
etched two prints, a ' Dead Christ ' and the ' As- 
sumption of the Virgin,' which are both of ex- 
treme rarity. The first is marked N. P. In. /., 
and the second N. Pinson. Inuent. et Sculp. 

PINSSIO, Sebastiano, who was bom in Paris in 
1721, and flourished in 1755, is mentioned by 
Strutt as the engraver of a few portraits. 

PINTDRICCHIO. See Biagio, Bernardino. 

PIN US, Cornelius, a Roman painter of the reign 
of Vespasian, was engaged \vith Accius Prisoua in 
the Temple of Virtue and Honour. 

PINWELL.George John, was born at Wycombe, 
December 26, 1842, and died in London, September 
8, 1875. His father was a builder, who it is be- 
lieved built the original station at Surbiton, and 
who was in a very fair way of business, but he 
died young, and the care of the family fell upon 
Mrs. Pinwell, who was somewhat rough and a 
very determined person. His first important em- 
ployment was with a firm of embroiderers for 
whom he made designs, and it was while he was 
with them that he met first the lady who after- 
wards became his wife, and who now survives him. 
She was a Miss Isabella Mercy Stevens, and the 
firm who employed Pinwell were well known to 
her mother. Miss Stevens needed a design for a 
piece of difiicult work that she had projected, and 
went to this house to obtain it, but as the matter 
was not an easy one to decide, she was referred to 
the designer himself, and to him she explained 
her wishes. Pinwell at once grasped the young 
lady's idea, and promised her the design that she 
wanted. He found that she had decided on the 
colouring for the work, and that her decision gave 
proof of a good judgment in colour, and of the 
power of combining colours. Colour fascinated 
Pinwell, and he was specially noted in after years 
for his jewel-like colour and opulence of glowing 
efiect. He was therefore struck by the facility 
that this young lady possessed in suggesting 
colours suitable for work, and, started in this way, 
the acquaintance grew into affection and ripened 
into a very happy married life. Whilst Pinwell 
was with the embroiderers his mother married 
again, and the severe strain upon his means having 
been in this way reduced, he was able to leave 
his work, and devote himself entirely to training 
in art. He first entered the St. Martin's Lane 
School, %vhere in the intervals of his work he had 
already studied! in the night classes. In 1862 he 
joined the Academy in Newman Street. 

He worked at Heatherley's during 1862, trying 
at intervals to earn some money by practical work, 
and during that year produced the first of his 
illustrations that are known. They are of a sin- 
gularly uninteresting character, and show but little 
promise of what was to follow. The volumes con- 
taining these quaint early drawings are ' Lilliput 
Levee,' a book of delightful rhymes for children 
by Matthew Browne, ' The Happy Home,' and 
' Hacco the Dwarf.' A little before this time 
' Fun,' which afterwards was the property of the 
Dalziel Brothers, was started by a tradesman in 
the Strand. He expressed himself willing to 
purchase at a low price drawings and footnotes 
suitable for his new publication, and Pinwell was 
able occasionally to sell such work to him. Pin- 
well never did much work, however, for ' Fun,' 
and was more often engaged in preparing draw- 
ings for Elkingtons the silversmiths, than in 
black-and-white illustrations, until his connection 
with ' Once a Week ' commenced. 

Pinwell's acquaintance with Mr. J. W. Whymper 
began at tliis time. At the time of Pinwell's call 
upon Whymper, Fred Walker had just left, and 
Cliarles Green was on the point of departure, 
and there was no definite figure draughtsman 
in the ofiice. North was there at the time, and 
first became acquainted with Pinwell when he 
called to introduce himself to Whymper, and 
in this way started a friendship that lasted as 
long as Pinwell's life, and has been loyally 
continued to hia widow. Pinwell was not re- 













[From the engraving 


gularly apprenticed to Mr. Whymper, but a 
running arrangement, something on tlie lines 
of apprenticeship, was made between them. Mr. 
Whymper greatly appreciated the instinct for 
design and cliaracter tliat he could discern 
in Pinwell, but his want of knowledge of draw- 
ing could not be overlooked by the publisher, 
and no great amount of success attended Mr. 
Whymper's efforts with him. It appears to have 
been Thomas White who shared a room with 
Pinwell in Millman Street, and first introduced 
him to regular work. Wliite had been working for 
' Fun,' and had just started a drawing for 'Once a 
Week,' that important magazine that was to con- 
tain within its pages all the best work of the 
" sixties," and in vol. viii., at p. 169, appeared the 
first of Pinwell's drawings, called ' Saturualia,' and 
dated January 31, 1863. Many of Pinwell's old 
fellow-students at Heatherley's were working on 
the same magazine and in similar works, and of 
those with whom he was most familiar may be 
mentioned Linton, Fred Barnard, and Charles 
Green. This same year saw other drawings from 
Pinwell's hand in the magazines of the day. 
'Good Words 'had 'Martin Ware's Temptation' 
(p. 573); 'London Society ' had 'The Confessor' 
(p. 37); 'The Churchman's Family Magazine' 
had ' By the Sea ' (p. 257) ; ' Cornhill ' one block, 
and ' Sunday at Home ' had ' The German Band ' 
on p. 753. In the following year Pinwell made 
the personal acquaintance of the Brothers Dalziel, 
and commenced to work on ' The Arabian Nights,' 
and on his most important volume, 'The Illus- 
trated Goldsmith.' For this volume Pinwell did 
no fewer than one hundred drawings upon wood. 
He completed them week by week for the issue of 
the book in parts ; producing them in about six 
months, and putting all his heart into them. His 
■work on the ' Goldsmith ' is so thoroughly good, 
so full of his earnest desire to represent the author, 
that it can be taken as a model of what an illus- 
trated book should be. 

In the year that saw the completion and the 
issue, in one volume, of the ' Goldsmith,' Pinwell 
married. The wedding took place at Marylebone 
parish church on April 25, 1865, and the honey- 
moon was spent at Hastings. He was then living 
at 70 Newman Street, but shortly afterwards 
moved to Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square. In 
1873 he moved into Adelaide Road, No. 52, 
and eventually, in the same year, took Mr. Top- 
ham's house in that road, No. 86, where he 
died. When living in Newman Street he first 
made the acquaintance of .Joseph Swain, who 
called upon him as to some business. The years 
from 1865 to 1870 were very full of work. Each 
volume of ' Once a Week' down to 1869 contained 
his drawings, and other magazines include ' Good 
Words ' down to 1871, ' London Society,' 'Sunday 
Magazine,' 'Quiver,' and 'Sunday at Home.' Be- 
side these are his more important works: 'Touches 
of Nature,' issued by Strahan in 1866, which con- 
tained eight of his works ; ' The Spirit of Praise ' 
and ' Golden Thoughts,' both published by Warnes 
in 1867 ; ' Wayside Posies,' a work published by 
Eoutledge for Dalziel, and issued in the same pro- 
lific year ; ' A Round of Days,' another of Dalziel's 
and Routledge's books ; and then, perhaps greatest 
of all, 'Poems by Jean Ingelow,' issued by Long- 
mans in 1867, in which he had twenty illustrations 
of his very finest work. These do not exhaust the 
list of his engraved work, as there are books which 

do not bear a date, such as Buchanan's ' Stories of 
the AfEections,' ' Our Life Illustrated by Pen and 
Pencil,' and also ' The North Coast,' by Buchanan, 
1868, 'National Nursery Rhymes,' 1877, and the 
'Musical Annual,' 1870, which contain charming 
drawings by him. The labour of these years was 
byno means devoted entirely todrawing upon wood, 
but side by side mth that work Pinwell was steadily 
building up a reputation as a painter. It was in 
1865 that his first exhibited work was seen. It was 
shown at the Dudley Gallery, then just founded, 
and was a development in oil-painting of an idea 
used in his black-and-white work. He called it 
' An Incident in the Life of Oliver Goldsmith ' ; 
it has also been styled after what it depicts, 
' Goldsmith earning his Board and Lodging by a 
Merry Tune.' The picture in 1876 belonged to 
Mr. K. H. Waithman. It was to be seen in 1899 
at Agnew's Gallery, No. 183, and was sold on that 

From the time of that first appearance till 1869, 
when he joined the Water-Colour Society, Pinwell 
exhibited at the Dudley Gallery. In 1866 he sent 
three works: 'The Watch,' 'The Double Trans- 
formation,' and ' Old Wives,' which was burnt by 
an accident. In 1868 he sent ' The Tramps,' which 
is to be recognized under the name of 'The 
Vagrants,' in Mrs. Samuel Joseph's Collection, and 
then, in 1869, occurs the last at the Dudley, ' The 
Calf,' which was sold in 1899 at Agnew's, and was 
a small drawing measuring only 15f by 12 inches. 
Brought thus into favourable notice by exhibits 
at the Dudley Gallery, " he sought election at the 
Water-Colour Society, and was at once chosen as 
Associate on April 3, 1869." He attained full 
rank in the Society in 1870, and he exhibited as a 
member in the summer of 1871. His first exhibit 
in 1869 consisted of three works, two scenes from 
'The Pied Piper of Hamelin,' called respectively 
' Children ' and ' Rats,' wliich now belong to Mr. 
J. S. Budgett, and a pathetic scene called ' A Seat 
in St. James's Park,' a development of a drawing 
done in the same year for ' Once a Week ' (vol. iii. 
p. 518), a sketch for which can now be found 
in Mr. Hartley's Gallery, the original being in 
Austraha in a public gallery. In the Winter 
Show of the same year were four more : 'The 
Quarry,' a sketch for the picture ; ' The Last 
Load,' a fine sketch for which belongs to Mr. 
Hartley ; ' New Books ' and ' The Old Cross.' The 
one called 'New Books ' belongs to Mrs. Samuel 
Joseph ; but the other now belongs to Sir Cuthbert 
Quilter, Bart., and is called 'Out of Tune.' In 1870 
appeared a really important picture, 'The Elixir 
of Love.' This was shown at the Summer Exhibi- 
tion, and in the winter of the same year Pinwell 
exhibited two more: 'At the Foot of the Quan- 
tocks' and 'Landlord and Tenant.' The Summer 
Exhibition of the following year possessed only 
one picture, called 'Away from Town,' and the 
one in the next year was called 'The Poachers 
(Early Morn).' Three others appeared in the Winter 
Exhibition of 1871-2: 'Time and his Wife,' an illus- 
tration to the 'Uncommercial Traveller' (Charles 
Dickens), 'The Earl o' Quarterdeck,' and 'A Country 
Walk,' which belongs to Mrs. Rand Capron. In 
the year 1872 Pinwell exhibited ' Gilbert k Becket's 
Troth,' his first exhibited work as a full member 
of the Water-Colour Society. ' A Long Conversa- 
tion ' is the solitary picture that the artist exhibited 
at the Winter Exhibition of 1872-3. In 1873 ' The 
Great Lady ' appeared. 



For a j-ear Mrs. Pinwell had been ill, and on 
her recovery was ordered away, but for four 
months they could not start, as no sooner was 
the severe strain of her illness over than he 
failed, and for many weeks lay at death's door. 
Gradually he became a little better, and then 
he went to Ventnor, accompanied by Miss Dora 
Dalziel, her brother, and Pinwell's great friend 
Houghton. Here the party remained for six 
weeks, and then came home, but Pinwell's health 
had become no better, and he was ordered to 
Africa for the winter. One more picture he sent 
in for exhibition ere he started, ' The Princess 
and the Ploughboy,' which was to be seen at the 
Winter Exhibition of 187.3^. In Africa Pinwell 
painted three pictures that were exhibited ; one 
was at the Summer Exhibition of 1874, 'The 
Beggars' Roost, Tangier,' and the other two, ' The 
Prison Hole, Tangier,' and 'The Auctioneer, 
Tangier,' were at the Winter Exhibition in 1875. 
Pinwell was in Africa for eight months, and in 
the spring of 1875 he returned home, spending- a 
week on the homeward journey at Gibraltar. In 
the summer of that year he sent five pictures to the 
Water-Colour Society, the last that he exhibited. 
The five pictures exhibited in 1875 were : 'Sweet 
Melancholy,' which belongs to Mr. Harry Quilter, 
'The Old Clock,' 'Waiting,' 'The Letter,' and 
' We fell out, my Wife and 1.' 

On his return home the artist at once moved into 
the house in Adelaide Road, but the doctor warned 
him that he would have to winter abroad again. 
The prospect was not an agreeable one to him, 
as he was full of work, and very anxious to stay 
in England and finish the great picture, 'Vanity 
Fair,' that had been so long in hand. The idea 
of a long journey in his weak state of health he 
could not bear, and in his own words, " he would 
almost rather die than go abroad." He was to 
have that wish gratified, as in a few days after 
he had received the doctor's report he grew worse, 
took to his bed, and never rose from it again. 
He died on September 8, 1875, and was buried at 
Highgate Cemetery. 

In the Winter Exhibition of the same year there 
were exhibited upon one of the screens some 
thirty-three unfinished sketches and studies, while 
in February 1876 there was a very full show 
of his works in Mr. Deschamp's Gallery, 168 
New Bond Street. For full particulars of the 
artist and his works see ' G. J. Pinwell,' by 
G. C. Williamson (George BeU and Son), 1900. 


PINZ, JoHANN Georg, (or PiNTZ,) was an engraver 
of Augsburg, who died in 1767, at the age of 70. 
He is said to have been chiefly emploj-ed by the book- 
sellers, for whom he engraved several prints, in the 
style of those which ornament the numerous pub- 
lications of Van der Aa. He engraved, among 
others, an emblematical print, entitled ' Gallus and 
Germanus,' in honour of the King of France, after 
P. Decker. 

PIO, Giov. DEL. See Bonatti. 

PIOLA, DoMENiCO, the younger brother of Pel- 
legrino Piola, was born at Genoa in 1628. He 
received his first education in art from his brother, 
but after his death he became a scholar of Gio- 
vanni Domenico Capellini. In conjunction with 
Valerio Castelli, he executed some works for the 
public edifices in Genoa and the state. For some 
time he followed the style of Castiglione, and after- 
wards that of Pietro da Cortona. He was particu- 


larly happy in the representation of children, which 
he designed from the casts of Fiammingo. One of ' 
his best productions is the ' Miracle of St. Peter 
at the gate of the Temple,' at Carignano, which is 
not degraded by its vicinity to an admirable picture 
by Guercino. He died in 1703. He is known 
to have produced the following etchings : two 
' Nativities ' ; ' The Virgin on the throne with the 
Infant Jesus on her knees, and St. John kneeling' ; 
' Paris holding the Apple ' ; and an ' Old Man with 
a long beard.' Domenico Piola had three sons, An- 
tonio, who abandoned painting in early life after 
showing some promise, Giovanni Battisia. who 
never developed any original talent, and Pablo 

PIOLA, Domenico, the younger, was a grand- 
son of Domenico Piola, the elder, and was born in 
1748. He painted historical subjects with mediocre 
talent, and was the last of the family. He died 
in 1774. 

PIOLA, Giovanni Gregorio, a successful minia- 
ture painter, born at Genoa in 1583. He died at 
Marseilles in 1625. 

PIOLA, Pablo Geronimo, historical painter, son 
of Domenico Piola, the elder, was born in 1666. 
He was a pupil of las father, but imitated the style 
of Carlo Maratti and the Carracci. He died in 1724. 

PIOLA, Pellegro, or Pellegrino, was bom at 
Genoa in 1617. He is supposed to have been a 
pupil of Capellino. Though the world was de- 
prived of his talents at the premature age of 
twenty-three, when he was assassinated, a ' Ma- 
donna,' painted by him, which was in the 
collection of the Marchese Brignole, was thought 
by Franceschini to have been painted by Andrea 
del Sarto ; and his picture of St. Elogio, in one of 
the churches of Genoa, was mistaken by Mengs for 
a work of Lodovico Carracci. He died in 1640. 

PIOLA, Pietro Francesco, historical and portrait 
painter, was born in 1565. He was a pupil of 
Sofonisba Anguisciola, and a successful imitator of 
Carabiaso. He died in 1600. 

PIOMBO, Seb. del. See Luciani. 

PIORT, v., an obscure artist, mentioned by 
Strutt as the engraver of a plate from Rubens, re- 
presenting an old woman holding a pot on a fire 
from which a boy is taking a liglited coal. 

PIOTROWSKY, AIaximilian Anton, (or Pie- 
TROWSKI,) was born at Bromberg in 1814, and 
studied at the Berlin Academy under Hensel. He 
afterwards became Professor in the Academy at 
Konigsberg. He at first painted romantic subjects 
from Polish history, and other historical pieces, one 
of which was 'Marie Antoinette in the Temple.' 
Later on he took to genre painting from Polish 
popular life. He died at Konigsberg, the 29th 
November, 1875. 

PIPER, F. le. See Le Piper. 

PIPPI, GiDLio (Romano). See Dei Giannuzzi. 

PIQUOT. See Picou. 

PIRANESI, Francesco, son and pupil of Giam- 
battista Piranesi, was born at Rome in 1756, and 
was instructed in design and architecture by his 
father. The Revolution drove him to Paris, where, 
with his brother Pietro, he essayed in vain to 
found an Academy, and to start a terra-cotta 
manufactory. He died in 1810. We have by him 
several plates of architectural views, and also of 
antique statues ; among them, the following : 

Jupiter enthroned ; from the statue in the Capitolino 

Museum ; after a draiciny by Firoli. 
The Veous of Medici ; after the same. 


[/'VfOT (he eUhiug 



J' roil! the etiluui^ 


Cupid and Psyche ; from the group in the Capitol. 
Papirius and his Mother ; from the group in the Villa 

Portrait of his Father, with Title-page to his Works ; 

the latter after Caded. 
The Illumination of the Chapel of St. Paul in St. 

Peter's. (See aho the list of plates ly G. B. Pieanesi.) 

PIIIANESI, GiAMBATTisTA, etclier and architect, 
the so-called " Rembrandt of Architecture," was 
born at Venice in 1720. About 1738 his father, 
a mason, sent him to Rome. He studied under 
Valeriani, through whom he acquired the style of 
Valeriani's master, Marco Ricci of Belluuo. Marco 
Ricci and the better-known Giovanni Pannini, 
stimulated by the example of Claude, had already 
set a fashion of pictures in which the overgrown 
ruins of Rome and the Campagna furnished the 
matter of many a magniloquent composition. 
Piranesi greatly excelled both Ricci and Pannini ; 
but it was through his own medium of etching that 
he displayed his superiority in boldness of inven- 
tion and force of execution to the two painters. 
His sound knowledge of engraving was derived 
from the Sicilian Giuseppe Vasi. It was his 
father's wish that he should practise as an archi- 
tect at Venice, and the youth twice made the 
attempt. Indeed " Architect of Venice '' is found 
on certain of his title-pages. But Piranesi could 
not live away from Rome. Threats to cut oif his 
little allowance of six crowns a month only 
sharpened his resolve to carve out a career for 
himself according to his own lights. Amidst the 
dwindling away, " under the attacks of time and 
the greed of their owners," of the splendours of 
ancient Rome, he " resolved to preserve them by 
means of engravings." And the tilling up of this 
huge pictorial record was the work of Piranesi's 
forty years in Rome. He varied it by etching 
some remarkable exercises in imaginative archi- 
tecture, and also spent some time, at the request of 
the Venetian Clement XIII., in restoring the two 
Churches of Santa Maria del Popolo and II 
Priorato. Of his restorations it must suffice to 
quote Lanciani's opinion that II Priorato is amass 
of monstrosities inside and out. But it is not as a 
master-builder that Piranesi wished to be judged. 
His deliberate claim to immortality rests on his 
etchings, as appears from his recorded belief that 
he had " executed a work which will descend to 
posterity, and will last so long as there will be 
men desirous of knowing all that has survived of 
the ruins of the most famous city of the universe." 
Piranesi's life was uneventful. He married, five 
days after his finst sight of the bride, a maiden 
whose hand he had demanded instantly upon 
seeing her : and the impetuousness and decisive- 
ness of this act marked the whole conduct of his 
life, as they mark also all the best of his work. 
In a sorry quarrel with an English patron, Viscount 
Charlemont, Piranesi showed dignity and self- 
respect, as four altered title-pages remain to prove. 
Proud though he was of Venetian birth, he habitu- 
ally displayed a truly Roman imperiousness which 
came out remarkably in his reply to an anonymous 
Englislnnan's assertion that Rome owed all her 
art to Greece. He received the great distinction 
of the Order of Christ, but was still more proud of 
his membership in the London Society of Anti- 
quaries. The name " Salcindio Tiseio " on one of 
his title-pieces commemorates his connection with 
the Academy of the Arcadi, a Society which found 
some satisfaction in giving to every one of its new 

members a fantastic name. The comings of these 
honours, the spoiling of the two churches, a few 
disputes, and the etching of nearly two thousand 
plates filled up a laborious life which ended at 
Rome on November 9, 1778. His tomb is in W 
Priorato, where his son set up a tolerable statue 
by Angolini. 

The original copper plates of Piranesi's works 
were captured by a British war-ship during the 
struggle with Napoleou : and it liad been better 
for Piranesi's reputation if the British commander 
had sunk them in deep water. Unfortunately they 
still exist, and could quite lately be hired for a 
day's printing. As a result, the curiosity-shops 
are full of coarse and almost brutal prints which 
grossly misrepresent Piranesi's acliieveraents. 
Despite his weakness for the blackest of blacks and 
the whitest of whites, the artist's own proofs are 
full of fine touches, and one can peer into their 
shadows. It is only by a study of these copies 
that Piranesi's excellence and importance as an 
engraver can be understood. Nor have popular 
anecdotes failed to do their work in strengthening 
the common belief in this artist's rudeness and 
summariness of working. It is told, for instance, 
that Piranesi was wont to haunt a monument by 
moonlight and then to throw his vision of it 
directly upon the copper. An examination of the 
drawings for the great Paestum set in the Soane 
Museum, London, will throw sufficient light upon 
such legends. Piranesi was always a strong 
and picturesque draughtsman, though, strangely 
enough, he could not deal truthfully with a round 
tower. Speaking generally, he was less happy 
with well-repaired churches and palaces than witli 
ruins or with the creations of his own fancy. He 
loved to enhance the majesty of the crumbling 
baths and temples by stretching back their 
pillared flanks to an immeasurable distance, while 
he marked their age by festooning tliem with 
strange sea-weed-like foliage. It was also his 
habit to emphasize their hugeness and stability by 
a contrast of Callot-like hinds or beggars dancing or 
gesticulating under the immense vaults and crag- 
like columns. More remarkable even than the 
ruins is the set of sixteen inventions called 
' Career!,' said to consist of prison-interiors seen 
by Piranesi during tlie delirium of a fever. On the 
other hand, his original designs for chimneys, 
' Diverse Maniere d'Adornare i Camini,' are 
foolish and vulgar. Below is a list of his principal 
works as published both by himself in Rome and 
by his sons in Paris. (The plates passed from his 
sons first to Firmin-Didot, and ultimately into the 
hands of the Papal Government.) The dates 
affixed are in some cases only approximately 
correct, as the original sets are not always 
encountered bound and arranged in the same way. 
A MS. Life of Piranesi which was in London 
about 1830 appears to have been lost. 

Antichita Romane de tempi della repubblica, e de' 

primi imperatori, &c, 1750. 
Antichita Romane, 4 vols, 1756. 
Raccolta di Tempi Antichi, viz, di Vesta ; della Sibilla ; 

deir Onore e della Virtu, 1776. 
Panteon di Marco Agrippa, detto la Rotonda. 
Monument! degli Scipioni, 1785. 
De Romanorum Magnificentia et Architectura, 1760, 
Opere Varie di Architettura, ProsjKttiva, Groteschi, 

Antichita, &c. 1750. 
Trofei di Ottaviano Augusto. 1753, 
Career!, 1750, 
Vedute di Arch! Trionfali, &c, 1748, 



Rovine del Castello del Acqua Giulia. 1761, 

Lapides Capitolini, sive Fasti Consulares, &c, 1762. 

Antichita di Cora. 1764. 

Campus Martius. 1762. 

Antichita d' Albano e di Castel Gandolfo. 1764, 

Descrizione e disegno dell* emissario del Lago Albano. 

Vasi, Candelabri, Cippi, Sarcofagi, Tripodi, Lucerne 
ed Omamenti Antichi, 2 voLs. 1778. 

Colonna di Trajano. 1770. Coloona Antonina, Colonna 
dell' Apoteosi di Antonino Pio. 

Rovine di Pesto, 

Vendute di Roma, 2 vols. 1765. 

Teatro d' Ercolano. 1783. 

Diverse Maniere d' Adomare i Camini, &c, 1769. 

Statute Antichi. 1781-84. 

Variae Tabulse celeberrimorum Pictorum : Raccolta di 
Disegni del Guercino. 

Schola Italica Picturse, cura et impensis Gavini Hamil- 
ton. 1773. 

Stampe Diverse. 

Peintures de la Villa Lante ; Sala Borgia ; Jules II. ; 
Famesina ; "Villa Altoviti. 

Antiquites de la Graude Grece, gravies par Fr. Piranesi 
d'apres les Dessins du feu J. B. Piranesi. (Paris, 
1804.) 1807. E.J. 0. 

PIRANESI, Laura, the daughter of Giambattista 
Piranesi, was born at Rome in 1750. She carried 
on business with her brother at Rome, and her 
etchings bear a strong resemblance to those of her 
father. She probably retired to Paris with her 
brother. There is no account of her death. She 
engraved some views of the remarkable buildings 
in Rome ; among others, the following : 

The Capitol. 

The Ponte Salario. 

The Temple of Peace. 

The Arch of Septimus Severus. 

PIRINGER, Benedikt, a designer and engraver, 
was born at Vienna in 1780, and died in Paris, 
where he had resided for some time, in 1826. He 
studied at the Vienna Academy under F. A. Brand 
and Herzinger, and was afterwards admitted to 
membership. He worked in aquatint and with 
the graver, and his productions are chiefly land- 
scapes, romantic scenery, and views of cities after 
old and modern masters, some of which were pub- 
lished collectively. His pieces are rather numerous, 
and include among the best : 

The four Parts of the Day ; four plates, after Claude 

The AVaterfall ; after Molitor. 
The Rocky Pyramid ; after the same. 
Landscapes ; after Poussin and LocatelU, 

PIRINI, Louis de, a French engraver, by whom 
ws have a plate representing two Men playing at 
Cards, and a Woman holding a Mirror behind one 
of them, to discover his hand to the other ; after 
Cornells van Tienen. 

PIRNBAUM, Alexis, was, according to Papillon, 
who calls him Pip.NHAUM,an engraver on wood, and 
resided at Basle about the year 1645. Papillon 
supposes him to have been a disciple of Hans 
Holbein, but does not specify any of his works. 
Nagler is of opinion that he is identical with Adam 
Petri, a bookseller of Basle. 

PIROLI, ToMMASO, an Italian designer and en- 
graver, was born at Rome in 1750, and received his 
instruction in Florence. In 1806 he returned to 
Rome, in which city, after passing some years in 
Paris, he finally settled, and died in 1824. His 
prints are numerous, etched in outline and in the 
chalk manner. The following are considered as 
the most interesting: 'The Deposition from the 


Cross,' after Caravaggio ; Bronzes, &c., from Her- 
culaneum ; a set of Bas-reliefs, after Canova ; 
the Prophets and Sibyls of Michelangelo in the 
Cappella Sistina ; a copy of Metz's prints of the 
' Last Judgment,' in the same chapel ; the story of 
Cupid and Psyche, from the frescoes of Raphael 
in the Farnesina ; Massacio's frescoes in the Bran- 
cacoi chapel at Florence ; and the outlines for 
original editions of Flaxman's illustrations to 
Homer, Hesiod, Jischylus, and Dante, engraved 
under Flaxman's own supervision, and published 
at Rome. There are also several sets of engravings, 
from remains of ancient art, by Piroli, part of which 
were published at Rome and part at Paris by Fran- 
cesco and Pietro Piranesi, the sons of the celebrated 

PIROTTE, Olivier, a Flemish historical painter, 
bom at Liege in 1699. He was a pupil of B. Luti 
at Rome, and afterwards of Coypel at Paris. ^ He 
painted several pictures for the churches in Liege. 
He died in 1742. 

PISANO, GiuNTA, (or Giunta da Pisa,) lived in 
the first half of the 13th century, and was born, 
if the old chronicles are to be believed, in 1202. 
Among the existing works attributed to him, are a 
' Crucifixion ' in San Ranieri at Pisa ; a picture of 
Saints in the chapel of the Campo Santo ; a ' De- 
struction of Simon Magus,' and a ' Martyrdom of 
St. Peter,' both in San Francesco at Assisi, where 
there was formerly a picture of the Crucifixion, 
with Father Elias, the first General of the Fran- 
ciscans, embracing the Cross. This was inscribed 
with Giunta's name and the date, 1236, but is now 
lost. Giunta died in or about 1258. Though still 
constrained in design, he made some advance be- 
yond the conventionality of the Byzantine painters 
who immediately preceded him. 

PISANO, Vittore, called Pisanello, famous as 
a painter, and, even more so perhaps, as the greatest 
of Italian medallists, was born at S. Vigilio in 
the Veronese territory about 1380, and seems to 
have ended his career at Rome early in 1456. 
The date of his birth is approximate, but that 
of his death is supported by two letters from 
Rome to Giovanni de Medici and other evidence. 
Vittore Avas a painter of great originality, excelling 
especially in his treatment of animals. "In pin- 
gendis equis caeterisque animalibus," says Fazio, 
" peritorura judicio caeteros antecessit ; " and this 
valuable evidence of a contemporary is fully borne 
out by his magnificent fresco of 'St. George,' with 
its great war-horses champing at their bits (Verona, 
S. Anastasia), by his ' Vision of St. Eustace ' 
(National Gallery of London), and his drawings at 
Paris in the Musee du Louvre. He was the Land- 
seer or Morland of his day, but was at the same 
time no less excellent in portraiture and modelling 
in relief. Of too marked individuality to be classed 
under any school, his connection with Verona is to 
be noted, where he may have learnt from Alti- 
chiero, who was working both here — in the 
churches and the Palace of the Signory — and at 
Padua with Jacopo d'Avanzo (in 1370), on the 
decorations of the Capella S. Felice in S. Antonio, 
and (in 1377) on the Church of S. Giorgio close to 
the Santo (S. Antonio). At the same time Vittore's 
connection with Ferrara is too important to be 
omitted. Leonello d'Este, the natural son of 
Niccolo III., had summoned him here. Pisanello's 
portrait of his Ferrarese patron appears in the 
Bergamo Collection, and is to be compared, with its 
rich costume, short close-cut hair, and clever ugly 




S^National Gallery 



face, with the same artist's medallion of Leonello. 
A replica of this portrait is in the National Gallery, 
from the hand of Giovanni Oriole, a Ferrarese 
painter, beyoml much doubt a pupil of Pisanello, 
and living in 1461. The portrait is a profile, life- 
size, in red coat and black gown edged with gold ; 
it is signed Opus Johanis OrioU, and came from 
the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara. Thus we find 
that Pisanello's influence contributed to the forma- 
tion of that most interesting Ferrarese school 
which, under Leonello's successor, Duke Borso 
(1450-71), takes definite form, with Cosimo Tura 
as the Court painter. Leonello himself, tlie Mar- 
quis of Este, calls Pisano in one letter, " Pisanus, 
omnium pictorum hujusce aetatis egregius; " and 
the great medallist reproduced his patron's features 
in no less than seven difierent medals. Vasari 
tells us that Vittore Pisano was "fully equal to 
any of the painters of his time ; and of this we 
have ample proof in the works which may still be 
seen in his native place, the most noble city of 
Verona, though," he adds, " many of them are in 
part destroyed by time." In fact the only frescoes 
by Pisano which have escaped are those in S. 
Fermo Maggiore at Verona (an ' Annunciation ' 
and figures of 'SS. Michael and George' which 
are damaged, with an ' Adoration ') and the 
magnificent scene of ' St. George mounting his 
great charger for the fight,' with the king's 
daughter in rich mediteval dress standing near 
him, upon an arch in the Pellegrini Chapel of S. 
Anastasia at Verona. Gone are his frescoes in the 
Hall of the Great Council in the Ducal Palace of 
Venice, where he was working with Gentile da 
Fabriano (about 1421-22), and those recorded by 
Vasari at Rome (notably in S. Giovanni Laterano), 
as well as at Mantua, Ferrara, and the Castello of 
Pavia ; but certain frescoes found in S. Eustorgio 
of Milan, and since very freely restored, bore 
traces of Vittore's style. His connection with 
Gentile da Fabriano is to be especially noted. 
Both share in a sort of knightly grace, in both the 
old sentiment of cliivalry seems to find expression ; 
and if the Eastern King of Gentile's lovely ' Ador- 
ation 'seems like a delicious medieval fairy-tale, 
then Pisano's ' St. George,' clad in mail of silver, 
is the true hero of the Christian legend. Of his 
panel paintings there may be noted the ' Leonello 
d'Este ' of the Bergamo Gallery, and the 'Miraculous 
Stag appearing to St. Eustace' in the National 
Gallery, with its beautiful rendering of animal life, 
for which numerous studies exist among his draw- 
ings. The Saint himself, riding out to the chase, 
reins back liis steed, covered with rich trappings, 
as he sees before him a great stag, with between 
his horns the Crucified Christ. Elsewhere in the 
picture a hound is chasing a hare ; in the marsh 
above herons are fishing in their quiet deliberate 
manner ; stags are browsing ; a bear climbs the 
hillside ; and every hair, every feather of these 
creatures is finished to perfection. This master- 
piece of Pisanello's art came from the Earl of Ash- 
burnham's Collection, and was purchased for the 
National Gallery in 1895. Scarcely less interesting 
is the ' St. Anthony and St. George ' (inscribed 
Pisanus pt) which came from the Costabili 
Collection at Ferrara ; and here too the painter's 
love of animal life grasps at some expression. 
St. Anthony must have his boar, St. George, of 
course, his dragon ; and behind the Saint the head 
of his war-horse, and that of his esquire's steed, 
recall those in the great fresco of Verona, just as 

the quaint head-dress of the rescued Princess re- 
appears in the profile portrait of a woman, recently 
acquired by the Louvre Museum, which may depict 
Margherita Gonzaga, first wife of Leonello d'Este 
of Ferrara. An ' Adoration of the Kings ' and a 
'Virgin with Saints' in the Berlin Gallery have 
been attributed to his hand ; and we must by no 
means omit that exquisitely tender ' Virgin and 
Cliild ' of the Museo Civico of Verona, which is one 
of the most beautiful creations of early Italian art. 
As a medallist Pisano stands unequalled in Italian 
art. M. Heiss, in his valuable work on the 
medaUists of the Renaissance, gives a detailed ac- 
count of authentic medals by Pisanello, which, 
following him, we might arrange chronologically 
as follows: 

1. Head of the artist in profile, wearing a cap. One 
with a cap ; a .smaller without. Reverse : Wreath and 
letters, F. B. K. J. P. F. C. (iuitial.s of the Seven Virtues ?). 

2. Johannes Palseologus, Emperor of the East. Bust, 
wearing curious hat. Legend : Johannes . Basileus . kai . 
autocrator . Rovtaion . o . Fataioloyos, Keverse ; The 
Emperor, mounted, before a crucifii, with the usual 
legend Oinis . Fisani . Pictaris repeated in Greek, Jargon . 
tou . Pisanoii . zographo. An example of this medal in 
the Florence Museum. A drawing in the Louvre (Val- 
lardi Coll.) shows the Emperor oq horseback — a study 
for this reverse. The best of Vittore's drawings are in 
the Mus6e du Louvre ; others are at Vienna (women 
with dogs and falcons) and in the British Museum. 

3. Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan (1412-47). 
Bust of Filippo Maria, wearing a cap. : The 
Duke on horseback, clad in mail, with on his crest the 
arms of the Visconti (a serpent devouring a child). An 
esquire and armed knight behind him. A towered city in 
distance. Legend : Opus Pisani Pictoris. Legend on 
face : Philippus . Maria . Anglus . Dicx . Mediolani . tt . 
cetera . ^mjterieque . Comes . ac . Gemie . dsminus. Two 
drawings of this medal exist, probably by Pisano's hand, 
in the Vallardi Collection. 

4. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan (1450-66). Bora 
1401, a successful Condottiere. Legend : Francesco . 
^'fortia . Vicecomes . JIarchio . et . Comes . ac . Cremone. 
Bust in armour, wearing a cap. Reverse : Head of a 
horse, books, and a bared sword. This medal dates from 
after his marriage (1441), when the Countship of Cre- 
mona (Comes C'reinone) came to him with Bianca Maria, 
and before he became Duke of Milan (1447), as that title 
does not appear. As Pisano left for Ferrara in 1444, it 
must date between 1441 and 1444. 

5. Pietro Candido Decembrio (1399-1477). Legend: 
Petrus . Candidas . Studiorum . Humunitatis . decus. 
Bust, wearing a cap. 'Reverse: Opus Pisani Pictoris. An 
open book, with eight seals. Dates probably from about 
the same period as the preceding, viz. at Milan, between 

6. Niccolo Piccinino (1380-1444). Legend : Nicholaus . 
Picininus . Vicecomes . Marchio . Capitaneus . Maximus . 
ac . Mars . alter. Bust in armour, wearing a cap. Re- 
verse : N{icolaus) Ficinimts . Braccius . Pisani P(ictoris) 
opus. A winged griffin, with Ferusia engraved on her 
collar, suckles two babes. Vicecomes (z.g. Visconti) refers 
to Picciuino's formal adoption by Duke Filippo Maria. 
Date about 1441. 

7. Leonello d'Este (bom 1407, ruled 1441-50). There 
are seven medals of Leonello, all with his strong ugly 
face, with its short curly hair. Three contain the title 
Lcunellus Marchio Esteniis; on reverse, Opus Pisani 
Pictoris. On No. 1 (reverse) an old man and youth 
naked, seated by a mast ; on No. 2 (reverse) the mask of 
a child with three faces, armour, and an olive branch ; on 
third (reverse), a naked youth and old man carry great 
baskets filled with corn. These are fine medals, but yet 
finer are three others inscribed (as well as one smaller 
one). Leonellus Marchio Estensis Dominus Ferrarie Reyii 
et Mutine. 

No. 4. Reverse : A naked youth lying beneath a rock ; 
above, a vase filled with corn. Superb, this, in spacing 
and modelling of the figure. 

No. 5. Winged Love stands holding a scroll of music 



before a lion. On a column a sail, filled with wind, and 
date MCCCCXLHi. Behind, an eagle on a tree with bare 

No. 6. A wild cat or lynz, sitting on a cushion, with its 
eyes bandaged. 

No. 7. A vase of fruit, with two anchors attached. 

In No. 5, above Leonello's portrait are the letters 
G{ener) R(ex) Ar{agonii), referring to his marriage 
(which Filippo Maria Visconti helped to arrange) in 1444 
with Maria of Aragon, natural daughter of Alfonso. 

8. Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (born 1417 ; Lord 
of Rimini and Fano 1432-68). (1) Legend: tHyismundus 
de MtUatestis Arimini et Romanae Ecclesiae Capitanevs 
Generalis, Bust in armour, with head bare. Keverse : 
Sigismondo Malatesta armed, ou horseback ; behind, two 
towers bear the date 144.">, and the Malatesta sbieM. 

(2) Legend: Sigismundus Fandidfusde Malattsta Ari- 
mini Fani Doinimis. Bust in armour, with head bare. 
Reverse : Sigismondo upright, in full armour, his vizor 
down, placing his sword in sheath. On his left upon a 
tree the Malatesta shield ; on right his casque, with the 
elephant's head as his crest. 

9. Domeuico Malatesta, called Novello. Legend : Dux 
EqidUtm pratstans (above the head) ; beside it : Mala- 
testa Novellus Cesenae dovi'mus. Bust (profile of great 
beauty); head bare. Reverse: Novello in armour kneels 
before a crucifix, embracing its stem ; his horse waits 
beside him. Opus Pisani Fictorts. 

10. Giovanni Francesco GoDzaga (1395-1444). Legend: 
Johannes . Francescus . de . Gonzaga . Primus . Marchio . 
Mantue . Capitianeus) . Maximus . Annigerorum. Bust, 
wearing a high cap trimmed with fur. Reverse : Opus 
Pisani Pictoris. The Marquis in armour on horseback, still 
wearing his peculiar cap. In front of him a rosary, be- 
hind him an esquire on horseback with his back turned, 
who seems a dwarf. lu theVaUardi Collection is a draw- 
ing by Pisano of Giantraucesco on horseback, with his 
daughter Cecilia also on horseback beside him, and be- 
hind the same dwarf as his esquire. Another drawing at 
Oxford shows him again in the same fashion on horse- 
back, but the dwarf riding away as in the medal. These 
drawings are most evidently studies for the medal. No 
date ; probably 1447, when Pisano was at Mantua. 

11. Another; somewhat different. 

12. Lodovico Gonzaga, called the Turk (1414-70). 
Lodovicus de Gonzaga Jlarchio Mantue etcet{era) L'apit- 
aneus armiiferonim. Bust in armour, with head bare. 
Reverse : The Marquis in full armour ou horseback, his 
vizor down. Behind him the sun, before him a sunflower, 
which turns to him, not to the sun. Ojjtis Pisani Pictoris. 

13. Cecilia Gonzaga (? 1425-51), daughter of Gian- 
francesco Gouzaga and Paola Malatesta, sisterof Lodovico 
III. Cecilia . Virgo ,^filia . Johannis . Francisci .primi . 
Marchionis .Uantiie. The hair is drawn back from the 
front, and fastened with a ribbon, the long, slender neck 
is bare, the costume simple and beautifully rendered. 
Reverse : A young girl, half nude, holds captive an uni- 
corn. It was held that only a virgin could capture alive 
the unicorn ; and we may note the epithet Virgo occurs 
on the front of the medal, and helps to explain the 
reverse. A study for this unicorn (taken from a large 
he-goat) in the Vallardi drawings. Opus Pisani Pictoris, 
with the date 1477, on reverse of Cecilia's medal. In 
distance mountains, and a crescent moon, the symbol of 

14. Vittorino da Feltre (1379-1447). Victoriims . Fel- 
trensis . Summus . (the legend continues on the reverse) 
Mathematicus . et . omnis . Humanitatis . Pater . Opus . 
Pisani . Pictoris. On front : The bust of Vittorino wear- 
ing a cap. Reverse : A pelican, feeding her young with 
her own blood, symbolizes his absolute devotion to his 
pupils' highest and best interests. Date of medal, prob- 
ably in 144(3. A study for the pelican ou this medal in 
the Vallardi Collection. 

15. Belotto of Como (1447). Nothing is known of this 
person, save that Basilio of Parma, in his poem in praise of 
Pisanello, alludes to his medal,— "del Belotto fanciuUo." 
Bellotus . Camanus. Bust, wearing cap. Reverse : A 
weasel running, with above the date 1447, and around, 
Opns . Pisani . pictoris. 

16. Don Inigo d'Avalos, Marquis of Pescara. Legend : 
Don Inigo . de . Avalos. Bust to R., wearing fur-trimmed 
bonnet and cape. Reverse : A globe containing the 
heaven filled with stars, the earth with cities and 


mountains, and the sea or water beneath. Above, the 
arms of Avalos between two rose-trees. Beneath, Per 
wi se fa, and Opus Pisani Pictoris. A study for the 
cities, moimtains, and sky of reverse, but with one star 
only, in the Vallardi Collection. 

17. Medals of Alfonso of Aragon, King of Naples and 
Sicily (bom 1391, died 1458) : 

(1) Legend : I)ivus . Alphonsus . Rex . Triumphator . 
et . Pacificus M.CCCCXL VIII. (This still refers to his tri- 
umphant return in 1443.) Bust facing to R., in armour, 
head bare ; in front, an open crown between the date 
given ; behind, a helmet bearing the motto, Vir Sapiens 
dominahituT astris. Reverse : An eagle seated on a tree- 
trunk among the rocks, a dead kid at his feet, and a bird 
beneath. Beneath him another eagle and two eaglets. 
Opns . Fisani . Pictoris. 

(2) Divus . Alphonsus . Arago{niae) . Siciliae . Val- 
(entiae) . Hie{rosolymae) . IIun{gariae) . Ma(Joricarum) . 
Sa{rdiniae) . Cor{sicae) . Rex . Co(mes) . jBa{runoae) . 
Dux . At{henarum), etc. Bust facing to R. Beneath it 
an open crown. Reverse; Venator intrepidus, A naked 
youth or man (PAlpbonso), armed with a knife, bestrides 
a wild boar, whom two boar-hounds hold back. 

(3) Alphonsus . Rex . Aragoniae (small). Bust to E. 
as in the last. Reverse : Victory driving a four-horsed 
chariot. Victor . Siciliae is the legend. 

(4) Divus . Alphonsus . Aragoniae . utriusque . Siciliae . 
J'alenciae, and full titles as in (2), ending, as there, with 
Comes . Roscilionis . et . Ceritaniae. Bust facing to R. in 
armour, head bare, beneath an open crown. Reverse : 
Fortitudo . viea . et . laus . mea . Dominus . et . factus . 
est . michi . in . salutem. Victory (or is it a draped 
Love?), winged, drives a four-horsed chariot ; a groom or 
esquire walks beside the leaders. Beneath, Opus . Pisani . 

Numerous studies for these fine medals are in the 
Vallardi Collection. One study seems to have served 
for the head in the reverse of (2), i. e. the bold huntsman 
(J'enator intrepidus). Another is for the bust in the 
medal No. (1), but with a child with three faces beneath 
on the cuirass ; it has the date 1448, and the legend, 
Triumphator et Paujicus. 

Other medals are attributed to Pisanello by con- 
temporary and later writers, which have not yet 
been found. Of special interest among these are 
Guarino of Verona (born 1370, died 1460), Carlo 
Gonzaga, Porcellio of Naples, Pope Martin V. 
(1417-31), tlie Condottiere Braccio di Montone (see 
above), Borso d'Este, Lord of Ferrara and patron 
of Cosimo Tura, and Gian Galeazzo Visconti, 
Despot of Milan. None of the existing medals of 
Gian Galeazzo are genuine work of Pisano's period ; 
but there is a drawing in the Louvre (Vallardi 
Collection), described by the writer in his Re- 
naissance series (Vol. II. chapter ii.), which 
seems to be a contemporary portrait of the 
Milanese despot, and here we shall not be far 
wrong in tracing Pisano's hand. g j 

PISBOLICA, Jacopo, a Venetian painter, men- 
tioned by Vasari in his Life of Sansovino as the 
author of a good picture of ' Christ with Angels,' 
in Santa Maria Maggiore, Venice. 

PISSARKO, Camille, French painter, born at 
Saint Thomas (Normandy), January 18, 1830; 
became a pupil of Melbye and Corot ; with Cezanne 
and Sisley he counts as one of the most notable 
exponents of the so-called Impressionist school. 
He is best known to us by his landscapes, though 
in architectural studies he shows equal skill and 
subtlety. His early work was largely influenced 
by Millet and Corot, and after Manet ia 1885 
succeeded in winning him over to Impressionism, 
there remained a good deal of classicism in his work. 
This blend of impressionism and classicism gives 
a certain special and distinctive charm to Pissarro's 
work. In his series of pictures representing views 
of Paris he displayed rare insight, and makes one 




[Berlin Gallery 



feel the atmosphere, the charm, and the very spirit 
of the French capital. Of his landscapes we may 
mention, ' Paysage k Montmorency ' (in the Salon 
of 1859), ' Bords de la Marne,' ' Route de Cachalas 
k la Roche Guyon,' ' Chenneviferes, au bord de la 
Marne,' ' La Cote de Jallais,' ' L'Hermitage,' 
'Automne,' &c. He was a true artist, and a 
sincere and conscientious painter. His death 
occurred in Paris, November 14, 1903. 

PISTOIA, Gerino da, is described by Vasari as 
the friend of Pinturiochio, a diligent colourist, and 
a follower of Perugino. For his birth or death no 
dates can be given. In 1505 he painted some de- 
signs in the cathedral of his native city ; and in 
the church of San Pietro Maggiore an altar-piece 
of his still remains. In the refectory of the 
convent of Santa Lucchese, near Poggibonsi, now 
turned into a canteen, there are two scenes from 
the life of Christ by him. 

PISTOJA, Leonardo da. See Grazia. 

PISTOJA, Paolo da (or Pistojese). See Del 

PISTORIUS, Eduard Karl Gdstav Lebrecht, 
a genre painter, was born at Berlin in 1796. He 
was originally a pupil of the portrait painter 
Willich, and copied many pictures in the Gallery 
of Sans-Souci. In 1818-19 he lived in Dresden, 
where he chiefly busied himself with genre-paint- 
ing. In 1827 he visited the Netherlands, and 
stayed in Diisseldorf on his way back. He returned 
in 1830 to Berlin, and was elected member of the 
Academy in 1833. He died at Kissingen in 1862. 
The National Gallery at Berlin possesses the 
following pictures by him : 

An Old Man and an Old 'Womau ; a pair (marked in 
cipher,E.T.). 1824. 

The Geography Class. 

The ToUet. 1827. 

The Village Fiddler. 1831 . 

The Artist's Studio. 1828. 

A Sound Sleep. 1839. 

PISTRDCCI, Benedetto, a very eminent gem 
engraver and medallist, born at Rome in 1784. 
He was chief medallist at the Mint in 1828, and 
many of the finest of the medals as well as 
the designs for the gold and silver coinage of 
George III. from 1817 to 1822 are from his hand. 
To him is due the design for the St. George and 
the Dragon, still in use on the existing gold coinage. 
His engraving was of the utmost delicacy and 
distinguished by much refinement, and his pencil 
copies of antique coins, gems and medals were of 
extreme beauty. He died near Windsor in 1855. 

PITATI, BoNifazio di, born at Verona in 1487, 
died at Venice in 1553 ; son of a soldier Marco di 
Pitati, who removed with his family to Venice in 
1505. Here Bonifazio must have entered the 
workshop of Palma Vecchio, and became his princi- 
pal pupil and assistant. During the first half of 
the sixteenth century he was doubtless one of the 
most popular painters in the city, and executed a 
great number of works for palaces and churches. 
His workshop was one of the largest and most 
frequented in Venice, the pupils and assistants 
being trained more especially in the execution of 
decorative paintings for Venetian palaces. One 
of Bonifazio's most important undertakings of this 
description was the entire decoration of the Pa- 
lazzo Camerlenghi, which was begun in 1529 and 
carried out with the aid of numerous assistants ; it 
was not completed until some years after the 
master's death. Some of these paintings have 



perished, but a great number are still in existence, 
dispersed in different Galleries, at Venice, Vienna, 
Milan, Florence, and elsewhere. As already ob- 
served in the notice of Bonifazio Pasini, recent 
research has proved that the painters formerly 
designated Bonifazio I., II., and III. must now be 
identified with Bonifazio di Pitati and his disciples, 
and their works are classified as follows : pictures 
formerly ascribed to Bonifazio I. are held to be by 
the hand of B. di Pitati alone ; those attributed to 
Bonifazio II. were probably executed in the work- 
shop during the master's lifetime ; while those 
which formerly passed under the name of Bonifazio 
III. must have been produced by the followers 
and heirs of B. di Pitati either during his lifetime 
or after his death. The works of Bonifazio di 
Pitati and his school are very numerous, and are 
met with in public and private collections in Italy 
and abroad ; among the most celebrated examples 
by the master himself are the following : 

GalUry. Finding of Moses. 
Nat. Gal. The Madonna and Child with 
Saints in a landscape. 
A mhrosiana. Holy Family with Tobias and 
the Angel. 

„ Brera. The Finding of Moses. 

„ „ The Woman taken in Adult- 

Borne. Colonna Gal. Madonna and Child with 

Venice. Academy. Adoration of the Magi (1545) . 

„ „ Massacre of the Innocents 

,, „ Dives and Lazarus. 

,, Palazzo Eeale. The Madonna with SS. Omo- 

bono and Barbara {dated 

Of Bonifazio di Pitati's pupils some are now 
known to us by name, and a few of their works 
have been identified. Among them may be men- 
tioned the following : 

Antonio Palma, died after 1575, a nephew by 
mai-riage of Bonifazio, and his heir. A signed 
picture by him is in the Gallery at Stuttgart, show- 
ing his close connection with his uncle. Later he 
appears to have worked in the manner of the Santa 
Croce ; this is seen in a processional banner at 
Serinalta of 1565, and in works at Vienna belong- 
ing to the series from the Palazzo Camerlenghi. 

Battista di Giacomo, nephew by marriage, and 
heir of Bonifazio. A picture by him was formerly 
in the Church of S. Sebastiano, Venice, where with 
other painters of Bonifazio's workshop he was em- 
ployed in decorating the sacristy about 1551. 
After the death of Bonifazio, Antonio Palma and 
Battista di Giacomo appear to have lived in their 
master's bouse, and to have carried on the work- 

Domenico Biondo, mentioned in documents be- 
tween 1537 and 1553, in which year he signed his 
name as one of the witnesses to the will of Boni- 
fazio, being probably at that time an assistant in 
the master's workshop. In 1541 he received pay- 
ment for a picture painted for the Ducal Palace. 
He may possibly be the author of two good pic- 
tures originally in the Palazzo Camerlenghi and 
now at Vienna : ' Zacharias and the Angel ' (1550), 
and 'St. Laurence' (1551). 

Stefano Cernotto, a Dalmatian ; a signed picture 
by him (' St. Peter '), dated 1536, is in S. Giov. e 
Paolo, Venice; the companion picture ('St. Paul') 
is at Vienna ; both were originally in the Palazzo 
Camerlenghi, where they formed the wings to 


Bonifazio's picture, 'Christ driving the Buyers and 
Sellers from the Temple,' now in the Palazzo 
Ducale, Venice. Cernotto was already dead in 1543. 
Jacopo Pistoia, probably a relation of the 
painter Antonio Zappello of Berganjo, who was 
also called Pistoia. He doubtless received his first 
teaching in the workshop of Palma Vecoliio, and 
on the death of that master became a disciple of 
Bonifazio. A document of 1563 proves that he 
was greatly esteemed as a painter at Venice, where 
he was associated with Titian, Tintoretto, Paul 
Veronese, and other distinguished masters. The 
following works by him are known : ' The Ascen- 
sion,' in the Church of the Madonna delle Cendriole 
at Riese (between Castelfranco and Asolo), a picture 
mentioned by Vasari (who erroneously calls the 
painter Pisbolica) as being in his day in S. Maria 
Maggiore at Venice ; ' The Madonna in Glory ' and 
'The Assumption,' both in the Venice Academy. 
These two pictures are ascribed respectively to 
Bonifazio and Palraa Vecchio, but agree in character 
with Pistoia's authenticated work at Riese. Like 
that picture, they came originally from S. Maria 
Maggiore at Venice. The following are also con- 
sidered to be by this painter : a ' Madonna and two 
Saints,' in the Gallery at Padua, and a similar sub- 
ject in the Louvre, showing respectively the influ- 
ence of Palma and Bonifazio, and ' The Supper at 
Emmaus,' in the Pitti, ascribed to Palma Vecchio. 
Vitruvio Buonconsiglio, called Vitrulio, son of 
Giovanni Buonconsiglio, of Vicenza, born c. 1494 
at Venice. He was working in the Palazzo Camer- 
lenghi between 1551 and 1559, and was also 
employed in the Scuola di S. Rocco. Three 
pictures by Vitruho are still in Venice : in the 
Academy, the Palazzo Reale, and the Palazzo 
Diicale, the latter being signed and dated 1559. 
Among pupils of B. di Pitati must also be in- 
cluded Polidoro Lanzani, whose real name is now 
known to have been Polidoro de Renzi, son of 
Paolo da Lanzano, near Lodi, and Jacopo Bassano, 
who, according to Ridolfi, was for a short time in 
the studio of Bonifazio. C, J. Ff. 

PITAU, NicoLAAs, the elder, an engraver, was 
born at Antwerp about 1633, and first studied under 
his father Johann Pitau, but in 1660 went to Paris 
and became a pupil of Francois de Poilly, or at 
least partially adopted his style. Pitau died in 
Paris in or about 1676. He engraved a variety 
of historical subjects after difEerent masters, and a 
considerable number of portraits. The following 
are considered to be his best plates : 


Louis Henri, Due de Bourbon, supported by Wisdom 

and Eeligion. 
Pope Alexander VII. ; after MigjMrd. 
Louis XIV., King of France ; after Le Fevre. 1670. 
Louis, Daupbin, bis son ; after the same. 
Peter Seguier, Cbancellor of France. 1668. 
Alexandre Paul Pitau, Advocate in Parliament. 
Gaspar de Fieubert, Chancellor. 1662. 
Nicolas Colbert ; after Le Fevre. 



The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. John 


The Entombment of Christ ; after L. Carracci. 
The Virgin holding the Infant Jesus in her arms and 

reading ; after Gitercino, 
The Dead Christ, with Angels weeping over him ; after 

the same. 
The Virgin interceding for St. Bruno and bis order ; 

after Champaiyne. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; after the same. 

The Penitent Magdalen ; after the same. 

St. Sulpice in Council ; after the same. 

The Holy Family, with the Infant Jesus embracing St. 

John ; after the same. 
The Holy Family, with an Angel presenting a Basket of 

Flowers; after Villequin. 
St. Francis de Sales. 

PITAU, NicoLAAS, the younger, son of the last 
named, worked from 1696 to 1745, and has left a 
few engraved portraits, including : 

Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Count de Toulouse ; in- 
scribed Cohert pitix. 1701. Jf. Pitau Junior. 
Ohver Cromwell. 

PITI, a Spanish historical painter, born at Sala- 
manca. He was a pupil of Giordano, on whose 
return to Italy Piti received a commission to work 
in the cathedral of Valladolid. He also painted for 
the chapel of the Marquis of Cerralvo at Salamanca. 

PITLOO, Anton S., a Dutch landscape painter, 
born at Arnheim in 1791. He was a pupil of H. 
J. van Ameron. In 1816 he went to Italy, where 
he painted several views, among which were a 
view of Rome, and one of the Capitol from the Campo 
Vaccino. He died in 1837. 

PITNER, Franz, German painter, born October 
11, 1826, at Vienna ; a pupil of the Academy ; also 
studied at Venice and Rome ; became drawing- 
master to the Duchess of Berry and subsequently 
worked at Venice, where he painted Italian genre, 
such as ' Serenata,' ' Italian Water-carrier,' and 
several water-colours. He also executed several 
chromo-lithographs. He died at Gries, near Bozen, 
in June 1852. 

PITOCCHI, Matteo da, a native of the Venetian 
state, who painted hambocciati, and also some re- 
ligious pictures for the churches of Padua. He 
died about 1700. 

PITONUS. See Pittoni. 

PITRI. See Petri. 

PITTERI, Giovanni Marco, designer and en- 
graver, was born at Venice in 1703, and died there 
in 1786. He was a pupil of J. Baroni and Antonio 
Faldoni, but adopted an original style, with single 
strokes which run from the top to the bottom, his 
shadows being produced by strengthening these 
as the occasion requires. The effect he produced 
by this whimsical operation is neither unpleasing 
nor unharmonious, and bis prints possess consider- 
able merit. Some of his works are marked M. P. 
fecit. He engraved several plates for the collec- 
tion of the Dresden Gallery, and others after various 
masters ; among them the following : 


A bust of himself ; aftei- Fiazzetta. 

Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, painter, of Venice ; after 

the same. 
Carlo Goldoni, the poet ; after the same. 
Giuseppe Nogari, painter ; after the same. 
Giovanni Mocenigo, noble Venetian ; after the same. 
Count Schulenburg, Field Marshal of Venice ; after 

Cardinal Quirini. 
Marquis Scipione Maflfei. 
Clara Isabella Fornari. 

The Holy Family ; after Pietro Longhi. 
The Seven Sacraments ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after Piazzetta. 
The Twelve Apostles ; after tht same. 
ReUgion overthrowing Heresy ; after the same. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after Rihera. 
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew ; after the same. 


St. Catharine of Siena: after Tie-polo. 

Mary Magdalene, penitent ; after the same. 

A set of six Plates of Hunts in the environs of Venice ; 

after Pietro Lonahi. 
Twelfth-Night ; after Teniers. 
Two Rustic Subjects ; after the same. 

PITTONI, Battista, called Vicentino, an en- 
graver, was born at Vicenza probably in 1520, and 
was living in 1585. His engravings consist of 
landscapes with ancient ruins, mythological sub- 
jects, and arabesques. Some of them bear date from 
1561 to 1585. A work formerly in the possession 
of a late collector (Mr. Lloyd) was entitled ' Imagini 
favolosi, &c., intagliatiin Rami da M. (Messer) Bat- 
tista Pittoni.' Venice, 1585. In conjunction with 
Battista Angolo del Moro lie engraved a set of fifty 
landscapes from Titian and otliers. These plates 
are very boldly and freely executed. Vicentino 
usually marked his prints Battista P. V. F., and 
appended a Latin inscription descriptive of the 

PITTONI, Giovanni Battista, a painter, was 
born at Vicenza in 1690, and received his first 
instructions in the art from his uncle Francesco 
Pittoni ; but his greatest improvement was de- 
rived from study of the works of the best masters 
of the Venetian school. His figures are generally 
smaller than life ; and he was less successful when 
he attempted to work on a larger scale. Two 
of his finest pictures are the 'Martyrdom of St. 
Thomas,' in the church of Sant' Eustacio, at Venice, 
and the ' Miracle of the Loaves,' in San Cosmo della 
Giudecca. He died at Venice in 1767. The exist- 
ence of two etchings by him is recorded — a ' Giov. 
Nen. Canonico de Praga,' and a ' St. John.' 

PITTORI, Paoli, called Paolo del Masaccio, an 
Italian painter, born at Masaccio, where he painted 
many pictures for churches, &c. He died in 1690. 
PITTORI DA MACEKATA, Lorenzo, an Italian 
painter, flourished about 1533 at Macerata, where 
he painted a ' Christ,' in the Church of the Virgin, 
in the antico-moderno manner. 
PITTORINI, Padre. See Bisi, Pra B. 
PIXELL, (Miss) Maria, an English landscape 
painter in oil and water-colours, born in the latter 
part of the 18th century. She studied under Sawrey 
Gilpin, and obtained a considerable, but transient, 
reputation. Her works appeared at the Academy 
between 1796 and 1811. 

PIZZARO, Antonio, a Spanish historical painter, 
was a scholar of El Greco, and resided at Toledo 
at the commencement of the 17th century. He 
painted the ' Foundation of the order of Los Trini- 
tarios ' for their convent ; several pictures in the 
churches of SS. Justo and Pastor ; and the ' Nativity 
of the Virgin' in the church of Santa Maria, at 
Casarrubios. He also designed the three subjects 
engraved by AUardo Popma for the ' Life of St. 
Ildefonso ' by Salazar de Mendoza, published m 
1618. Neither the date of his birth, nor of his 
death, is recorded. 

PIZZOLI, GiovACCHiNO, a decorative and land- 
scape painter, bom at Bologna in 1651. He was 
instructed by Borboni, Pasinelli, and Michelangelo 
Colonna, whom he afterwards assisted. He died 
in 1733. 

PIZZOLO, Niccol6, was one of the most import- 
ant of Squarcione's pupils, and aided him in the 
decoration of the Eremitani Chapel, at Padua. 
According to Vasari, the ' Eternal,' in the semi-dome 
of the chapel, the ' Virgin in Glory, with Cherubim,' 
and the figures of SS. Paul, Christopher, Peter, 

K 2 

and James, are all by him. In these works there is 
much to remind us of Mantegna, who is said to 
have been much influenced by Pizzolo. He also 
assisted Fra FUippo in the chapel of the Podesta, 
Florence, and Donatello in the church of S. An- 
tonio, Padua, in 1446 to 1448. He is said to have 
perished early in life in a street brawl. 

PLAAS. See Van der Plaas. 

PLACE. Francis, was the younger son of Rowland 
Place, of Dinsdale, in the county of Durham, but 
was himself born in Yorkshire. His father, intending 
him for the profession of the law, placed hira as a 
clerk to a solicitor in London, under whom he 
continued until the year 1665, when he was obliged 
to quit the metropolis on account of the plague, 
and he took this opportunity of abandoning a pur- 
suit which was never agreeable to his inclination, 
and of indulging his propensity for drawing. He 
painted, designed, etched, and engraved in mezzo- 
tint, and also drew with the pen, shading the fore- 
grounds with Indian ink ; but as he practised art 
for amusement only, his works are very scarce. 
They prove him to have been a man of genius, and 
it is to be regretted that his application was not 
equal to his abilities. He is said to have refused a 
pension of five hundred pounds a year, which was 
offered him in the reign of Charles II., to draw the 
royal navy, as he could not endure confinement or 
dependence. He was intimate with Hollar, and 
with Ralph Thoresby, the antiquary. He died at 
York in 1728, and his widow disposed of his paint- 
ings, among which were one of fowls, and others 
of flowers and fish. Most of his engravings appear 
to have been private plates, and this may account 
for their scarcity. They were executed not later 
than about 1683, and among them the following 
are the chief : 


Charles I. ; after Van Di/ck. 

Catharine, Countess of Middleton ; after Lett/, 

Major-General John Lambert. 

Eichard Sterne, Archbishop of York. 

Nathaniel, Barou Crew, Bishop of Durham ; after 

Eev. William Cray, of Newcastle. 1683. 
Richard Tompson, printseller ; after Zoust. 
Philip Woolrich, Esq., in armour ; after Greenhill. 
John Moyser, Esq., of Beverley ; after Kneller. 
Henry Gyles, glass-painter. 

Sir Ralph Cole, Bart., amateur painter ; after Lely. 
William Lodge, engraver. 
Pearce Tempest, printseller ; after Heemskerk. 
James Naylor, the Quaker. 


Seven etchings, being part of a set of twelve of Birds , 
after Barlow; the other five were by Jan Griffier ; 
very fine. 

Lady confessing to a Monk. 

A Dutch Family. 

A Monk Reading ; after Van Dyck. 

A View of Tynemouth Castle and Lighthouse. 

View of York Minster. 

A Prospect of Leeds. 

PLACE, George, an Irish miniature painter, born 
in Dublin in the latter half of the 18th century. 
He studied in the Schools of the Irish Academy, 
and practised in London, exhibiting at the Royal 
Academy from 1791 to 1797. He afterwards prac- 
tised in Yorkshire. The date of his death has eluded 

PLANER, Christian Julius Gustav, a German 
engraver, was born at Leipsic in 1818. He at- 
tended the Academy of his birthplace, and at first 



designed himself for a lithographer, but in 1840 
he visited Italy, and afterwards studied engraving 
at Dresden under Steinla. There, in 1873, not 
being able to find a publisher for his drawing of 
Leonardo's ' Last Supper,' he put an end to his 
life by shooting himself. His principal plates 

The Saviour ; after Cima da Coneyliano. 
Christ blessing the Bread ; ajter Carlo Dolci. 
The Virgin Mary ; after Sfeinbi'uck. 
The Repentant Magdalene ; after Correygio. 

The Sons of Rubens ; after Subens. 
St. Mary of Egypt ; after Rihera 


The Dead Christ mourned over by his Disciples ; 

Rembrandt and his wife ; after Bemhrandt. 
The Reading Hermit ; after De Koninck. 
Portrait of Count Hoym ; after Rigarid. 
Julius Schuorr von Karolsfeld, painter. 
Moritz Steinla, engraver. 
Napoleon III., Emperor of the French. 
Love riding on a Panther ; after a bas'relief by Rietschel, 

PLANES, Luis, the elder, was born in Valencia 
about 1732. He was Director of the Royal Academy 
of S. Carlos, and died about 1810. 

PLANES, Luis Antonio, a painter, was born in 
Valencia in 1765. He was instructed by his father, 
Luis Planes, and then went to Madrid, where he 
studied under Francisco Bayeu, and gained the 
gold medal of San Fernando. He died young, in 
1799. One of his best pictures is an 'Immaculate 
Conception,' in the Church of Albalat. 

PLANK, Josef, German painter, born 1815 near 
Vienna, where he first began to study. He painted 
historical scenes, such as his ' Altar in der Stifts- 
kirche.' He died in Feb. 1901 at Hutteldorf, 
near Vienna. 

PLANO, Francisco, a Spanish painter, was born 
at Daroca, and resided at Saragossa towards the 
end of the 17th century. He had a great reput- 
ation as a painter and architect, especially for decor- 
ative works. Palomino places him beside Colona 
and Mitelli ; and the works he has left in the sanc- 
tuary of Nuestra SeSora del Portillo, at Saragossa, 
and other churches, would seem to justify the 

PLAS, PlETER, a Dutch painter, was at work at 
Alkmaar in 1810. He was a pupil of J. van Kavenz- 
waay and G. Bodeman, and painted landscapes 
and animals. He died at Alkmaar in 1853. 

PLAS. See Van dee Plas. 

PLASCHKE, Moritz, German painter, born at 
Strehlen, August 5, 1818 ; painted genre scenes, 
such as 'Kinder im Komfelde' (at Antwerp), ' Die 
Erwartung,' &c. He died at Dilsseldorf, June 5, 

PLASENCIA, Casto, was a prominent Spanish 
historical painter. His best-known picture is ' The 
Origin of the Roman Republic,' depicting the 
death of Lucretia. He died at Madrid in 1890. 

PLASSAN, Antoine Emile, French painter, 
born September 29, 1817, at Bordeaux ; the first 
picture exliibited by him at the Paris Salon in 

1846 was ' Portrait de M .' It was followed 

by a remarkable series of genre pictures, such as 
' Le D^jeliner des Enfants,' ' L'Enfant Malode,' ' La 
Visite au Tiroir,' ' La Famille,' ' La Sortie du Bain,' 
&c. In 1852 he obtained a third-class medal, and 
this also in 1857 and 1859, being decorated with 
the Legion of Honour in that same year. He 
died in Paris in 1903. 

PLASSARD, Vincent, was a French engraver of 
the 17th century, of whom there are no particulars. 

His only known print represents the ' Holy Family,' 
in a mountainous landscape, and is signed F. Plas- 
sard in. et fe. 1650. It is in the style of the 

PLATEAU, Antoine, a flower and decorative 
painter, was born at Tournai in 1769, and died in 
1815. Several pictures by this artist are in the 
Temple of the Sun at Laeken, and in the house 
of M. Walkiers. 

PLATHNER, Hermann, German painter, born 
August 23, 1831, at Gronau (Hanover) ; was a 
pupil of A. Tidemand, R. Jordan, and also of 
the Dtisseldorf Academy ; his artistic talent 
was afterwards developed by travel. For some 
time he worked in the Black Forest at a series 
of genre studies, and subsequently settled at 
Diisseldorf. Among his pictures we may mention : M 
' Ertappt 1 ' (in the Leipzig Museum), ' Hungrige ■ 
Gaste'(intbe Danzig Museum), 'DieKartenlegerin,' 
' Die gestorten Spider,' and several remarkable 
portraits. In 1876 and 1877 he obtained the 
London silver medal. Owing to an affection of 
his eyes he had to give up painting. He died in 

PLATNER, Ernst Zacharias, painter and writer 
on art, was bom at Leipsic in 1'773, and was a son 
of the philosopher, Ernst Plainer. He studied at 
the Academy of his birthplace under Oeser, and 
sought further improvement at Dresden from 1790, 
at Vienna from 1797, and from 1800 at Rome. In 
1823 he became Saxon consul at Rome, where he 
died in 1855. He worked in conjunction with 
Bunsen, Gerhard, and Rostel on their ' Description 
of the City of Rome.' Among his best plates 
are : 


The Dismissal of Hagar, 

Hagar and Ishmael. 

PLATTE-MONTAGNE, Maiheus de, (Plat- 
TENBERG, Or VAN Platten-Berch,) was born at 
Antwerp about 1608. Having acquired the first 
rudiments of art in his native city, he went to 
Italy, and resided some time at Florence, where, in 
conjunction with his countryman, Jan Asselyn, 
called Crabetje, he painted several sea-pieces and 
landscapes, which were greatly admired. He 
afterwards visited Paris, where his works were not 
less esteemed, and he met with sufficient encourage- 
ment to induce him to settle there for some time. 
From a singular caprice, he Frencliified liis name 
of Platten-Berch into that of Platte-Montagne, which 
he sometimes signed to his pictures and prints, 
and sometimes Montague only. He died in Paris 
in 1660. His landscapes are highly finished, and 
exhibit very j^leasing scenery. A ' Storm at Sea,' 
by him, is in the Augsburg Gallery. We have a 
few etchings, executed in a very spirited style. 
They represent landscapes and marines, and re- 
semble the works of Fouquieres, under whom he 
learnt engraving. They are usually inscribed M. 
Montague in. et f. He was the brother-in-law of 
Jean Morin, and the larger number have the ad- 
dition, Alorin ex. cum privil. Re. 

PLATTE-MONTAGNE, Nicolas de, (Platten- 
BERG, or VAN Platten-Berch,) Was boru in Paris in 
1631, and studied painting under Philip de Chani- 
paigne. He was instructed in engraving by Jean 
Morin, whom he surpassed. His principal works 
as a painter are in the churches of Notre Dame, 
St. Sacrament, St. Sulpice, and St. Nicolas des 
Champs, in Paris. He was also a reputable portrait 
painter. In 1681 he became professor of history 












































to the Academy, and died in Paris in 1706. From 
1651 to 1694 he executed twenty-eight plates with 
the point and graver, in addition to ten portraits. 
Among other prints we have the following by him : 

The Portrait of Olivier de Castellan, general, killed at 

the siege of Tarragona in 1644. 
St. Genevieve ; after F. de Champaitjne, 
Christ in the Tomb ; after the same. 
The Penitent Magdalene ; after the same. 
The Sudarium of St. Veronica ; after the same. 

PLATTEL, Henri Daniel, a French historical 
and landscape painter, was bom at Geneva in 1803. 
He was a pupil of N. Berlin and of Remond, and 
died in 1859. 

PLATTNER, Andreas, painter, a native of 
Nuremberg, was a pupil of his father Alexander. 
In 1595 he went to Munich in the train of Duke 
Ferdinand, where he remained till 1601. He died 
about 1617. 

PLATTNER, Franz, German painter, born 1826 
at Zirl in the Tyrol ; studied at the Vienna Academy 
and with Cornelius ; also with Overbeck at Rome. 
He painted frescoes in several of the churches in 
the Tyrol, at Dornbirn, Innsbruck, Girlau, &c. 
Another large fresco by him is ' Veleda,' at 
Innsbruck. Here he died March 18, 1887. 

PLATZER, JoHANN Georg, (or Plazer,) was 
born, according to Fiissli, at Epan, in the Tyrol, in 
1702, and studied under his step-father Kessler, 
and with his uncle on the father's side, who was a 
painter at Passau. In 1721 he went to Vienna, 
and there became intimate with an artist of the 
name of Jannek. They adopted the same style of 
painting, but it did not weaken their friendship, 
and the public were benefited by their rivalry. 
Platzer returned to his native country, where he was 
living in 1755. The cities of Breslau and Glogau 
possess many good specimens of his finer work. 

PLATZER, Johann Victor, is called by Nagler 
a sculptor, though it does not appear that he 
exercised that art. The same writer says that he 
was bom in Vintschgau, probably at Mais, in 1704, 
and was a scholar of Kessler at Inspruck, until the 
court-painter, Christoph Platzer, took him under 
his care at Passau. He afterwards established 
himself at Vienna, and painted small pictures, 
mostly with many figures, which were received 
with much applause both at home and abroad. 
His application was such that he weakened his 
sight, and diminished the firmness of his hand,_BO 
that in painting he was obliged to use a machine 
to steady it. In the year 1755 Platzer returned to 
the place of his nativity, and died in 1767. His 
garish pictures have nothing to recommend them 
but manual dexterity. Among the best are : 
Dresden. Gallery. The Four Elements. 

Vienna. Gallery. Men and Women Drinking and 

making Music. 

PLATZER, Joseph, a painter of architecture, 
theatrical decorations, moonlights, and small his- 
torical subjects, was the son of the celebrated 
Bculptor, Ignaz Platzer, and was born at Prague 
in 1752. After the completion of his scholastic 
studies he devoted six years to drawing, chiefly 
architecture, under the direction of F. Wolf. In 
oil painting he was his own master, and while still 
young, was favoured by the patronage of Prince 
kannitz. Thus encouraged, he went to the Vienna 
Academy, and was afterwards selected by the 
emperor Joseph II. to embeUish the royal theatre. 
During these operations he encountered many 
obstacles, and was obliged to maintain his reput- 

ation by painting moonlights, historical composi- 
tions, and small theatrical designs. On the ac- 
cession of Leopold II. he was promoted at court, 
became a member of the Vienna Academy in 1796, 
and died in 1810. One of his pictures, 'The 
Murder of Semiramis,' is in the Academy building. 
He also painted in aquarelle. 

PLAYTER, Charles Gauthier, was an English 
engraver, who flourished in the latter part of the 
18th century, and worked for Boydell on the Shake- 
speare Gallery. He died at Lewisham in 1809. 
Amongst his plates are : 

Scene from the ' Comedy of Errors ; ' after Rigaud. 
Lady Godiva ; after W. Hamilton. 

PLEGINCK, Martin, was a German engraver 
on wood and on copper, who flourished about the 
year 1590. He engraved a set of copper-plates 
representing figures fighting, entitled ' Fechter- 
Bu^chlein,' in a style resembling that of Virgilius 
Solis. His woodcuts are in the manner of Jost 
Amman. Bartsch and Passavant describe fifty- 
three prints by this master, which are of small size, 
and represent ecclesiastical orders and dignities, 
cavalry and foot soldiers (after J. De Gheyn). 
animals, and goldsmiths' work : the date 1594 is on 
some of them. Zani says he was working in 1606. 

PLEISTEINETUS, a brother of Pheidias, is 
stated to have been a painter, but nothing more 
than this is known of him. 

PLETSCH, OsKAR, German black-and-white 
artist, born March 26, 1830, at Berlin ; became a 
pupil of Bendemann at Dresden. He began as an 
illustrator, first of popular fiction and then of chil- 
dren's books, endeavouring to rival Richter in this 
style of art. He obtained considerable success with 
such works as ' Kleines Volk,' ' Allerlee Schnick 
Schnack,' ' Was willst du Werden,' &c. He died 
Jan. 12, 1888, at Niederlossnitz, near Dresden. 

PLEYDENWURFF, Wilhelm, one of the early 
engravers on wood, was a native of Germany, and 
flourished about the year 1493. Conjointly with 
Michel Wolgemut, he is said to have executed the 
cuts for the Nuremberg ' Chronicle,' compiled by 
Hermann Schedel, and printed in 1493. They 
represent views of towns, &c., and figures of vari- 
ous kinds. 

PLEYSIER, A., a Dutch marine painter, born at 
Naardingen in 1809. He died in 1879. In the 
Bruges Academy there is a ' Coast Scene ' by him. 

PLIMER, Andrew. This celebrated miniature 
painter was a Shropshire man, the son of a clock- 
maker at Wellington, and the parish register gives 
the following record of his baptism : " Andrew, 
son of Nathaniel and Eliza Plymer. Deceniber 29, 
1763." The family was well known in Wellington, 
and, as far as can be ascertained, the following 
is a brief pedigree of the Plimers of Wellington : 
One Abraham Phmer had four children, William, 
Thomas, Abram, and John. William, his eldest 
son, had four children, William, Charles, Anne, 
and Sarah. Thomas had six children, Martha, 
Isaac, Rebekah, Thomas, Mary, and William. 
Abram, the third son, had four children, Sarah, 
Eliza, Abram, and Nathaniel ; and this Nathaniel, 
who was bom November 20, 1726, and married 
one Mary (whose surname is unknown), had 
two sons, Nathaniel and Andrew the miniaturists. 
The fourth son, John, had also four children, 
Mary, Rachel, Elizabeth, and Thomas. Nathaniel 
and Abram Plimer, the sons of one Abram and 
the grandsons of another, were clockmakers in 



partnership, and both sundials and watches are 
still in existence bearing their names, together or 
separately, as makers. Abram never married, but 
Nathaniel had two sons, as already mentioned, 
Andrew, born 1763, and Nathaniel his elder brother, 
born 1757. The two boys were both brought up 
38 clockmakers, but greatly disliking the business, 
they joined a party of gipsies with a caravan and 
menagerie, and wandered about with them for 
many months, eventually walking on into London 
with all their worldly possessions on their heads, 
tied up in two red and yellow shawls. The parents 
on learning that their resolute sons had reached 
London sent them some money, as the lads were 
nearly starving, and they at once commenced to 
take lessons in drawing. Presently Nathaniel 
entered the employ of Henry Bone, the enamellist, 
as an assistant, while Andrew became personal 
servant to Cosway in order to be near to the artist. 
It would appear that Andrew Plimer had at first 
no other chance of becoming an artist than that 
aflEorded him by domestic service, and that he was 
so eager to be near to an artist of repute that he 
presented himself to Mrs. Cosway in 1781, when 
he was about seventeen, and the Cosways, who 
had recently married, were living in Berkeley 
Street, and begged to be engaged as studio boy. 
He pleased Mrs. Cosway so much by his determin- 
ation and by his pleasing manners, that she took 
him into her service, and at first he was employed 
in cleaning the studio, grinding and mixing 
colours, arranging the easels, and announcing the 
callers. With the Cosways he moved to Schom- 
berg House, but had been there but a few days 
when Richard Cosway detected him attempting to 
copy one of bis miniatures, and doing it with 
such skill and with such " applomb " — to use the 
misspelt word which appears in one of Cosway's 
letters — that the artist speedily discovered the 
making of a clever miniature-painter in his young 
servant. He then seems to have sent Plimer oti' 
to a Mr. Halle (or Hayle) that he might learn 
drawing from him, and with this master he ap- 
parently remained for a year or more, employing 
himself in the intervals of his tuition in similar 
work to that in which he had been engaged while 
in the studio of Cosway, so as to earn the tuition 
which he received. 

In 1783 Plimer was back again with the Cosways 
at Schomberg House. Whether Nathaniel, who 
had by this time left Bone's studio, accompanied 
his brother to Schomberg House cannot be stated. 
It is believed that he did, and it is certain that 
both brothers are spoken of in contemporary letters 
as the " pupils of Cosway." Andrew stayed with 
Cosway till 1785, leaving him then to set up a 
studio for himself This he did at 32, Great 
Maddox Street, Hanover Square. He seems to 
have been there only for one year, as in the 
following year his address appears in the catalogue 
of the Royal Academy as at 3, Golden Square. It 
was from Great Maddox Street that he sent the 
first pictures which he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. No. 38 was a portrait of 'A Poor Boy 
in a Cold Morning,' No. 202 represented the 'Death 
of Don Louis de Velasco, at the storming of the 
Moro Fort at the siege of Havana.' In 1787 
Plimer was at 3, Golden Square, but in 1796 he 
changed house, going from No. 3 to No. 8, and 
there he remained till he married. Plimer married 
at Wicken, in Northamptonshire, on February 21, 
1801. Mrs. Plimer came of an old Northampton- 


shire family, the Knights of Slapston, who had 
been settled in that place since 1573. Mrs. Plimer 
had five children, four daughters and one son, 
the latter of whom died when quite a child. Of 
the four daughters, one only, the eldest, Louisa, 
married. The other three daughters of Andrew and 
Joanna Plimer were Joanna (born 1803, died 1846), 
Charlotte (born 1804, died 1845), and Selina (born 
1809, died 1841). Mrs. Plimer survived all her 
family save the eldest daughter, at whose house 
she died. Her death occurred at Hawick Manse 
in 1861, October 18, at the age of eighty-eight, and 
she was buried in St. Cuthbert's churchyard at 
Hawick. After his marriage Plimer and his wife 
went into Devonshire and Cornwall, and then 
returned to London, and settled down in Golden 
Square. He exhibited one portrait only at the 
Royal Academy in 1801 and two in 1804, but the 
names of neither of the sitters are given in the 
catalogue. In 1803 Plimer executed the first of 
the Rushout commissions, sending a portrait of 
Lady C. Rushout to the Royal Academy, and 
rather later than that painted separate miniatures 
of Lady Northwick and her three lovely daughters, 
and then the famous group of the 'Three Graces,' 
which was his most notable miniature, and upon 
which his fame chiefly rests. Three miniatures 
were sent up in 1805, one representing Master 
Cunningham ; another, said to be a Miss Williel- 
mina Leventhorp, whose sister was painted as ' A 
Lady, name unknown,' the following year, and 
whose portrait can now be found in tlie collection 
of Mr. Pierpont Morgan, bearing the initials W. C. 
L. on its reverse ; and a portrait of a Mrs. Mortimer. 
In 1806 Plimer sent the portrait of the other Miss 
Leventhorp to the Academy, and also a portrait of 
the Hon. Colonel Acheson. In 1807 he sent in 
the portraits of four children, and in 1810 twa 
pictures were exliibited, one representing ' Indo- 
lence, a Portrait of a Gentleman,' and the other a 
' North Devon Country Farmer.' After this date 
Plimer's name disappears from the catalogue of 
the Royal Academy for some time, and only twice 
again is it to be found, when he exhibited again 
in 1818 and in 1819. In 1815 Plimer was residing 
at Exeter a few doors above St. Sidwell's Church. 
In 1818 the family were back again in town and 
living in Upper York Street, Montague Square, 
and then for a couple of years his name appears 
again on the lists of the Royal Academy. In 1818 
he sent in portraits of Lieut. -Colonel Grey, Mr. 
H. Bunn, and ' A Child,' the latter being, it is 
believed, one of his own children, and very prob- 
ably the portrait of Joanna. In 1819 he sent in 
a portrait of Mrs. Colonel Hughes, and in tlie same 
year tliere is an entry of his name in the books of 
the British Institution as exhibiting three works 
in that Gallery. 

In about 1820 Plimer seems to have started off 
to travel about, leaving his wife and children at 
home, probably in London. We hear of him in 
Reading, in Brighton, in Devonshire, Cornwall 
and Dorsetshire, in Wales and in Scotland. In 
the following year Plimer settled down with his 
family at Brighton. At first he took a house in 
the Old Steine, but soon after that moved into 

estern Cottages, and there he lived till the 
date of his death. At that time one of his friends 
mentions him in a letter as a " prosperous and 
very high-spirited man, thinking of buying an 
estate in Northamptonshire, near to his wife's old 
home, and settling down there." He was not, 




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however, to carry out this cherished wish, for two 
years after he had come to Brighton he was dead. 
He died on January 29, 1837, aged seventy-four, 
and his death is recorded in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine' of the time. No. 334, Part L, as "for 
many years an eminent miniature painter of 
Exeter." Plimer was buried at Old Hove, and the 
entry of his burial is as follows : " Andrew Plimer, 
Western Cottages, Brighton, buried February 4, 
1837, aged 74 years. Walter Kelly, Vicar." His 
funeral took place in the old churchyard at Hove, 
and the tombstone is a flat one just behind the 
church and quite close to that of Copley Fielding. 

Plimer left behind him a substantial fortune of 
five thousand pounds, which was in the 3J per 
cent, reduced annuities, besides some other estate, 
and he left the income of his fortune to his widow 
for her life, to be divided after her decease between 
his three daughters. For full information as to 
this artist and his works see 'Andrew and Nathaniel 
Plimer,' by G. C. Williamson (George Bell and 
Sons), 1903. G. C. W. 

PLIMER, Nathaniel. For the details of the 
early life of this artist see above article on his 
brother Andrew. In 1787 the name of Nathaniel 
Plimer first appears on the list of the Royal 
Academy, and he was then living either at 31, 
Great Marlborough Street, as one edition of the 
catalogue for that year states, or 31, Great Maddox 
Street, as another edition informs us. It is prob- 
able that Great Marlborough Street is the correct 
address, as several copies of the catalogue give 
that as the address, whilst one only gives Great 
Maddox Street. In 1794 he was, however, in 
Maddox Street, and, strangely enough, his number 
there was also 31, so that the problem as to where 
he was before that time is not an easy one to solve. 
From 1794 down to 1800 his address is given as 
31, Maddox Street. In 1801 he was at 81, New 
Bond Street, in 1815 at 13, Paddington Street. 
After this we have no further trace of him, but he 
is said on Redgrave's authority to have died in 
1822. He only sent twenty-six works in all to the 
Academy, and of those one only is named, the 
portrait of one Isaac Perrins, which he sent in 
1790. We do not know whom he married, but we 
do know that he had four children, Georgina, 
Mary, Louisa, and Adela, and that one of them, 
Adela, married the artist Andrew Geddes, and had 
offspring. A portrait of Adela belongs to Mr. 
Andrew Geddes Scott of Edinburgh, and other 
portraits of her to Mr. Pierpont Morgan. 

The marriage of Geddes with Adela, the younger 
daughter of Nathaniel Plimer, took place in 1827, 
and he is believed to have had one son and one 
daughter, who married a Mr. James. Their por- 
traits were painted by Nathaniel Plimer. Nathaniel 
Plimer is said to have been a man of violent temper, 
giving way at times to terrible outbursts of 
feeling. Where he died and where he was buried 
are not known, and his children are stated to have 
gone to the Colonies, with the exception of the 
members of the Geddes family, who remained in 
Scotland. A portrait of the artist, which was 
painted by Geddes, now belongs to Mr. FitzHenry. 
This was acquired from Miss James through 
Messrs. Colnaghi, and was then said to represent 
Andrew Plimer, but there is more likelihood that 
it is a portrait of Nathaniel, and that the one in the 
National Gallery of Scotland, which came from the 
same collection and through the same dealers, is 
the one which the artist painted of Andrew. It is 

a far finer picture than the one which is in the 
FitzHenry Collection, although this latter is a 
remarkable piece of portraiture, somewhat in the 
style of Raeburn. A miniature of Nathaniel was 
exhibited at South Kensington in 1865 by a Mrs. 
Geddes, but it is not known to whom it now 
belongs. Nathaniel Plimer signed his miniatures 
with small initials in tlie same manner as his 
brother, and almost always added the date of the 
year as well. For a list of his works see ' Andrew 
and Nathaniel Plimer,' byG. C. Williamson (George 
Bell and Sons), 1903. G. C, W. 

PLIN, E., was a native of France, who flourished 
about the year 1780. He engraved some plates 
representing conversations and domestic subjects, 
which are etched, and finished with the graver. 

PLOEGSMA, Dirk Jacobs, a painter, was born 
at Leeuwarden in 1769. He was a pupil of Accama 
and chiefly painted portraits, though there were 
some historical scenes and genre pictures executed 
by him, among which we may name ' The Disciples 
plucking Corn on the Sabbath Day.' He died in 

PLOETZ, Heinrich, a miniature painter, was 
born at Holstein in 1748. He was instructed by 
Marsinhe of Glient, after which he entered the house 
of the famous naturalist Bonnet, and made draw- 
ings of insects, till 1795, when he went to Italy. 
There he visited Leghorn, Corsica, and Genoa, and 
afterwards went to Germany, painting portraits 
in Hamburg and Berlin. He finally settled in 
Copenhagen, where he died about 1810. 

PLONICK. See Duplonich. 

PLOOS VAN AMSTEL, Jacob Coenelis, who was 
bom at Amsterdam in 1726, and died there in 1798, 
was a collector of drawings and an amateur en- 
graver. He devoted himself to the art with a zeal 
rarely found in persons who do not adopt it as a 
profession, and to him we are indebted for a very 
interesting set of plates, after drawings by cele- 
brated Dutch and other masters. The following is 
a list of the more important : 

Frontispiece, a Monument bearing a Latin inscription ; 
on it stands a Genius holding an Escutcheon, in 
the middle a Fleur-de-Iys ; Inventor Cornelius Ploos 
van Amstel, D. 1 Febr. 1765. 

Two small Landscapes; I£. Zaftleven, del.; v. Amstel, 

fecit, nen. 

A Landscape, with a Shepherd, Shepherdess, and Cattle 

on the Banks of a Canal ; Ad. van de Velde, del. ; P. 

van Amstel^ fecit. 
A 'Woman looking out of a Door ; Rembrandt, del. ; P. 

van Amstel, fecit. 1764. 
A Young Man with a Hat on, looking out of a Door ; 

same inscription. These two are clever imitations of 

The Interior of a Dutch Cottage, with Peasants, one 

reading a paper; Ad. v. Ostade, del., 1673; P. van 

Amstel, fecit, 1766. 
A Frost Piece, with six Spanish figures, one a 'Womaa 

with a Mask ; Hendrik Avercam, del., 1621 ; P. van 

Amstel, fecit, 1766. 
Portrait of Jan Josephzoon van Goyen ; Ant. vanDyck, 

del., 1638 ; P. van Amstel, fecit, 1769. 
A Landscape, with a Market at the entrance of a Town ; 

Jan Josephzoon van Goyen, del., 1653 ; P. v. Amstel, 

fecit, 1767. 
A similar subject, with a Cattle Market ; same inscription . 
A Lady seated at a Harpsichord ; Ger. Dome, del., 1660 ; 

P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1767. 
A Sea-piece, with Shipping ; Lwdolf Bakhuysen, del., 

1694 ; P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1769. 
A Landscape, with a Woman riding on an Ass, with 

Cattle, by the side of a Canal ; X. Berghem, 1764 ; 

P. van Amstel, fecit, 1769. 
The Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus. A circular 

plate. Abr. Bloemaert, del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1769. 



An assemblage of Peasants before an Alehouse, with a 
Man playing on the Violin, and another dancing ; Ad. 

V. Ostade, del., 1673; P. v. Amstd, fecit, 1769. 
Portrait of a Young Lady, with a Book on a Table ; IT. 

Goltzms, del., 1612 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1770. 
Portrait of a Young Man, sitting in a Chair ; C. Visscher, 

del., 1651 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1771. 
Landscape, with a Man leading a Horse, and in the 

foreground some Women washing ; Ph. Wouwerman, 

del., 1660; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1772. 
The Inside of a Church, with a Man drawing ; P. Saen- 

redam, del., 1630 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1774. 
A Spanish Concert ; Karel van Mander, del., 1603 ; P. 

V. Amstel, fecit, 1772. 
A Man seated, holding a Flute, with a Bonnet in the 

manner of Eembraudt ; G. Flinck, 1643 ; PI. van 

Amstel, fecit, 1773. 
A Sea-piece, with Shipping ; P. Coops, del. ; P. v. Am' 

stel, fecit, 1773. 
An assembly of Peasants, one sleeping; Ad. Brouwer,del., 

1635; P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1775. 
A Man sitting at a Table, with Cards in his band ; F. 

Mieris, del., 1693; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1777. 
Two Dogs, small prints ; similar inscription. 
Three Peasants, one with a Bottle ; C. Dusart, del. ; Fl. 

van Amstel, fecit. 
A Young Lady taking a Beverage presented by a Boy, 

and a Physician standing near her ; Ger. Tei'hury, 

del. ; PI. van Amstel, fecit, 1779. 
A Young Lady, with a musical Instrument ; G. Netscher^ 

del., 1664 ; P. van Amstel, fecit, 1781 ; oval. 
Two Sea-pieces ; Ludolf Baidiuysen, del. ; PI. v. Amstel, 

fecit, 1781. 
The Judgment of Solomon ; Lucas van Leyden, del., 

1515 ; P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1782. 
A Landscape, with Ruins, and a Man with an Ass ; Th. 

Wyck, del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1782. 
A View in Norway, with figures ; Aid. van Everdingen, 

del. ; P. V. Amstel, fecit, 1782. 
Five Dutch Magistrates sitting round a Table ; J. de 

Brait, del., 1663 ; PI. v. Amstel, fecit. 
The Attorney and his Clerk ; /. Steen, del., 1672 ; P. v. 

Amstel, fecit. 
A Landscape, with Ruins, and a Shepherd with Sheep 

and Goats ; J. van der Does, del., 1699 ; P. van Amstel, 
A mountainous Landscape, with Cattle ; J. v. der Meer, 

de Jonye, del., 1704 ; PI. v. Amstel, fecit. 
The Carpenter and his "Wife ; J. Saenredam, del., 1610 ; 

P. V. Amstel, fecit. 
The Inside of a Cottage, with Peasants ; Corn. Beya, 

del, 1684; P. v. Amstel, fecit. 
The Botanist, with Figures bringing him Plants ; G. V. 

den Eeckhout, del. ; P. v. Amstel, fecit. 
A Landscape, with four Sheep ; A', du Jardin, del. j P. 

V. Amstel, fecit. 
The Chymist ; J. Lanyhans, del., \1\X; P.v.A msf el, fecit. 
Shipping ; J. Esselens, del., 1708 ; P. van Amstel, fecit. 

PLOTT, John, was born at Winchester in 1732. 
In the early part of his life he was articled to an 
attorney, but he did not long follow the profession. 
In 1756 he came to London, and having shown an 
inclination for painting, he became a pupil of 
Richard Wilson, the landscape painter ; but his 
genius directing him to portraiture rather than 
landscape, he quitted that master, and placed him- 
self under the tuition of Nathaniel Hone. He 
afterwards distinguished himself as a miniature 
painter, both in enamel and water-colours, though 
he sometimes painted in oil. He had a taste for 
natural history, and executed several drawings in 
that branch. Whilst in London in 1777 he ex- 
hibited at the Academy. Towards the latter part 
of his life he resided at Winchester, and some year.s 
before his death became a member of the corpor- 
ation of that city. He began a history of ' Land 
Snails,' and had made some beautiful drawings for 
it when interrupted by death. He died at Stoke, 
near Winchester, in 1803. Bromley mentions a 
mezzotint portrait of Plott, scraped by himself. 


PLUCHART, Henri, French painter, bom in 
1840 at Valenciennes ; was a pupil of Abel de 
Pujol and also of Picot. Chiefly distinguished as 
a clever portrait painter. He became Director of 
the Lille Museum, and here he died in November 
1898. Of his genre works we may mention, ' Un 
Escalier dans la Falaise,' ' Un Semeur,' ' L'Heure 
de la Pipe,' ' En Octobre,' &c. 

PLUDDEMANN, Hermann Freihold, historical 
painter, was born at Colberg in 1809. His first 
master was Seig in Magdeburg, and in 1828 he 
entered the studio of K. Begas in Berlin, and went 
in 1831 to Diisseldorf, to the atelier of W. von 
Schadow, with whom he remained six years. In 
company with H. Miicke he completed a number 
of frescoes for Count Spee in hisschlossat Heltorf, 
and in 1843 he painted a wall in the Rath-haus of 
Elberiield. He went in 1848 to reside at Dresden, 
where he died in 1868 Among his pictures we 
may name : 

Loreley. 1833. 

The Death of Roland. 1834. 

Columbus catching sight of Land. 1836. {Berlin Nat. 

The Battle of Iconium (fresco) ; after Lessing. 1839. 

(Schloss Heltorf.) 
Columbus in La Rabida. 1S45. 
The Finding of Barbarossa's Corpse. 1S46. 
The Landgrave Ludwig. 1849. 
Prince Hal and Falstaff. 1860. 
Henry at Canossa. 1863. 

PLUMIER, Edmond, painter, was born at Liege 
in 1694. He was a pupil of Fisen and Largilli^re 
at Paris. He then went to Italy, and entered the 
atelier of Masucci. He had a son, .Jaoqdes Theodor, 
also a painter, who died in 1766. In the church 
of S. Remade at LiSge is a ' Descent from the 
Cross' by this artist. He died in 1733. 

PO, P. DEL. See Del Po. 

POCCETTI. See Barbatelli. 

POCCI, Franz, Graf von, draughtsman, etcher, 
poet, and musician, was born at Munich, March 7, 
1807. He owed such teaching in art as he had 
to the example of his mother, Amalia Franziska 
Xaveria (born in Dresden, 1776 ; died, 1849). From 
1825 to 1828 he studied jurisprudence, and then 
became a member of the Bavarian Government. 
In 1830 he was named a master of the ceremonies 
at the court, and shortly afterwards accompanied 
King Ludwig and the Crown Prince to Italy. 
Pocci's best works as an artist are his etchings 
for Grimm's ' Volksmarchen ' and for SchreibePs 
' Marchen.' He died May 7, 1876. 

POCH, Tobias, (Pock,) a German historical and 
still-life painter, who flourished at Constance in 
the 17th century. He was living at Vienna in 1662. 

POCHMANN, Traugott Lebebecht, portrait 
painter, was born at Dresden in 1762. He was a 
Professor of the Dresden Academy, and died in 
1830. His own portrait is in the Dresden Gallery. 

POCO E BUONO. See Nanni. 

POCOCK, Isaac, an English portrait and his- 
torical painter, the son of Nicholas Pocock, was 
born at Bristol in 1782. He .studied under Romney 
and Beechey, and in 1807 was awarded a prize of 
£100 by the British Institution for his ' Murder of 
St. Thomas a Becket' His works occasionally 
appeared at the Academy between 1800 and 1819, 
and he also exhibited at the Liverpool Academy, 
of which he was a member. Inheriting property, 
he retired from the practice of art, and amused 
himself by writing for the stage. He died at 
















Maidenhead in 1835. There is a portrait of Bartley 
as Hamlet by him at the Garriok Club, London. 

POCOCK, Nicholas, an Enghsh marine painter, 
born at Bristol in 1741. His family were mer- 
chants, and in his younger years he commanded 
a vessel. During his voyages he was enabled to 
exercise his talent for sketching, and he at length 
devoted himself entirely to art. He attracted the 
favourable notice of Sir J. Reynolds, and first 
exhibited at the Academy in 1782. Seven years 
later he moved to the wider sphere of London, and 
was much engaged in depicting the naval battles 
of the period. He was one of the original members 
of the Water-Colour Society, where he exhibited 
up to 1817. He died at Maidenhead in 1821. The 
following are some of his works : 

Greenwich. Hospital. Defeat of the French Fleet at 
St. Kitt's, 1782. 

„ „ H.M.S. Triton. 

„ „ H.M.S. Defence. 

„ „ Cutting out a Vessel. 

London. South Kmsing-}^^^^^^^^:^^^^^^^^^ 1^90 

„ Bangor, with Penmaenmawr. 

„ „ Caderldris. 1790. 

„ „ Llanstephan Castle. 

PODESTA, GiAgoMO Andrea, was born at Genoa 
about the year 1620, and went early in life to 
Rome, where he became a scholar of Giovanni 
Andrea Ferrari. The year of his death is not as- 
certained. It does not appear that he reached any 
celebrity as a painter ; but we have some very 
spirited etchings by him, which prove him to have 
been an artist of considerable ability. He usually 
marked his plates AND. P. or And- P. in. etfec. 
One of his prints is marked 1636, and four others 
1640, which was probably his best time. Bartsch 
describes eight engravings by him, of which five 
are bacchanalian subjects, two amatory, and one 
a St. Francis performing a miracle. The following 
are also by him : 

An Allegorical Subject, representing Boys cu]tiv.iting 
the Arts, and a Pbcenix in the Flames ; after his own 

The Triumph of Bacchus ; after Titian. 

Bacchus and Ariadne ; after the same. 

Silenus Drunk, supported by Satyrs a:,d Bacchanals ; 
after the same. 

Two subjects from the Life of Diego ; after Cai-racci. 

PODESTI, Francesco, Italian painter, born 1800 
at Ancona ; was at first a pupil of Cammuccini 
at Rome. Many of his works, including mural 
decoration in churches, are to be seen at Ancona. 
His ' Medicante ' was burnt during the Hamburg 
fire, but a copy of it exists at Naples. Pius IX. 
commissioned him to paint the imposing frescoes 
in Sala della Concezione of the Vatican. Other 
works by him are ' Tasso a Ferrara,' ' Assedio di 
Ancona,' the latter exhibited at Paris, 1855, where 
it obtained a second-class medal. He was Corre- 
Bpondant de I'Academie des Beaux Arts. He died 
at Ancona in February 1895. 

POEHAM, Martin, an old German engraver, to 
whom Professor Christ attributed some indifferent 
copies from the prints of Aldegrever, Sebald Beham, 
and others. 

POEL. See Van der Poel. 

POELENBURGH, Cornelis van, (or Poeleh- 
BtTRG,) called also Brusco and Sattro, was born 
at Utrecht in 1586. He received his first instruc- 
tion from Abraham Bloemaert, and then travelled 
to Italy in search of improvement. On his arrival 

at Rome, he attached himself to the style of Adam 
Elsheimer. He adopted a pleasing style of painting 
small landscapes, distinguished by suavity and 
delicacy of colouring, and an agreeable choice of 
scenery, enriched with architecture, into which he 
introduced figures remarkable for the fusion of 
their handling, their clear carnations, and mediocre 
drawing. He quitted Rome with some reluctance, 
after a sojourn of several years ; and on his arrival 
at Florence, where the reputation of his talents had 
preceded him, he was received with favour and 
distinction by the Grand Duke, for whom he 
painted several pictures. On his return to Utrecht, 
the impatience of his countrymen to possess his 
works loaded him with commissions. In 1607 
Charles I. invited him to London, where he re- 
mained some time, and painted several pictures for 
the king and the nobility. He frequently orna- 
mented with figures the architectural views of 
Steenwyck, and the landscapes of Keirrinckx. In 
King Charles's catalogue are mentioned tlie por- 
traits of his Majesty, and of the children of the 
King of Bohemia, by Poelenburgh ; and in that of 
James II. there are sixteen pictures by him. But 
the success he met with did not induce him to remain 
in England. He returned to Utrecht, where in 
1649 he was made President of the Painters' Guild, 
and where he died, August 12, 1667. Descamps and 
M. Watelet assert that Poelenburgh etched some 
prints from his own designs, and that the plates 
being soon afterwards destroyed, they are now ex- 
tremely scarce. Possibly the prints thus attributed 
to Poelenburgh are those etched by J. G. Bronk- 
horst after his designs. Jan van der Lys was an 
imitator of his style. Poelenburgh' s pictures are in 
nearly all the Galleries of Europe ; among them the 
following may be named : 

Cassel. Gallery. The Virgin. 

„ „ Christ borne to Heaven by 

Dresden. Gallei-y. The Assumption of the Virgin. 

„ „ Diana at the Chase. 

Dulwich. Gallery. Nymph and Satyr dancing. 

London. Nat. Gal. Judgmentof Paris (t'n a ianrfscape 
hy Both). 
„ „ Euius ; Women bathing. 

Paris. Lovvre. The Annunciation. 

Vienna. Gallery. The same subject. 

POEPPELMANN, Johann David, a painter, 
was born at Dresden in 1729. He was instructed 
by Oeser, and painted portraits. In 1752 he was 
appointed one of the painters to the Count of 
Saxony, and died in 1813. 

POERBUSSE. See Podrbus. 

POERSON, Charles, who was born at Metz in 
1609, and died in Paris in 1667, was a pupil of 
Simon Vouet, and became painter-in-ordinary to the 
king and Rector of the Royal Academy of Painting. 

POERSON, Charles FRANgois, a French painter, 
was born in Lorraine in 1652. He was a son of 
Charles Poerson, and a pupil of Noel Coypel, in 
whose style he painted history. Through the patron- 
age of M. Mansard, he was introduced to the notice 
of Louis XIV., and was employed on some his- 
torical subjects for the Hospital of the Invalids ; 
these, however, were soon afterwards destroyed, 
and replaced by some frescoes by Bon de Boul- 
longne. He was subsequently appointed director 
of the French Academy at Rome, where he died 
in 1725. 

POESEL, Wolfgang, a painter, was bom at 
Amberg in 1736. He painted for several of the 
churches in his native district, and died in 1797. 



POGET, Jean, a miniature painter, who flourished 
early in the 16th century. Some of his work is in 
the ' Livre d'heurs,' of Anne of Brittany, in the 
Mus^e des Souverains of the Louvre. 
POGGETTL See Barbatelli. 
POGGI, Cesare, historical painter, was born at 
Milan in 1803. He was a pupil of Sabatelli, but 
after 1824 studied in Venice and Rome. He died 
at Milan in 1859, a member of the Academy there. 
Besides a large number of pictures by him in the 
churches of Lombardy, we may name the follow- 
ing : 

Death of Clarissa Visconti. {Count Arese.) 

The Adulteress before Christ, (ilarchese Busca.) 

Brutus and Ligarius. 

St. John the Baptist. 

Susannah in the Bath. 

Three Card-players. 

Soman Robbers. 

FOGGING, Zanobi di, an Italian painter, who 
flourished in the 16th century. He was a pupil of 
Sogliani, and painted portraits and historical scenes, 
of which a considerable number are still to be found 
in Florence. 
POGGIO, G. DEL. See Giovanni di Paolo. 
POHLE, Hermann, German painter, bom 
November 23, 1831, at Berlin, where he first 
studied under Biermann, and subsequently under 
Gude and Schirmer at the Diisseldorf Academj-, 
and here, after lengthy travel, he settled down. 
He painted landscapes, mostly of Alpine scenery. 
The Rudolfinura of Prag has a fine example of his 
style in ' Waldbach.' Other pictures by him are 
' Meersburg am Bodensee ' and ' Schloss Klenau,' 
at Lugano. He died at Diisseldorf, July 10, 
1901. His pencil sketches of scenery around 
Lugano are of remarkable beauty and recall the 
work of Prout, but in his oil work he adopted an 
entirely different technique, painting in broad 
masses with but little detail. 

POILLY, FBANgois de, the elder, an eminent 
French engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1622 
or 1623. He was the son of a goldsmith and en- 
graver, who instructed him in the rudiments of 
art. He afterwards went to Paris, where he became 
a pupil of Pierre Daret, under whom he remained 
three years, and afterwards visited Rome, where 
he took Cornells Bloemaert as his model. During 
a residence in Rome of seven years, he greatly 
improved his design, and engraved several plates 
after the works of the great Italian masters. In 
1656 he returned to Paris, where he became one 
of the most celebrated engravers of his time and 
country. In 1664 he was appointed engraver in 
ordinary to the king. He died in Paris in 1693. 
His plates are executed entirely with the burin, 
which he handled with uncommon firmness and 
dexterity. Though he had the assistance of some 
able pupils, it is surprising that he could have 
finished so mnny plates. About 400 prints bear 
his name, and Nagler desciibes 107 as entirely by 
him. The following are among his best: 


Pope Alexander VII. 

Louis XIV. when young ; after Nocret. 

Cardinal 'Mazarin ; after Mignard. 

Henri d'Amaud, Bishop of Angers. 

Jerome Bignon, Counsellor of State ; after Philippe de 

Abraham Fabert, Marshal of France ; after Ferdinand. 
Guillaume de Lamoignon, with Allegorical Figures ; 

after Mignard. 
Bust of Guillaume de Lamoignon ; after Le Brun. 



The Virgin and Child. 

The Holy Family, with St. John embracing the Infant 

St. Ignatius Loyola. 
The Death of St. Francis Xavier. 
The Crucifixion. 
The Triumph of Augustus. 


The Vision of Ezekiel ; after Raphael. 

The Holy Family, in which the Infant Christ is standing 

upon the cradle (Louvre) ; after the same. 
The Virgin lifting up a veil, to show to St. John the 

Infant Christ sleeping (Vierge au Diademe, Louvre) ; 

after the same. 
The FUght into Kgypt ; after Guido. 
The Nativity, or Adoration of the Shepherds, in au oota- 

gonal border ; after the same. The first impressions 

of this plate are before the two angels which appear 

above were inserted. 
Christ praying iu the Garden ; after the same. 
The dead Christ on the lap of the Virgin, at the foot of 

the Cross: after L. Carracci. 
The Eepose in Egypt, in which the Virgin is represented 

sleeping, with two Angels kneeling; after Ann. Car- 
The Holy Family ; after iV. Poussin. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after P. Mignard. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
The Baptism of Christ ; after the same. 
S. Carlo Borromeo administering the Communion to 

Persons infected with the Plague ; after the same 
The Visitation ; after C. le Srun. 
St. John in the Isle of Patmos ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Parable of the Wedding Garment; after P. de 

The Crucifixion ; a large print, iu three sheets ; after 

the same. 
The Trinity ; after the same. 
Joseph's Bloody Garment presented to Jacob ; after 

Charles Antoine Coypel. 
Nymphs Bathing ; after Giulio Romano. 

POILLY, FRANgois de, the younger, the younger 
son of Nicolas de Poilly, was born in Paris in 1671, 
and was instructed in engraving by his father. He 
afterwards travelled with his brother to Rome, 
where he engraved a plate representing ' St. Cecilia 
distributing her wealth to the Poor,' after Domeni- 
chino, a companion print to the Martyrdom of that 
Saint, by Jean Baptiste de Poilly. 

POILLY, Jean Baptiste de, the son and pupil 
of Nicolas de Poilly, was born in Paris in 1669. 
Having made some progress in engraving under 
his father, he went to Rome, where he studied 
some years. On his return to Paris he executed 
several plates, by which he gained a considerable 
reputation, and was made a member of the Academy 
in 1714. He died in Paris in 1728. His style of 
engraving differs greatly from those of his father 
and uncle. He forwarded his plates with the point, 
and finished them with the burin, in a pleasing 
and picturesque style. We have several portraits 
and historical subjects by him, of which the follow- 
ing are the most deserving of notice : 


Clement XIII. Pontifex Max. 

Louis XIV. ; after Mignard. 

Charles James Edward Stuart, son of the Pretender; 

after Duprat. 
Francois de Troy, Painter ; from a picture by himself, 

his reception plate at the Academy. 
ComeUs van Cleve, Sculptor ; after Vivien ; the same. 



The Nativity; after Gaudendo Ferrari ; for the ' Collec- 
tion Crozat.' 
The Virgin adoring the sleeping Christ ; after Garofalo ; 

for the same publication. 
The Mari^yrdom of St. Cecilia : after Domenichivn. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after C. Maratti. 
The Rod of Aaron devouring the Rods of the Magicians ; 

after ]V. Poussin. 
The Israelites worshipping the Golden Calf ; after the 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 
The Judgment of Solomon ; after A. Coi/pel. 
Susannah and the Elders ; after the same. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after GMio Eomano ; for the 

' Collection Crozat.' 
Eleven Plates from the pictures by P. Slignard, in the 

saloon of St. Cloud. 
The Four Seasons ; from pictures formerly in the Gallery 

of St. Cloud, hy Miynard. 

POILLY, Nicolas de, was born at Abbeville in 
1626. He was the younger brother of Fran<5ois the 
elder, by whom he was instructed in the art of 
engraving. He executed several plates in the 
style of his brother. He died in Paris in 1696. 
He has left several plates from portraits and from 
historical subjects, executed with the burin, in a 
neat, clear manner. The following are perhaps the 


Louis XIV., iu a frame of laurels, with Children bearing 

emblems ; after N. Miqnard. 
Bust of Louis XIV., life-size. 1683. 
Maria Theresa, Queen of France ; the same. 1680. 
Louis, Dauphin, the son of Louis XIV. ; the same. 
Louis de Bourbon, called the Great Cond^ ; the same. 


St. Augustine holding a Crucifix. 

The Holy Family, with two Angels holding a Basket of 

Flowers ; after S. Bourdon. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same. 
The Presentation iu the Temple ; after C. le ISrvM. 
The Holy Family returning from Egypt ; aftei- the same. 
The Holy Family, with the Infant Jesus sleeping on the 

knees of the Virgin ; after the same. 
The Repose in Egypt ; after Chapron. 
The Crucifixion ; after N. Poussin. 

POILLY, Nicolas de, the younger, was born in 
Paris in 1675. He was the third son of Nicolas 
the elder, and studied painting under Mignard and 
Jouvenet. Among his pictures are ' Calvary,' en- 
graved by himself, and ' Jesus waited on by Angels,' 
painted for the Refectory of the Abbey of S. Martin 
des Champs. He died in 1747. 

POILLY, Nicolas Jean Baptiste de, the son of 
Jean Baptiste de Poilly, was bom, according to 
Nagler, in Paris in 1712. He was intended by his 
father for an engraver, but he did not long follow 
that branch of art. He engraved a few portraits, 
after C. N. Cochin, some of which are dated 1753 ; 
one of his prints bears the date 1758. 

POINDRE, Jacob de, a portrait painter of Malines, 
was born at Malines in 1627, and was a scholar of 
his brother-in-law, Marc Willems. He painted a 
few historical pictures, but attached himself more 
particularly to portraiture. He went to Denmark, 
and painted imaginary portraits of some of the 
kings. He died in Denmark in 1570. 

POINSART, J., a French engraver, flourished 
about the year 1630. He was principally employed 
by the booksellers, for whom he executed several 
plates of views of cities, castles, &c. Among other 
prints by him is the 'Entry of Charles II. into 

POINTS. See De la Pointe. 

POISSON, Louis, a French painter, who worked 
at Fontainebleau about 1610, where he was custodian 
of the pictures. He was succeeded by his son 
Pierre in 1613, and in 1643 by his grandson Jean. 

POITREAU, Etienne, a French landscape paint- 
er, born at Corbigny. He was received into the 
Academy in 1739, and died in 1767. 

POITTEVIN. See Le Poittevin. 

POL, , of Limburg, is the author of some 

mmiatures executed in 1409 in a prayer-book of 
the Duke of Berri, in the Bibliotheque Ste. Gene- 
vieve, and in a ' Josephus ' of tlie year 1410 in 
the public library of Paris. Of these miniatures 
Mr. J. A. Crowe says, " They remind us of later 
productions of the Van Eycks in the originality of 
conception, the peculiar embodiments of form, and 
the remarkable tendency to realism which they 

POL, Christiaan van, a flower and arabesque 
painter, was born at Berkenrode, near Haarlem, in 
1752. In 1782 he went to Paris, where he obtained 
a great reputation for his paintings in arabesque. 
He ornamented in this manner the chateaux of 
Bellevue, Chantilly, and St. Cloud. He also painted 
flower-pieces in oil, and occupied himself occasion- 
ally in painting groups of flowers on snufE-boxes, 
which are of considerable merit. He died in 1813. 

POLACK, Solomon, a miniature painter, born at 
the Hague in 1757, who settled in England, and 
exhibited at the Academy almost every year from 
1790 to 1835. He practised for a time in Ireland, 
about 1795. He designed and etched the plates 
for a Hebrew edition of the Bible. He died at 
Chelsea iu 1839. 

POLACK, Martin Theophilus, a Pole by birth, 
who gained his reputation in the Tyrol, where he 
was painter to Duke Leopold, and after his death 
in 1632 to Cardinal van Madruz. His masterpiece 
is to be found in the church of the Servites at 
Innsbruck, and a few of his works are at Trent. 

POLANCO, ■ . Two brothers of this name 

are mentioned among Spanish historical painters. 
Scarcely anything is recorded of them, except 
that they studied under Francisco Zurbaran, and 
flourished at Seville about 1646. It is said 
that their works were so like those of Zurbaran, 
that they were often mistaken for his. This is 
borne out by the pictures in the church of San 
Esteban, at Seville, where Zurbaran painted the 
' St. Peter and St. Stephen,' but where the ' Mar- 
tyrdom of the Patron Saint,' the ' Nativity,' and 
the ' St. Fernando,' are by the brothers Polanco. 
They also painted several large pictures for the 
sacristy of the convent of St. Paul, in the same 
city; and 'The Angels appearing to Abraham.' 
' Tobit and the Angel,' ' Jacob wrestling with the 
Angel,' ' Joseph's Dream,' and ' St. Teresa conducted 
by Angels,' the last for the church of the Guardian 
Angel, belonging to the Barefooted Carmelites and 
the Franciscan Friars. 

POLANZANI, Felice, (or Polanzi,) an engraver, 
was born at Andale, near Venice, about the year 
1700, and is believed to have been living up to 
1771. He chiefly resided at Rome, where he en- 
graved a set of twenty-two plates, representing the 
' Life of the Virgin,' from designs which are by 
some attributed to N. Poussin ; but from their 
resemblance to the style of J. Stella, they are more 
probably after the works of that painter. He also 
engraved after Van Dyck and various other masters. 
The following prints are perhaps his best : 



The Bust of a Woman ; after C. Cignani. 
The Bust of a blind Musician ; after Marco Bencjlali. 
The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after G, JVogari, 
An old Man holding a Money-bag ; after the same. 
An old Woman warming her hands ; after the same. 

POLAZZO, Francesco, a Venetian painter, bom 
in 1683. He was a pupil of Piazetta, and painted 
portraits and historical subjects, though he was 
better known as a restorer of pictures. He died in 

POLESTANUS, Andrea, who was a native of 
Italy, and apparently a painter, has left a slight 
etching of a Bacchanalian subject, a composition 
of many figures, from his own design. It is signed 
with his name, and dated 1640. 

POLETNICH, J. F., an engraver, resided in 
Paris about the year 1760, and was still living in 
1780. He executed several plates after the works 
of Van Dyck, Boucher, La Grenee, and others. 

POLIDORINO, II. See Ruviale. 



POLLACK, Leopold, a still-life and genre painter, 
bom at Lodenitz in Bohemia about 1806 or 1809. 
He studied in Prague, Munich, and, in 1833, in 
Rome. He painted scenes of Italian life, in which 
he took Riedel for his model. Some of his pictures 
have been engraved by Mandel, Straucher, and 
others. He died'in 1880. Works : 

The Shepherd Boy. 

Shepherdess with Lamb. 

Zuleika (from Byron). 

Maternal Love. 

POLLARD, Robert, an English engraver, born 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1755. He began life as a 
silversmith ; then, after receiving some instruction 
from Richard Wilson, he painted landscapes and 
sea-pieces. He finally devoted himself to en- 
graving, working in various manners, and fre- 
quently reproducing his own designs. His latter 
years were passed in poverty, and shortly before 
his death he handed over to the Royal Academy 
the records of the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
of which he was the last surviving member. He 
died in 1838. Amongst the plates after his own 
designs the best are : 



The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green. 

At Fault {a hunting scene). 

Lieut. Moody escaping from the Americans. 

Childish Sports. 

POLLASTRINI, Enrico, was bom at Leghorn 
in 1817. He was a pupil of Bezzuoli, but was 
also a diligent student of the old masters, as his 
paintings bear witness. He had, however, much 
originality of conception ; he was a good draughts- 
man and a fair colourist. He was first professor 
and afterwards president of the Academy of 
Florence. He died in that city in 1876. Works : 

The Kaising of the Widow of Nain's Son. (Church of 

the SoccorsOy Leghorn.) 
The Death of Ferruccio. 
Death of Duke Ale.\i9 of Medici. 
Inundation of the Serchio. (Modern Gallery, Florence.) 
Pia dei Polomei. 
Death of St. Joseph. 
S*. Lorenzo giving Alms. 
The Battle of Legnano. 
The Exiles of Siena. 

POLLEN, John Hungerford, born in Old 
Burlington Street, November 19, 1820, son of 
John Pollen of Rodboume, Recorder of Winchester, 


and nephew of Charles Robert Cockerell, R.A., the 
celebrated architect. He was educated at Eton 
and Christchurch, and became fellow of Merton 
and Senior Proctor in 1851. On joining the 
Catholic Church in 1852, he studied painting and 
antiquities at Rome, having made two journeys 
to Greece and to the East a few years before. 
In 1855 he became Professor of Fine Arts at 
the Catholic University, then just founded by 
Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Newman. It was on 
leaving Oxford that he gave his attention seriously 
to the pursuit of art as a profession. He had no 
technical training, and, although in a very few 
years he attained a liigh proficiency as a water- 
colour painter, he did not pursue this branch of art, 
and his works are comparatively little known. It 
is as a decorative artist and architect that he will 
be best remembered as a producing artist. He 
undertook the decoration of the Merton Chapel, 
Oxford, in the year 1850, and was practically the 
first to re-introduce fresco painting into England. 
In 1856 he designed and decorated the University 
Chapel at Dublin in the Byzantine style, and in 
1857 collaborated with Rossetti, Burne-Jones, and 
others in decorating tlie Oxford Union. It was in 
1850, while carrying out the decorations and 
painting of the Chapel at Merton, that he made 
the acquaintance of young Millais, whose success 
he very confidently prophesied. During the years 
1862, 1863, and 1864 he carried out the building 
of the Catholic Chapel at Rhyl, the decorations at 
Blickling Hall for the Marquess of Lothian, and 
the decorations at Alton Towers for Lord Shrews- 
bury. In 1862 he won a prize in a competition 
for the decorations for the new War Office. These 
decorations were never carried out, owing to the 
style of the building being changed from Gothic 
to Palladian. From 1863 to 1876 he was one of 
the keepers of the South Kensington Museum, 
and drew up the catalogues on furniture and 
woodwork and gold and silversmiths' work, on 
which the reputation he enjoyed for many years 
as the leading authority on these subjects was 
based. In 1862 he served on the jury of the 
Great Exhibition, and completed the decorations 
for the Marquess of Ormonde at Kilkenny Castle. 
In 1876 he built a house for Lord Lovelace on 
the Thames Embankment. 

Pollen's artistic production divides itself into 
three heads. First, his water-colours, characterized 
by a delightful simplicity and freshness in colour, 
resulting in his rendering certain efi'ects of 
Italian sky and landscape with extraordinary 
success. His oil-colour only attained a high 
degree of success on rough canvas, on which he 
obtained effects akin to those of tapestry. The 
best of these works is the series at Alton Tower.s, 
which are marked by great skill and movement 
in the composition, archaeological fidelity, a high 
standard of drawing, and a rare sympathy of treat- 
ment in the sense that he successfully preserves, 
without any false archaism, the naiveteoi mediseval 
treatment ; the charm of the complex ornament 
in the borders of these so-called tapestries is 
very marked ; and in the decorations at Rhyl, 
Blickling, Dublin, and Kilkenny are an extra- 
ordinary wealth of fancy in the treatment of ara- 
besques and in the use of children, animals, and 
flower forms in decoration. In the Blickling 
ornaments will be found the germ of much that 
later on successfully developed in the Arts and 
Crafts Movement of thirty years later. There can 


be little doubt that, in spite of the technical 
shortcomings due to want of early training, the 
influence of Pollen, exerted tlirough his abundant 
fancy and invention, and still more from the rigid 
and correct taste which governed all his produc- 
tion, was very great on his contemporaries, and 
the effect of his influence as a producer, and 
later as a tutor and examiner, is to be seen far 
beyond Great Britain. The Art Nouveau Move- 
ment abroad, while productive of much that is 
pure abortion, owes its finer results largely, first, 
to the pre-Eaphaelite Movement in England, and, 
next, to the Arts and Crafts Movement of a genera- 
tion later. It was to the recognition of the restrain- 
ing standard in mediseval and Renaissance art that 
the merit of Pollen's work was largely due. He 
seemed to work with equal ease and certainty 
whether producing original work, as at Blickling 
and Kilkenny, in the Renaissance spirit of 
Holbein, as at the Reigate Priory, or the Jacobean 
and Tudor style, as at Ingestre and Studley. 

Some of Pollen's work as a writer on furniture 
and woodwork has been superseded as to details 
of historical accuracy and scholarship by the more 
elaborate researches of later scholars, but the main 
lines of tastes and classification of merit laid 
down in his earlier works have been generally 
accepted as final, and are not likely to be upset 
Pollen was an occasional exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy and Grosvenor Gallery. ^_ g_ p 

POLLBT, Victor Florence, painter and en- 
graver, was born in Paris, November 22, 1811. 
He was a pupil of Paul Delaroche and of Riohomme. 
In 1838 he won the grand prize of Rome and went 
to Italy, where at first he painted more in water- 
colours than he engraved. Later on, however, he 
completed several excellent plates. He gained 
honours at the Salon both as painter and engraver, 
being decorated with the Legion of Honour in 
1855. He died in 1883. Works : 

The Siesta. 
The Bath. 

Venus ; after Titian. 

Artless and 'Worldly Love ; after the same. 
II Snonatore ; after Raphael. 
Birth of Venus ; after Delaroche. 
Maid of Orleans ; after the same. 
Bonaparte in Italy ; after Raffet. 
Emperor of Austria ; after Winterhalter. 
Empress of Austria ; after the same. 

POLLINGER, Felix, an animal painter, born at 
Munich in 1817. His pictures of birds had some 
merit. He died at Funfhaus, near Vienna, in 1877. 

POLMARES. See Santiago Palomakes. 

POLO, Bernardo, a painter of fruit and flower 
pieces, resided near Saragossa towards the end of 
the 17th century. He painted his subjects from 
nature, and his pictures were highly esteemed both 
at Saragossa and Madrid. According to Zani, he 
worked in 1680 and died about 1700. 

POLO, Diego, 'the elder,' was born, according 
to Palomino, at Burgos in 1560. He studied at 
Madrid, under Patricio Caxes, and was a reputable 
painter of history. There are some of liis works 
in the Escorial, and in the palace at Madrid, in 
which city he died in 1600. The pictures by 
which he gained his reputation are the portraits 

of the kings of the Goths ; a painting of ' St. 
Jerome chastised by an Angel for taking too much 
pleasure in reading Cicero ' ; and a ' Penitent 

POLO, Diego, ' the younger,' the nephew of the 
elder Diego, was born at Burgos in 1620, and was 
a scholar of Antonio Lanchares. He acquired an 
admirable stj'le of colouring by studying the works 
of Titian, in the royal collection ; and painted 
several pictures for the churches at Madrid, of 
which the most esteemed are the ' Baptism of 
Christ,' in the church of the Carmelites ; and the 
I Annunciation ' in Santa Maria. He also excelled 
in portraiture. He died in 1655. 

Polony, Zakaria, was an obscure engraver, 
who resided in Paris about the year 1615. Among 
other prints we have by him a slight etching, 
representing 'Queen Margaret lying in state, in 
the Faubourg St. Germain,' Paris. 
POLYDOR. See Glauber, Joh. 
POLYGNOTUS, the eariiest of the greater mas- 
ters_ of ancient Greek painting, was a native of 
the island of Thasos, and a younger contemporary 
of Pansenus. He flourished from 480 to 430 B.C., 
and came to reside at Athens about 463. He was 
the son and pupil of Aglaophon the elder, and was 
the first painter who raised the art into an inde- 
pendent position, instead of one of subordination 
to architecture and sculpture. Endowed with a 
taste for poetry as well as painting, he had not 
only stored his mind with the beauties of the 
' Iliad ' and the ' Odyssey,' but had studied all the 
epic poems then extant, which furnished him with 
the mythological subjects with which he adorned 
the temples and porticoes of Athens, Delphi, and 
other cities of Greece. The Amphictyonic Council 
decreed by way of recompense that Polygnotus 
should be maintained at the public expense when- 
ever he came ; and the Athenians voted him their 

Pliny is lavish in his eulogies on the powers of 
this painter. According to that writer, he was the 
first artist who gave an air of ease and grace to his 
figures, dressed his females in rich and elegant 
vestments, and, above all, cliaracterized his heads 
with an expression which was entirely unknown 
before him. There undoubtedly remained in his 
work much crudity and deficiency as compared 
with the freedom of nature ; but his st3'le was 
idealistic and grand, and Aristotle assigns to him a 
similar position in art to that occupied by Homer 
in poetry. He repeats the designation ^6oypa(poQ 
('mind-painter'), which had already been applied 
to him, and says that he painted men better than 
they are. He gave proof of his extraordinarj- 
capacity in vanquishing difficulties in his cele- 
brated picture of 'Cassandra.' He represented the 
daughter of Priam at the moment she had been 
brutally outraged by the Telamonian Ajax. The 
face of the unfortunate captive was partially 
covered with a veil, but the glowing blush of con- 
fusion was visible in her countenance, which dis- 
played all the symptoms of insulted modesty. This 
performance is alluded to by Lucian in discussing 
the features of his perfect woman. " Polygnotus," 
he says, "shall open and spread her eyebrows, and 
give her that warm, glowing, decent blush which 
so inimitably beautifies his 'Cassandra.' He like- 
wise shall give her an easy, tasteful, flowing dress, 
with all its tender and delicate folds, partly 
clinging to her body, and partly fluttering in the 
wind." The picture in question was the part of a 



larger one, or perhaps of a series, representing the 
'Trial of Ajax by the Greeks'; it adorned the 
Poeoile (ttohciX?/ aroa, or ' painted portico ') of the 
Agora at Athens. 

The particular work which induced the Athenians 
to receive Polygnotus into citizenship has been 
conjectured to have been a portion of the decoration 
of the Temple of Theseus. In that of the Dioscuri 
(Castor and Pollux) he depicted 'The Story of the 
Daughters of Leucippus.' But the works which 
brought him the greatest renown were those repre- 
senting scenes from the ' Iliad ' and ' Odyssey,' 
which he painted in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, 
which Pausanias so admired six hundred years 
after, and whicli have gone by the name of ' The 
Iliad and Odyssey of Polygnotus.' 

In the Poeoile at Athens he painted also the 
' Battle of Marathon.' In the foreground of the 
picture the Greeks and Persians were represented 
combating with equal valour; but in the middle 
distance, the barbarians were seen flying to the 
Phoenician ships, which were visible in the distance. 
In this painting Polygnotus allowed himself all the 
license of the Grecian poets. Minerva, the tutelary 
goddess of the Athenians, and Hercules, are made 
to descend from heaven ; the town of Marathon is 
personified by a genius, and Theseus is drawn from 
the shades of death to witness the battle. This 
master was fond of compositions which admitted of 
a great concourse of figures. It was probably the 
taste of the period at which he lived, a taste which 
did not long survive. 

POLZONE, SoiPio, a painter born at Gaeta in 
1556. He studied at Naples, and then went to 
Rome, where he gained some repute as a por- 
trait painter. Among his portraits were those of 
Gregory XIII., Sixtus V., and many of the Car- 
dinals. He died at Rome in 1594. 

POMARANCE, Ceistoforo dalle. See Ron- 


POMARANCE, Niccol6 and Antonio, (or II 


POMAREDE, Silvio, was a native of Italy, who 
flourished from 1736 to 1768, and engraved some 
plates, which he marked with his initials. Among 
them were four of the ' Triumphs ' of Petrarch, viz. of 'Time,' ' Fame,' ' Death,' and ' Religion,' 
after Bonifazio Veneziano ; and some of the por- 
traits of painters for the Florence Gallery. He 
engraved also some plates for the ' Museo Capito- 
lino,' and many of those for Ficoroni's ' Maschere 
sceniche e Figure comiche d'antichi Romani,' pub- 
lished at Rome in 1736. 

POMEDELLO, Giovanni Maria, who was a 
goldsmith and medallist, besides painter and en- 
graver, belonged to the school of Vittore Pisano, 
and lived at Verona from 1519 to 1534. He 
painted a ' Virgin before the Cross,' in the Church 
of San Tommaso in that city (1524), and there is 
a pen-and-ink sketch by him of ' The Ruins of the 
Coliseum,' in the Vienna Belvedere. Among his 
engravings are ' Hercules strangling the Lion,' 
and ' The Abduction of Deianeira.' 

POMEY, Lonis, French painter, born in Paris 
in 1825 ; became a pupil of Gleyre ; also of 
Willeras and Lobrichon. Since 1867 was a 
regular contributor to the Salon, his work in 
genre and portraiture being careful and scholarly. 
He obtained an honourable mention in 1889. He 
died at Gerardmer, September 7, 1891. 

POMMAYRAC, Pierre Paul de, a miniature por- 
trait painter, was born in 1818 at Porto Rico, of 

French parents. He was a pupil of Gros, and also 
studied miniature painting under Mme. Lizinska 
de Mirbel. He died in 1880. Among his portrait 
miniatures the following may be named : 

Napoleon III. 

The Empress Eugenie. 

The Prince Imperial. 

General Trochu. 

The Princesse Mathilde. 

Queen Isabella of Spain. 



Cardinal Guibert (oil). 

Mdlle. Chancy [oil). 

POMMERENCKE, Heinrich, was a successful 
portrait painter of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He was 
born and brought up in poverty, but exercised his 
talent for art so ably that he was enabled to pur- 
sue his studies at Berlin. He went to Paris also, 
and had the good fortune